Shell-and-tube heat exchangers in processes of hydrocarbon degradation c3-c5 (versions)
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the shell-and-tube countercurrent heat exchanger to heat the raw vapours in the processes of dehydrogenation of paraffin hydrocarbons C3-C5 by the heat of contact gas coming from the dehydrogenation reactor comprising a vertical cylindrical casing (1 ), a bundle of the heat exchanging tubes (2) with an upper (4) and a lower (3) tube gratings, a nozzle (5) and a distributing chamber (6) to input the contact gas in the upper part of the tube space (2) of the heat exchanger (11), a collecting chamber (7) and a nozzle (8) to output the chilled contact of gas from the lower part of the tube space, as well as nozzles (9) to input vapours of the raw material in the annular space of the heat exchanger (11), divided into sections by transverse horizontal partitions of the segment type (13), and to output (10) the heated vapours of raw materials from it. The heat exchanger is also characterized by the fact that the heat exchanger (11) contains connections (12) to supply a part of the feed raw material in a liquid form for the heat exchanger (11) into the intertube space of the bundle of the heat exchange tubes (2) and/or into the intertube space of the bundle of the heat exchange tubes (2) divided by sectors (17), which are limited to the upper (4) and lower (3) tube gratings and vertical channels (18) between the sectors (17). A version of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger for cooling the contact gas is also proposed.
EFFECT: increase in capacity of dehydrogenation plants of hydrocarbons C3-C5 and reducing the costs in production.
22 cl, 6 dwg, 8 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to heat engineering and can be used for pipe installation in heat exchangers. Air heater with flue gas and method of air pipe installation for air heater with flue gas includes air pipe kit connected to the air heater, and the method involves cutting of air pipe connected to the heater and removal of the air pipe part to be replaced from the air heater; further the method involves installation of a separate new air pipe replacing the removed part of air duct, and tight connection of the new air duct to the remaining part as an extension. Connection is implemented by mounting coupling with one end connected to the end of new air pipe and the other end inserted in the remaining part of heater air pipe.
EFFECT: simplified repair and replacement of air pipes in heater.
15 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to heating engineering and can be applied in devices for interaction of two heat carriers without direct carrier contact, particularly in steam generators. Direct-flow heat exchange device includes case and concentric tube channels formed by a cylinder made out of straight heat exchange elements of pipe-in-pipe type, where a gap between outer surface and case of obtained cylinder forms heating medium channel connected in sequence with inner cavity of the cylinder and with inner channel of pipe-in-pipe elements comprising the cylinder. Work medium flows in the annular channel of pipe-in-pipe element.
EFFECT: enhanced spatial power density of heat exchanger, simplified design.
SUBSTANCE: in single-pass shell and tube heat exchanger, comprising a cylindrical housing, fittings for input and output of the coolant, the heat transfer tubes, tubular grids, elliptical flanged lids, fittings for input and output of the coolant, respectively - into the elliptical lid and out of the elliptical lid, the elliptical lid with a fitting for input of the coolant is provided with a perforated circular plate with an free cross-section of from 40 to 60% located in the flanging area of the elliptical lid with the fitting of input of the coolant, and the openings in the perforated circular plate are not more than 1.5 times the diameter of the heat transfer tubes.
EFFECT: uniform distribution of the coolant through the heating tubes, increase in heat transfer coefficient with decreasing the heat transfer surface, reducing overall dimensions, material consumption and cost of the heat exchanger.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat-and-power engineering, chemical and petrochemical industry and is designed for use large-tonnage industrial plants. In the shell-and-tube heat exchanger comprising a body with bottoms, a tube bundle closed at both sides by tube sheets, arranged in the form of a disc with continuous ledges and indents arranged concentrically, in which holes are made to fix the tubes of the tube bundle, any ledge or indent in the cross section have the shape of the right-angled triangle, one side of which is perpendicular to the plane of the tube sheet, and the other one is inclined to it, at the same time holes for fixation of tubes are arranged in the middle of the inclined side, and in the centre of the tube sheet there is a cylindrical ledge with a hole for fixation of the central tube.
EFFECT: expansion of arsenal of technical facilities, increased reliability and resource of operation, reduced material intensity.
