Method to determine hydrogen concentration in palladium nanoparticles

FIELD: measuring equipment.

SUBSTANCE: X-ray absorption spectrum is measured by k-edge of palladium in the range 24320±10-24440±20 eV, the value of absorption coefficient is determined at the points of the first two maximums and the concentration of hydrogen C is calculated by the formula , where μA is the value of the absorption coefficient at the point of the first edge maximum, whereμB is absorbance at the point of the second edge peak, k1=0.903±0.001, k2=0.0320±0.0003.

EFFECT: simplified processing of x-ray absorption spectra, as well as reduced measurement time.

2 cl, 6 dwg



Same patents:

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: method involves sampling of an electrolyte from a bath, grinding of the sample and addition of sodium fluoride to the ground sample. Then, the sample is sintered and cryolite ratio and concentration of fluorides in the sample is determined. After sintering is completed, the sample is subject to additional heat treatment till balanced phase composition of Na3AlF6, K2NaAlF6, CaF2, NaF is achieved, and cryolite ratio and concentration of fluorides in the sample is determined by means of an X-ray phase analysis.

EFFECT: improving accuracy of determination of a cryolite ratio.

3 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl

FIELD: instrumentation.

SUBSTANCE: scope of application: to measure ash content of the biologic material by automatic or semi-automatic method. The essence of invention is that method includes stages of the biologic material scanning using the electromagnetic radiation by at least two energy levels; determination of radiation extent transferred via the specified sample of the biologic material at specified energy levels, and estimation of moisture content of the biologic material based on ratio between specified determined radiation extent transferred via the biologic material at specified energy levels. Then ash content in the biologic material is estimated based on the specified estimation of moisture content of the biologic material and average coefficients of attenuation for the biologic material upon moisture absence, coefficients of attenuation for combustible part of the biologic material, and coefficients of attenuation for ash in the biologic material at specified energy levels. Besides the appropriate device is described.

EFFECT: accurate estimation of moisture content in material sample within wide range of values.

15 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes pumping an X-ray contrast substance into a core sample, scanning the sample by X-ray tomography and obtaining histograms. The method is characterised by that the X-ray contrast substance in the core sample is a mixture of gelatine and an iodine-containing substance in concentration of not less than 10% by weight of the prepared solution.

EFFECT: high accuracy of determining spatial distribution in core material of effective pore space, and enabling investigation of structural features of the core after chemical or physical action.

2 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: study the interaction of fibreglass with cement stone within the specified time. Previously, the fibreglass is glued on the plastic plate, put into the mould to prepare cement samples and filled with cement slurry. Plastic plate with the glued fibreglass is put in such a way that the fibreglass is in contact with the cement slurry. After solidification the cement specimens are removed from the mould and the fibre is separated from the plate. Then, the fibre is investigated by means of X-ray spectrum analysis and electron microscopy. Method allows to determine the element composition, structure of interaction products of fibre with cement stone. Besides, the resistance of fibreglass compared with the diameter of fibreglass after test with the diameter of raw fibre is evaluated.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to compare the use of fibreglasses of various compositions as reinforcing materials.

7 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, diagnostics, assessment of the efficacy of osteoporosis medications. Diagnosing osteoporosis and controlling the progression thereof are implemented by X-ray absorption method using an osteometers; a diagnostic criterion of osteoporosis is the presence of cavitary lesions in trabecular bones; the lesion closure behaviour enables stating the efficacy of the medication or medications.

EFFECT: method provides the objective diagnosis of osteoporosis and assessment of the effective action of the osteoprotective medication or medications, with assessment of a severity of the disease not by mineral density, but by the presence of the cavities in the trabecular bones.

3 dwg, 3 ex

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: there performed is a core sample preparation, modelling of core sample reservoir conditions, joint filtering of salt water and oil through core sample, measurement of intermediate intensiveness of X-rays passed through the sample during filtering and determination of water-saturation by expressions. Note that the intensity of X-rays passing the sample with initial and final water-saturation is measured, the reference signal is obtained. The value of residual water-saturation is obtained after filtering experiment of water evaporation from the sample at 110-160°C. The values of initial, residual water-saturation and reference signal are used for determination of intermediate water-saturation via certain mathematical relation.

