Device for measuring physical parameters of material
FIELD: measuring equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device for measuring physical parameters of the material comprises a primary transducer made in the form of a length of a long transmission line with a signal and screen conductors, a space between them is intended for filling with controlled material, an amplitude detector, a generator of sounding signal made on the basis of a harmonic signal shaper tuned by frequency, measuring and control device, and first and second additional sections of transmission line with signal and screen conductors. The input of first section is connected to the input of primary converter, and the output of this section is connected to the input of amplitude detector. The input of the second section is connected to the output of the generator, and the output of this section is connected to the input of the primary converter. The input of the first and the output of the second additional sections are introduced inside the primary converter. The connection of signal conductors of the first and second sections to the signal conductor of the primary converter is inside the primary transducer directly in the area filled with controlled material. The first and second additional sections in the area of connection with the primary converter are in the form of electric inputs providing sealing of the primary transducer and transmission of the probing signal to the area occupied by the controlled material.
EFFECT: increased measurement accuracy, expanded range of working pressures, increased sensitivity in materials measurement with low dielectric permeability.
9 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions refers to medicine and can be used for the capacity measurement of patient's motion which comprises time-varying static charges. A system comprises a probe and an electret or a combination of an electrically conductive element and a voltage generator configured to feed a time-constant static charge. The electret or electrically conductive element can be mechanically or electrically connected to the patient in such a way they mechanically move with the patient and are subject to the time-varying static charge. The probe is spaced from the electret or the combination of the electrically conductive element and voltage generator and is found in a contact-free capacitive joint with them so that the relative mechanical action between the probe and electret or conductive element causes changes in an output measuring signal of the probe. The time-constant static charge decreases the output measuring signal distortions caused by the time-varying static charge. The element comprising the time-constant static charge is attached to the patient's measuring point in such a way the element comprises the time-varying static charges. The measuring signal is formed by the capacity measurement of the patient's mechanical motion with the use of the probe, which is spaced from the element, measuring point and object so that the probe can take contact-free measurements of the mechanical motions of the object.
EFFECT: using the inventions enables increasing the patient's capacity measurement accuracy.
20 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method provides initiation of electromagnetic oscillation of a certain spatial structure and measurement of resonant frequencies at replacement of one of resonator end faces with a sample alternately by a side of coating and metal, for this purpose in addition on one of end walls dielectric with the height h and dielectric permeability εd and the diameter equal to the resonator diameter is placed, spatial oscillation of H011 type is excited, the resonant frequencies f1 and f2 of the resonator respectively are measured for installation on the open opposite end wall of a sample alternately by a side of coating and metal substrate, the open end wall is closed, the resonant frequencies f3 and f4 respectively are measured at replacement by another end wall where the exciting dielectric is located, by a sample alternately by a side of coating and metal substrate, the difference of frequencies Δf21=f2-f1 is used for determination of Δh coating thickness, and using the difference of Δf43-Δf21 the dielectric permeability εn of the coating on metal is determined, where Δf43=f4-f3, meanwhile, varying the height h and the dielectric permeability εd exciting the dielectric resonator, it is possible to change the sensitivity to the dielectric permeability εn of the coating on metal.
EFFECT: improvement of accuracy of determination of thickness and dielectric permeability of material on metal.
2 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method is based on measurement of complex ratio of reflection of electromagnetic waves from a section of a transmission line, at the end of which they install calibration measures, and a tested material sample, with subsequent processing of materials. At the section of the transmission line with wave resistance Zw in parallel to it they connect a resistive element with resistance R=(0.1-0.2)Zw, using results of calibration measurements they determine parameters of scattering of a circuit that connects plane of measurement of reflection ratio with plane of connection of the tested section of the line with the tested sample. By processing of data array they find dielectric permeability and tangent of angle of losses of the tested material. The device is proposed for method realisation.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of determination of dielectric permeability in wide range of frequencies.
5 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: microcontroller device for diagnosing of turn-to-turn insulation of an electric motor winding comprises (Fig.) MC 1, a voltage divider 2, a reference voltage controlled source 3, the first controlled key 4, an indicator 5, a direct voltage source 6, a winding of an electric motor 7 to be diagnosed, the second key 8 and a sample inductance coil 9. The first output of the direct voltage source 6 is connected to the first outputs of the inductance coils 7 (winding of the electric motor to be diagnosed) and 9 (sample inductance coil), the second outputs are connected to the second output of the second key, which can be placed either in the upper (connected inductance coil 7) or in the lower (connected sample inductance coil 9) position. The first output of the second key is connected to the second outputs of the first controlled key and voltage divider. A control output of the first key is connected to MC 1, a control input of the voltage reference source 3 to the output of a pulse-width modulator (not specified in Fig.) of MC 1, an output of the voltage reference source 3 is connected to the first input of an analogue comparator (not specified in Fig.) of MC1, the middle output of the voltage divider 2 is connected to the second input of the analogue comparator of MC1, the first outermost output of the voltage divider 2 is connected to the first outputs of the controlled key 4 and the direct voltage source 6, the indicator 5 is connected to the output of the respective port of MC 1.