5 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to heat power engineering and can be used at manufacture of tubular heat exchangers. A tubular heat exchanger for heat exchange between two fluid media includes housing (2), inside which one or more tubes (8) for the first fluid medium pass between inlet and outlet chambers (5, 6). The above tubes pass through openings (13) in baffle walls (11) fixed at some distance from each other by means of one or more fasteners. The fastener represents channel (14) fixed by being latched in one or more grooves (19) formed on the corresponding baffle walls (11). According to the invention, the above channel has a V-shape, and groove (19) has a V-shape with projections (23) on two of its opposite edges (22) so that V-channel (14) can be latched by being entering behind those projections.
EFFECT: simpler and lower cost of manufacture and installation of heat exchangers.
8 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: in a shell-and-tube heat exchanger containing identical sections connected to each other, each of which includes a bank of tubes, which is arranged in the shell, at that, the tubes are fixed on opposite ends in tube sheets, and header chambers of tube and inter-tube media with partition walls forming spatial connections between sections and specifying medium flow directions in them, header chambers of the tube and inter-tube media includes the sections, in which partition walls are installed after two or more inlets of media to the sections, thus forming series connected groups of two and more sections with parallel medium flow in each group; at that, in the header chamber of the tube medium there can be installed an additional partition wall before medium inlets to the sections of one of the groups with parallel medium flow.
EFFECT: improving use efficiency of heat energy of a primary source owing to reducing hydraulic losses.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: wall is made according to the shape of the door frame. Outer elements of heat transfer are made in the form of supports, holders with cast-in cavities, fixators, door leaf and door handle. Supports are fixed to the outer surface. Holders and the door handle are fixed to another door leaf. Fixators are fixed to supports and partially arranged in cast-in cavities of holders. The door leaf is installed as capable of rotation.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to expand arsenal of technical facilities.
SUBSTANCE: metal heat exchanger of a room heating system comprises a pipeline with a wall with an outer surface, outer elements of heat transfer and their fixation to the outer surface. The wall is made according to the shape of the door frame. Outer elements of heat transfer are made in the form of supports, holders with cast-in cavities, fixators, door leaf and door handle. Supports are fixed to the outer surface. Holders and the door handle are fixed to the door leaf. Fixators are fixed to supports and partially arranged in cast-in cavities of holders. The door leaf is installed as capable of rotation.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to expand arsenal of technical facilities.
SUBSTANCE: heat exchanger comprising a bundle of tubes, placed inside a body, made with an elastic end structure put into compressed condition to form a plug, at least partially, on opposite sides of the heat exchange chamber. The specified elastic end structure comprises one or more edge segments stretching between the inner wall of the body and the outer border of the tube bundle. The edge segment includes a combination of materials, having different compression characteristics, providing for reinforced support to edge segments.
EFFECT: improved sealing properties of a heat exchanger.
12 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: shell-and-tube heat exchanger includes a tube bank of variable cross section with alternating coaxial cylindrical sections which are equal as to length and have two different diameters, and divergent and convergent conical sections with optimum opening angles of the diffuser and the confuser, which connect them, and headers with tube sheets. Tubes of the bank have opposite periodic sequence of alternation of conical-and-cylindrical sections relative to each other under conditions of their longitudinal and transverse streamlining. Tubes with straight end sections of similar diameter are located in opposite vertexes of a rectangular of breakdown at in-line arrangement or in vertexes at the triangle base of breakdown of tube sheets at in-line arrangement of the tube bank.
EFFECT: improving heat transfer efficiency of tubular surface; reducing the weight and metal consumption at reduction of overall dimensions of the heat exchanger.
SUBSTANCE: before feeding into a reactor, isoamylenes are diluted with steam at 550-750°C, which is fed in two streams, wherein the weight ratio of the two streams is set equal to 1.0:(1.0-1.3), and temperature of the stream with the greater weight ratio is kept 40-100°C higher than that of the stream fed for mixing in a lesser amount.