EFFECT: reduction of time for core water-saturation measurement, increase of water-saturation values determination accuracy.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: double-spectrum illumination mode with separate selection of signals arising from radiation absorption in a background substance and signals arising from radiation absorption in overlapping layers of the background substance and inclusion substances is executed, wherein the X-ray exposure procedure is carried out not in one but two mutually perpendicular geometric projections, which enable mutual quantitative comparison of the mass thickness of the inclusion in one of the projections with the value of the linear dimension of that inclusion in the other projection and determine density of the inclusion substance from their ratio.

EFFECT: high probability of detecting hazardous inclusions and significant reduction of the probability of false alarm.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus for determining characteristics of material of analysed object has a first and a second bogie, each having a source of penetrating X-rays, having a collimator for forming a narrow beam directed onto the analysed object, at least one motor which is configured to move each bogie relative the analysed object so as to move the narrow beam relative the object in a direction having a vertical component and at least one sensor for detecting radiation back-scattered from the analysed object and generated by at least one of the radiation sources.

EFFECT: enabling design of a scanning system which combines high quality of images formed with high efficiency.

16 cl, 17 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: broadband soft X-ray spectrometer has a sealed housing in which there are detection channels, each having, arranged in series on the direction of radiation, an entrance slit, a selective filter, a region bounded by two total external reflection (TER) mirrors and an X-ray detector, wherein the detection channels are arranged quasi-parallel, wherein the TER mirrors are merged into one bundle by a common housing; the entrance slit is common for the whole bundle, and the X-ray detector used is a photographic recorder or a CCD matrix.

EFFECT: high spectral selectivity of the device, easier operation of the spectrometer owing to interdependent adjustment of the detection channels of the spectrometer on the radiation source, and compactness of the device and reduced weight and size due to fewer fastening elements.

3 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: application: to detect spatial distribution and concentration of a component in a pore space of a porous material. The invention concept is as follows: it consists in the fact that a contrast X-ray substance is pumped into a sample of a porous material, such as a water-soluble salt of metal with high atomic weight that enters into a selective ion-exchange reaction with a surveyed component, of the common formula: R+M-, where R+ is selected from the group {Ba +; Sr2+; Tl+; Rb+…}, and M- is selected from the group {Cln; NOn; OHn; CH3COO, SO4; …} in accordance with the table of solubility of inorganic substances in water, upon completion of the reaction of selective ion exchange, a non-contrast displacement agent is pumped into a sample, the sample is scanned by means of X-ray microtomography to define spatial distribution and concentration of a surveyed component by means of analysis of the produced computer tomographic image.

EFFECT: higher X-ray contrast of low-contrast components contained in a pore space, when doing computer tomography of porous material samples.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: method for determining a range of sizes of suspended nanoparticles consists in passage of gas (mixture of gases) containing analysed particles, through diffusion batteries of a meshed type and their introduction to supersaturated vapours of a low-volatile enlarging substance. Then, lighting of a flux of particles with a light beam and recording of parameters of light signals shaped by enlarged particles at their flying through the pointed-out area of the flux is performed. In order to improve accuracy of determination of the range of sizes, the main flux is separated into six parallel fluxes. With that, five of them are passed through five diffusion batteries with a different slip, and one of them is passed directly. Then, these fluxes pass through six devices of condensation growth and then to a field of vision of a charge-coupled device matrix and the obtained six areas of images of enlarged fluxes of particles are transmitted to a computer for an analysis of their range of sizes. Unlike known ones, the method allows performing simultaneous processing by means of a computer of six images of enlarged particles, which characterise different dimensional ranges of nanoparticles.

EFFECT: reducing the time required for measurements and improving their accuracy.

1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: semiconductor structure for photo converting and light emitting devices consists of semiconductor substrate (1) with face surface misaligned from plane (100) through (0.5-10) degrees and at least one p-n junction (2) including at least one active semiconductor ply (3) arranged between two barrier plies (4) with inhibited zone width Eg0. Active semiconductor ply (3) consists of 1st and 2nd type spatial areas (5, 6) abutting of barrier plies (3) and alternating in the plane of active semiconductor ply (3). 1st type spatial areas (5) feature inhibited zone width Eg1 < Eg0, while 2nd type areas have inhibited zone width Eg2 < Eg1.