EFFECT: improved accuracy of the device due to the arranged comparison of the self-inductance electromotive force of the sample and diagnosed windings.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: vibrations with a frequency changing discretely at the specified pitch in direct and reverse direction as per a symmetrical law in the range of variation of the measured resonant frequency are supplied regularly to a resonator input. A random signal is shaped, by means of which vibrations are modulated, which are supplied to the resonator input; an extreme value of amplitude-frequency response of the resonator and frequency corresponding to this extreme value is fixed during each half-period of these changes, and resonant frequency is determined as an average value of fixed frequencies of extreme values for n periods of the specified changes, which is calculated by the formula: n≥(Δf/δa)2/8, where Δf - a frequency tuning step of vibrations supplied to the resonator input; δa - required absolute error of determination of a resonant frequency. With that, a random signal is used for modulation of amplitude of vibrations supplied to the resonator input.
EFFECT: higher measurement accuracy.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a microwave waveguide, a resonator with a cylindrical part limited at one side by the end wall of the microwave waveguide, and at the other side with a shorting piston with the ability of axial displacement inside the resonator, a piston displacement mechanism and a unit of radio measurement equipment. At the same time the microwave waveguide, the resonator cylinder and the displacement mechanism are installed in a single cylindrical body. The resonator cylinder is installed inside the body with the possibility of axial displacement and is equipped with clamps for fixation in the body, and the piston by means of the stem is fixed on the platform of the axial displacement module with a drive from a servomotor combined with the metre of linear displacement. The servometer is equipped with a system of automatic control connected with a radiometric block of fixation of resonant position of the piston.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of measurement of dielectric parameters and automation of a measurement process.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a cylindrical resonator limited by the SHF waveguide end wall at one side and by a displaceable piston with rod at the other side, a charging door for mounting of the tested material sample, a temperature-measuring instrument, shielding gas feed, rod and piston travelling mechanism. At that the SHF waveguide end wall is made water cooled and the heater comprises a row of tubular graphite elements with one-way output to current leads. The piston is installed at a split rod, which heated part is made as a thin-wall tube of heat-resisting material, while the other part is made as a water-cooled tube equipped with a flange with a sealing gasket. At that an optical pyrometer is connected hermetically to the water-cooled part of the rod and the rod is fixed at the platform of a linear module. The rod and piston travelling mechanism includes two serial-operated linear modules with electromechanical drives combined with the common displacement-measuring sensor and shielding gas feed is placed in the pyrometer ocular zone.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of dielectric parameters measurement and automation of measurement process.
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: device contains the first and second sources of reference voltage, electronic switch, measured CG two-terminal network. The novice is in the use for measuring of parameters of CG two-terminal networks of the electronic key, integrator, variable resistor R, operational amplifier, inverting Schmitt trigger, time interval measurement device and voltage measurement device.
EFFECT: higher sensitivity to small capacities of the transducer at low frequencies.
FIELD: radio engineering, communication.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a microwave generator with a rectangular waveguide connected to it, having a measuring device with a waveguide resonance system as a terminal device, wherein the terminal device includes a capacitive metal diaphragm. According to the solution, the capacitive metal diaphragm is superimposed with a plane-parallel dielectric sample with an area equal to the area of the waveguide flange, and the dielectric sample is superimposed with a probe in the form of a metal wire with length of 12-20 mm and diameter of 0.1-0.5 mm with a sharp end, bent at a right angle; the longer section of the probe lies on a dielectric plate perpendicular to the slit in the diaphragm, and the shorter section of the probe with the sharp end is perpendicular to the plane of the dielectric sample, wherein the thickness of the plane-parallel dielectric sample t is selected based on the condition
EFFECT: high resolution and high sensitivity.