EFFECT: use of the present method increases conversion of isoamylenes and reduces specific consumption of steam.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 10 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of dehydration of alkanes with balancing product composition. Gaseous flow of substance, which contains alkanes, is passed in continuous mode through catalyst layer, located in from two to 10 successfully connected reactors of adiabatic, allothermic or isothermic type or in their combination, which results in formation of gaseous flow, containing olefin, hydrogen and alkane which has not reacted, with at least one reactor being adiabatic one, which oxygen is supplied to. At least one of the process parameters: temperature, pressure or ratio of vapour and hydrocarbons is registered in one or more points on at least one of reactors in form of measured values, at least one of the process parameters is purposefully controlled and subjected to impact so that composition of produced gas at output of at least one of reactors remains constant during operation time. Invention also relates to application of said method for dehydration of particular hydrocarbons.
EFFECT: application of claimed method makes it possible to obtain product with constant composition at the output from reactor during the entire operation time.
15 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the application of a catalyst, which contains a monolith and a layer of the catalyst, for the dehydrogenation of alkanes to alkenes or aromatisation in dehydrogenation. The monolith consists of a catalytically inert material with BET surface area <10 m2/g, with the catalyst layer, applied on the monolith, containing platinum and tin and/or rhenium and if necessary other metals on an oxide carrier material, the catalyst layer thickness constitutes from 5 to 500 microns. In addition, the hour volume rate of gas supply constitutes from 500 to 2000 h-1. The invention also relates to methods of the dehydrogenation of alkanes to alkenes and aromatisation in dehydrogenation with the application of the catalyst described above.
EFFECT: claimed application of the catalyst provides high conversions, volume productivity and selectivity.
14 cl, 13 tbl, 25 ex
SUBSTANCE: catalyst is characterised by the following content of components: 30-70 wt % (Mo5-12Sb>6.0-15Bi0.2-3M1 0.1-10M2 0.05-0.5M3 0.01-2On) and 70-30 wt % SiO2, where M1 is one or more elements selected from Co, Ni, Fe, Cr, Cu; M2 is one or more elements selected from Na, K, Cs, Mg, Ce, La, M3 is an element selected from P, B, n is a number defined by the valence and number of elements other than oxygen. The invention also relates to a method of producing butadiene-1,3 using said catalyst.
EFFECT: catalyst enables to achieve high butadiene selectivity in oxidative dehydrogenation of n-butenes and provides high output of butadiene.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: described is a method of producing an aluminium-chromium catalyst by mixing an aluminium support with a suspension having clay mineral concentration of 28-37 wt % and with aqueous solutions of chromic acid and potassium alkali. The aluminium-chromium support has specific surface area of not less than 80 m2/g, contains not more than 30 wt % particles with size of less than 45 mcm, not more than 10 wt % particles with size of less than 20 mcm and not more than 1.0 wt % particles with size of more than 140 mcm. The obtained catalyst suspension is then spray dried. Also described is an aluminium-chromium catalyst which includes 12.0-16.0 wt % Cr2O3, 8.0-13.0 wt % SiO2, 2.0-3.6 wt % K2O and Na2O or only K2O, Al2O3 - the balance, where content of hexavalent chromium is 1.7-2.2 wt %.
EFFECT: obtaining a catalyst with a uniform composition, high mechanical strength, catalytic activity, selectivity and stability in processes of hydrogenating paraffin hydrocarbons into corresponding olefin hydrocarbons.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 13 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of alkylaromatic hydrocarbon dehydration, which includes: contact of vapour reagent flow, containing alkylaromatic hydrocarbon and water vapour and having first weight ratio of vapour to alkylaromatic hydrocarbon, with dehydration catalyst with formation of vapour-phase output flow, which contains hydrocarbon product, water vapour and alkylaromatic hydrocarbon, which did not react; supply of, at least, part of output flow into separator for separation of hydrocarbon product from alkylaromatic hydrocarbon, which did not react, removed from separator in form of bottom and main fractions respectively; utilisation of heat of first part f said main fraction by indirect heat-exchange with mixture, containing alkylaromatic hydrocarbon and water, for at least, partial condensation of said part and formation of azeotropic evaporation product, which contains vapour of alkylaromatic comound and water vapour, having second ratio of vapour to alkylaromatic hydrocarbon; and combination of azeotropic evaporation product with additional alkylaromatic hydrocarbon and additional vapour, together or separately, with formation of vapour reagent flow.
EFFECT: application of claimed method makes it possible to use heat of upper separator distillate more effectively.