EFFECT: higher efficiency owing to increased photo flux and higher level of photo generation and charge carrier separation, higher probability of photon generation and lower probability of radiation-free recombination.

11 cl, 11 dwg, 5 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: first step includes obtaining low-hydroxylated insoluble fullerenols by reacting concentrated fullerene solution in o-xylene with aqueous ammonia solution in the presence of a tetrabutylammonium hydroxide phase-transfer catalyst at 35-40°C. At the second step, the obtained low-hydroxylated insoluble fullerenols are hydroxylated to transform them into a water-soluble form by mixing with 6-15% aqueous hydrogen peroxide solution and heating for 4-5 hours at 65°C. Water-soluble fullerenols are then precipitated from an alcohol-containing solution.

EFFECT: simplifying the method while preserving quality characteristics and full extraction of the end product.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 4 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to pharmaceutical industry, namely to selenium nanocomposites of natural hepatotrophic galactose-containing polysaccharide matrixes, representing water-soluble orange-red powders containing zerovalent selenium (Se0) nanoparticles sized 1-100 nm in the quantitative content of 0.5 - 60 wt %, possessing antioxidant activity for treating and preventing redox-related pathologies, particularly for treating toxic liver damage, to a method for producing and to an antioxidant agent containing the above nanocomposites.

EFFECT: invention provides the targeted agent delivery to liver cells, as well as higher agent accessibility and lower toxic action of selenium.

7 cl, 11 ex, 4 tbl

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method includes forming a near-field mask on the surface of a dielectric substrate and irradiating the obtained structure with a femtosecond laser pulse. The laser radiation is first passed through a nonlinear optical crystal with a coefficient of transformation into a second harmonic equal to 5-7%. The dielectric substrate coated with the near-field mask is irradiated with the obtained bichromatic femtosecond pulse with energy density in the range of 25-40 mJ/cm2, which is less than the laser radiation energy density normally used in similar nanopatterning.

EFFECT: high resolution and low laser radiation energy consumption.

6 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for hydroconversion of heavy oil fractions - feed stock, the method including a zero step and subsequent N steps. The zero step includes feeding, into a reactor, material, a catalyst precursor - aqueous solution of a Mo (VI) salt or salts of Mo and Ni, and hydrogen at pressure of 4-9 MPa under normal conditions; reacting the material and hydrogen at 420-450°C in the presence of a precursor of a suspended nanosize molybdenum or molybdenum-nickel catalyst formed in the reactor; atmospheric or atmospheric-vacuum distillation of the hydrogenation product; removing the low-boiling fraction with a boiling point not higher than 500°C as a product and returning the high-boiling fraction or part thereof into the reactor. The next steps include feeding, into the reactor, material, a catalyst precursor, the returned part of the high-boiling fraction and hydrogen; reaction thereof; said atmospheric distillation of the hydrogenation product; removing the low-boiling fraction as a product; returning part of the high-boiling fraction into the reactor; burning at 1000-1300°C or gasification of the remaining part of the high-boiling fraction, after which trapped ash-slag residues are subjected to further oxidising burning at 800-900°C and the obtained ash product, which is carbon-free, is used to regenerate the catalyst precursor and produce an industrial concentrate of vanadium and nickel. The number of steps N is determined using formulae: bd(nn+nm+1)=a+i=1nmbi+benm, N=nn+nm+1, where nn is the number of steps with recirculation, after which equilibrium output of the low-boiling fractions is achieved; nm is the number of steps with recirculation after achieving equilibrium output of the low-boiling fractions, which enables to achieve a given output of low-boiling fractions from the feed stock; bd is the given output of low-boiling fractions, wt %; a is the output of low-boiling fractions at the zero step, wt %; bi is the output of low-boiling fractions at the i-th step before achieving equilibrium, wt %; be is the output of low-boiling fractions after achieving equilibrium, wt %, be>bd.

EFFECT: high output of low-boiling fractions, low molybdenum consumption, high degree of extraction of molybdenum, vanadium and nickel from the solution, enabling calculation of the required reactor volume, obtaining an industrial concentrate of vanadium and nickel, low hydrogen consumption.