3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device for measurement of a property of a dielectric material comprises a generator of electromagnetic oscillations, the first isolating element connected by an outlet with an inlet of a phase changer, a transmitting and a receiving antennas, a detector connected with its outlet to a unit of processing of information and an attenuator. To achieve the technical result, the first and second waveguide tees are introduced, as well as the second isolating element. The outlet of the generator of electromagnet oscillations is connected with the first arm of the first waveguide tee, the second arm of which is connected to the inlet of the first isolating element, the outlet of the phase changer via the attenuator is connected with the first arm of the second waveguide tee, the second arm of which is connected to the receiving antenna, the third arm of the second waveguide tee is connected to the inlet of the detector, the third arm of the first waveguide tee via the second isolating element is connected to the transmitting antenna.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of measurement.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to prediction of final actual physical strength of concrete. This method comprises conductimetric measurement of specific electric resistance and temperature of mortars in their hardening in real time and evaluation of actual mechanical compression strength of preset type of concretes. The following process parameters are controlled: start of motor hardening and concrete specimen strength at 28-day age. Duration of measurements makes 100-125 min from mortar filling into container pickup till termination of hardening induction period. In said range parallel measurements of specific electric resistances of mortar specimens are performed for calibration and design minimum compositions. Correlation dependence between specific electric resistance and actual mechanical strength of concrete of preset type at design age is set. Results of analysis of variation in specific electric resistance in said range are used for control over of early hardening of said motor of preset concrete type to evaluate actual mechanical compression resistance of concrete.
EFFECT: higher quality of evaluation.
5 dwg, 6 tbl
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: control device for an internal combustion engine includes the following: a solid particle sensor installed in an exhaust pipe of an internal combustion engine, a filter for catching particles, which can catch solid particles contained in exhaust gas and is located in the exhaust pipe at the point upstream relative to the solid particle sensor; an electronic control unit that can detect the amount of particles in the exhaust gas through the exhaust pipe in response to an output signal of the solid particle sensor; an electronic control unit having a possibility of supplying particle capture voltage between electrodes of the solid particle sensor during the first period so that a layer of particles can be formed on surfaces of electrodes of the solid particle sensor; and an electronic control unit having a possibility of stopping particle capture voltage supply during the second period so that the layer of particles can be maintained, and an electronic control unit that can perform control by detection of a failure in order to determine whether there is a failure of the filter for particle catching or not. The first period represents a period between completion of control by detection of the failure and the moment when the output signal of the solid particle sensor achieves a reference output signal. The second period represents a period between the moment when the output signal of the solid particle sensor achieves the reference output signal.
EFFECT: improved serviceability of a control unit and high measurement accuracy of the amount of solid particles.
9 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: analysis uses a bipolar method for electrical impedancemetry to determine a module of the electrical impedance |Z| measured at a frequency of 20,000 Hz and low-intensity AC, a solution of monoclonal antibodies, analysed and reference samples. The concentration is calculated by solving a mathematical equation of relations of the analysed and known substance concentrations to the modules of the electrical impedance measured in a test well and a reference sample.
EFFECT: invention enables performing the method to avoid chemical agents and some laboratory equipment in addition to the monoclonal antibodies, and reducing the analysis time.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to area of determination of the electro-physical parameters of the powder materials, and to area of determination of the parameter values characterizing physical and chemical properties of materials according to electrical resistance. Contact device to determine the electric resistance of the powder material upon its compression contains the measuring cell with isolating bush to locate in it the studied material sample, movable and fixed cylindrical electrodes for the sample compression and registration of its resistance change, they are made with lead-in part for locating in the bush; assemblies for creation and measuring of the movable electrode movement. The device novelty is that assemblies for creation and measuring of the movable electrode movement are separated by design. At that the sensitive element of the measuring assembly is kinematically connected with the movement making assembly. The lead-in part of each electrode is made stepped. Step looking to the specimen has lesser diameter and is made with unloading groove on the outside surface, and step with greater diameter is made to interface with the insulating bush. At that bush length L, lead-in part length l1 of the electrodes, and length l2 of the interfaced step of the electrodes in the initial state are selected from the definite geometrical conditions. To ensure possibility of measurements of the powder material specimen being in the inert environments the measuring cell is installed in the tight pipe. To ensure operation characteristics of the contact device linked with possibility of visualization of the specimen and process of its sealing the tight pipe and insulation bush are made transparent.
EFFECT: increased accuracy and expansion pf density measurements range, and hence increased accuracy of electric resistance determination for the studied powder material.
3 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: detector consists of cylindrical dielectric substrate, layer of electroconductive paint-and-varnish material with dispersed powder-like graphite filler, applied on dielectric substrate, electric contacts and electric wires for connecting direct current source to layer of electroconductive paint-and-varnish coating.
EFFECT: provision of possibility to reduce time for detection of uranium hexafluoride or hydrogen fluoride.