12 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: described is method of catalyst preparation, which consists in impregnation of product of thermochemical activation of hydrargillite by active components under microwave radiation with operating frequency 2.46 GHz and power 180-900 Wt for 3-30 min with the following drying in electromagnetic field of ultrahigh-frequency range and incineration at temperature from 600 to 800°C.
EFFECT: increase of method productivity, high mechanical strength and thermal stability of catalyst, increase of catalytic properties.
2 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: dehydration catalyst represents aluminium oxide carrier, modified with silicon oxide, on which active component chrome oxide and promoter potassium oxide are distributed. Silicon oxide is fixed on aluminium oxide in form of silicon oxide structures Si(OSi)n(O-)4-n, where n is from 1 to 4, in which silicon in spectrum NMR MAS 29Si is characterised by presence of lines with chemical shifts from -95 to -105 ppm (line Q3) and from -107 to -124 ppm (line Q4) with ratio of integral intensities Q3/Q4 from 0.5 to 1.5, with chrome in active component being characterized in UV-Vis-spectrum of diffuse reflection by band of absorption of d-d electronic transition of octahedral Cr(III) cation with wave number from 16500 to 17000 cm-1. Catalyst has specific surface value from 10 to 250 m2/g, volume of pores not less than 0.15 cm3/g, and its composition is formed in the following ratio, wt %: chrome oxide - 8-20, potassium oxide- 0.1-5, silicon oxide - 0.1-5, aluminium oxide carrier - the remaining part.
EFFECT: claimed catalyst of paraffin hydrocarbons possesses high activity, selectivity and thermal stability.
3 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 17 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to processes of paraffin dehydration. A method for the regulation of temperatures in a dehydration reactor includes the supply of a catalyst into the dehydration reactor in such a way that the catalyst flows downwards via the reactor, supply of the flow, enriched with paraffins, into the dehydration reactor in such a way that the flow passes upwards via the reactor with the formation of a technological flow, which contains the catalyst and dehydrated hydrocarbons, as well as a certain amount of non-converted paraffins, separation of a vapour phase from the technological flow with the formation of a flow of products, supplying the flow of products into a cooling unit with the formation of a cooled flow of products and the supply of a part of the cooled flow of products into the technological flow.
EFFECT: invention provides the effective and economical dehydration process with the prevention of undesirable side reactions.
10 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of carrying out reactions of dehydration with further absorption purification of gases, with the absorption gas purification followed by a stage of pressure release in a reservoir of high pressure flash evaporation, provided by mass-exchange elements, with the said stage being carried out with the application of combustible gas, flowing through the mass-exchange elements towards gravity direction, which passes through the high-pressure flash evaporation reservoir in a counterflow with respect to a solvent, subjected to pressure release, so that the absorbed hydrocarbons are absorbed by combustible gas. Combustible gas is represented by fuel gas, used for heating the dehydration reactor and which, for instance, is natural gas. To increase the process efficiency the flow of carbohydrates, separated from acid-forming gases, can be returned back into a channel of technological gas before absorption purification of gases.
EFFECT: method provides a possibility of an improved separation of carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons in the process of removal of acid-forming gases.
13 cl, 2 tbl, 1 dwg
FIELD: hydrogenation-dehydrogenation catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of olefin or diolefin hydrocarbons via dehydrogenation of corresponding paraffinic C3-C5-hydrocarbons carried out in presence of catalyst comprising chromium oxide and alkali metal deposited on composite material including alumina and aluminum wherein percentage of pores larger than 0.1 μm is 10.0-88.5% based on the total volume of open pores equal to 0.10-0.88 cm3/g. Preparation of catalyst involves treatment of carrier with chromium compound solution and solution of modifying metal, preferably sodium or sodium and cerium. Carrier is prepared by from product resulting from thermochemical activation of amorphous hydrargillite depicted by formula Al2O3·nH2O, where 0.25<n<2.0, added to homogenous mass in amount 1.0 to 99.0% using, as additional material, powdered aluminum metal, which is partly oxidized in hydrothermal treatment and calcination stages. Hydrocarbon dehydrogenation process in presence of the above-defined catalyst is also described.
EFFECT: increased activity and selectivity of catalyst.
3 cl, 2 dwg, 4 tbl, 7 ex