3 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in obtaining coatings, reducing coefficient of secondary electronic emission, growing diamond films and glasses, elements, absorbing solar radiation. Colloidal solution of nano-sized carbon is obtained by supply of organic liquid - ethanol, into chamber with electrodes, injection of inert gas into inter-electrode space, formation of high-temperature plasma channel in gas bubbles, containing vapours of organic liquid. High-temperature plasma channel has the following parameters: temperature of heavy particles 4000-5000K, temperature of electrons 1.0-1.5 eV, concentration of charged particles (2-3)·1017 cm3, diameter of plasma channel hundreds of microns. After that, fast cooling within several microseconds is performed.

EFFECT: simplicity, possibility to obtain nanoparticles of different types.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of nanotechnologies and can be used for obtaining composite materials with high electric and heat conductivity, additives to concretes and ceramics, sorbents, catalysts. Carbon-containing material is evaporated in volume thermal plasma and condensed on target surface 9 and internal surface of collector 7. Plasma generator 3, which includes coaxially located electrodes: rod cathode 4 and nozzle-shaped output anode 5, are used. Gaseous carbon-containing material 6 is supplied with plasma-forming gas through vortex chamber with channels 2 and selected from the group, consisting of methane, propane, and butane. Bottom of collector is made with hole 8 for gas flow to pass.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce energy consumption of the process, extend types of applied hydrocarbon raw material, simplify device construction and provide continuity of the process and its high productivity.

2 dwg, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of obtaining a composite material includes the influence on a mixture of a carbon-containing material, filler and sulphur-containing compound by a pressure of 0.1-20 GPa and a temperature of 600-2000°C. As the sulphur-containing compound applied is carbon bisulphide, a compound from the mercaptan group or a product of its interaction with elementary sulphur. As the carbon-containing material applied is molecular fullerene C60 or fullerene-containing soot. As the filler applied are carbon fibres, or diamond, or nitrides, or carbides, or borides, or oxides in the quantity from 1 to 99 wt % of the weight of the carbon-containing material.

EFFECT: obtained composite material can be applied for manufacturing products with the characteristic size of 1-100 cm and is characterised by high strength, low density, solidity not less than 10 GPa and high heat resistance in the air.

11 cl, 3 dwg, 11 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to inorganic chemistry, namely to obtaining silicon-carbide materials and products, and can be applied as thermal-protective, chemically and erosion resistant materials, used in creation of aviation and rocket technology, carriers with developed surface of heterogeneous catalysis catalysts, materials of chemical sensorics, filters for filtering flows of incandescent gases and melts, as well as in nuclear power industry technologies. To obtain nanostructures SiC ceramics solution of phenolformaldehyde resin with weight content of carbon from 5 to 40% with tetraethoxysilane with concentration from 1·10-3 to 2 mol/l and acidic catalyst of tetraethoxysilane hydrolysis id prepared in organic solvent; hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane is carried out at temperature 0÷95°C with hydrolysing solutions, containing water and/or organic solvent, with formation of gel. Obtained gel is dried at temperature 0÷250°C and pressure 1·10-4÷1 atm until mass change stops, after which carbonisation is realised at temperature from 400 to 1000°C for 0.5÷12 hours in inert atmosphere or under reduced pressure with formation of highly-disperse initial mixture SiO2-C, from which ceramics is moulded by spark plasma sintering at temperature from 1300 to 2200°C and pressure 3.5÷6 kN for from 3 to 120 min under conditions of dynamic vacuum or in inert medium. Excessive carbon is burned in air at temperature 350÷800°C.

EFFECT: obtaining nanostructured silicon-carbide porous ceramics without accessory phases.

4 cl, 4 dwg, 3 ex

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine and deals with nanoliposome which includes liposomal membrane, contains ethgerificated lecitin and one or more physiologically active ingredients, incorporated in the internal space of liposomal membrane, method of obtaining such, as well as composition for prevention or treatment of skin diseases, containing nanoliposome.

EFFECT: invention ensures long-term stability and homogenecity of nanoliposomes.

15 cl, 22 ex, 4 dwg, 2 tbl