8 cl, 1 dwg, 6 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method for non-invasive control of a blood metabolite level involving using a sensor array to measure electromagnetic impedances in the patient's epidermic layer and in one of the layers including the patient's skin layer or subcutaneous layer more than once, until an impedance difference exceeds a threshold; calculating the impedance reflecting the above difference with the use of an analogous circuit and an individual adjustment factor specific for the patient's physiological characteristics; and measuring the patient's blood metabolite level on the basis of the impedance and a measurement algorithm of blood metabolite levels, which provides comparing the measured blood metabolite level to the respective patient's electromagnetic impedance. What is also presented is a system controlling a level of at least one of the substances: glucose, electrolyte or a target substance.
EFFECT: invention enables avoiding excessive experiments to adapt it easily for controlling the patient's blood metabolite level.
17 cl, 14 dwg
SUBSTANCE: system comprises an assembly of capacitance-type primary converters to measure electric capacity (dielectric capacitivity) and electric resistance (electrical conductivity) and temperature, which is placed at mobile equipment inside a settling tank, an assembly of secondary converters coupled to the primary ones and supplying the primary converters with action signals of the preset frequency and amplitude and the instantaneous response values of voltage and current at the primary converters for further processing, a programmable device or an automated workspace for control coupled to the secondary converters through a wired or wireless communications line with functions of data collection, processing and storage, including control over changes in the measured values of dielectric capacitivity and electrical conductivity with time or in regard to a structure of the settling tank, as well as issuing of the final forecast for a level or properties of sediment or sludge.
EFFECT: improving efficiency of automated control for waste water settling tanks.
12 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used in systems of water-chemical regime control for thermal, nuclear and industrial power engineering. The method to determine concentration of components in a mixture of highly diluted strong electrolytes includes simultaneous measurement of specific electric conductivity and temperature of analysed solution under different temperatures in quantity equal to quantity of components of the solution, solving a system of equations of electric conductivity in the quantity equal to the number of measurements, each of which has a certain type, with determination of specific electric conductivity values when solving equations at the temperature of 18°C for each of the mixture components and find the corresponding concentration by available (reference) data.
EFFECT: invention simplifies the process due to direct determination of concentration of each component within the composition of the solution.
1 ex,1 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: in the method to determine water saturation of core and other forms of combined water in the core material includes preparation of a sample from core, extraction and drying of the sample, modelling of bed conditions in the core sample, filtration of mineralised water via the core sample and serial measurement of intermediate values of current passing through the sample as AC voltage is applied to it in process of filtration, building of dependence of the electric signal value on the water saturation of the core sample. Additionally, in accordance with the invention, prior to measurements the core is insulated with a thin dielectric shell and placed between electrodes of the capacitance measurement cell, and current values passing via the sample at different values of water saturation (from 0 to 100%), is determined by the method of contactless high-frequency conductivity measurement, for instance, by the method of non-linear unbalanced bridge, supplied with the high-frequency voltage with frequency of 2-10 MHz, using the produced dependence of values of the electric signal on water saturation of the core sample, three areas are identified with different values of rate of rise with growth of water saturation, and borders of energetically different categories of combined water in the core, including the residual water saturation, are determined as points of bending between specified areas with different values of signal slope.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of measurements and simplified process of determination of residual water saturation of core with simultaneous expansion of area of application of the developed method, in particular, other forms of combined water in core material.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: result is achieved due to the possibility of determination of dependence of specific electrical conductivity of ductile substance on pressure. The device includes a dielectric tube, into one end of which there inserted is the first metal sleeve with inner thread, with that, a screw is screwed into it, and in its second end there inserted is the second metal sleeve with a pressure sensor installed on it, which is connected by means of a cable to a pressure recorder. Electrodes are the first and the second metal sleeves connected through current conductors to a resistance recorder. Dielectric tube is sealed.
EFFECT: possibility of determining dependence of specific electric conductivity of ductile substance.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: servicing steel underground pipe lines; diagnosis of corrosion on pipe lines.
SUBSTANCE: pipe line under test is divided into sections and pit is made at boundaries; then electrical resistance is measured in section and at edge zones of these sections (in pits) by four-electrode scheme. Measured at edge zones are also thickness of pipe wall and its outer diameter. Specific resistance of pipe metal is calculated by these measurements. Electrical resistance of sections is calculated on basis of specific resistance and measured and specified magnitude are compared. Deviation of measured magnitude from specified ones is indicative of corrosion damage on these sections. Current and potential electrodes are located at distance no less than two diameters of pipe for enhancing measurement accuracy.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of measurement.