Method of transport overcoming of water obstacle in areas of eternal congelation
SUBSTANCE: invention is intended to provide for the transport overcoming of a water obstacle in areas of eternal congelation in the form of rivers, lakes or summer flooding of large sections of the tundra using a bottom tunnel with a communication pocket. The method of transport overcoming a water obstacle in areas of eternal congelation is that this overcoming is carried out on a train along a bottom tunnel along a concave downward trajectory, loading vehicles into a structure comprising container platforms from the end of the train and unloading on the other shore from the other end of the train. To prevent damage to the airtightness of the carriage in case of emergence in a water-flooded tunnel, when dragging it along a flat horizontal reinforced concrete ceiling of the tunnel on the roof of the carriage, small non-drive wheels are used to contact the carriage with the tunnel ceiling. Use carriage-locomotives with two end control cabs.
EFFECT: ensuring the year-round fast and safe crossing of the water obstacle by rail transport carrying cars and their passengers in the same train while eternal congelation is preserved.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises determining the direction of carrying out counter-heading drivage using instrumental method, drilling counter-heading drivage, charging and blasting the holes, airing the bottomhole and removal of the exploded rock mass. In one of the counter-heading drivage the hole is drilled in the center of the bottomhole. Before drilling in the counter-heading drivage opposite to it the direction of counter-heading drivage is additionally determined on the greatest degree of exposure of vibration of the surface of the rock mass by the palm of the hand by applying the palm of the hand to the surface of the rock mass in the center and in other parts of the bottomhole.
EFFECT: reduction of costs for counter-heading drivage at their breakthrough by reducing the amount of deviation from the predetermined direction at their breakthrough.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises mechanised pre-working and stabilisation in coal massif, protection of opened space against adjacent column by coal post. Compensation cavities are made in virgin massif, nearby bed soil, and separated by coal post. Cavities and coal posts there between on massif side and opened space are arranged in staggered manner. Width, height and depth of cavities are defined on the basis of coal seam mining and geological conditions and heading machine performances. Coal post width between compensation cavities is calculated with due allowance for empirical factor equal to 1.3 at working in virgin massif and equal to 1.6 at working in adjacent column abutment pressure zone, seal depth (post height) and seam cubical compression strength.
EFFECT: higher stability of working, lower losses of coal in posts, no need in additional barring.
SUBSTANCE: method is performed using facilities of simultaneous drilling of boreholes with increased speeds of feed and rotation of bits and intensive washing of boreholes first in 2 vertical sectors, then, after rotation of a drilling faceplate by 90 degrees, in 2 horizontal sectors. After removal of the drilling faceplate from the bottomhole, the charging faceplate is fed with injectors-stems, and then boreholes are automatically charged with explosive substance, and explosion is initiated.
EFFECT: higher speed of mining, reduced time for bottomhole drilling, time of drilling and blasting works, increased frequency and resistance of a technological process.
SUBSTANCE: complex for tunnel driving comprises a frame, on which two horizontal chutes are fixed rigidly being arranged as stationary to the frame and comprising driving augers, and the chutes are coaxial to each other at the mine base. Above one of the chutes with the auger in the initial position there is an additional chute installed with a driving auger capable of rotation in vertical plane relative to a hinged unit fixed on the frame in its middle part along the mine width, with the help of a drive with a geared wheel as capable of its interaction with the geared rack of circular profile fixed on the frame relative to the axis of the hinged unit fixed on the frame in its middle part along the mine width.
EFFECT: provision of the possibility to drive mines with cross section of semicircular shape.
SUBSTANCE: method includes drilling of keyholes, popholes and cropper holes, placement of charges in them and blasting. The distance between cropper holes is defined mathematically depending on parameters of rock massif cracking, effect of friction between separate parts of the massif, rock pressure, physical and mechanical properties of rock massif, speed of detonation and density of explosive charging.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and level of rock safety.
SUBSTANCE: method of tunnelling is characterised by the fact that rocks are broken at a bottomhole with a fluid working agent under pressure, at the same time mines and wells are arranged along the perimetre and along the frontal area of the bottomhole; the distance between these mines is chosen with account of breaking action at rocks with a reheated gas or steam-gas working agent under pressure, which is generated with a multi-module jet plant and its working devices, and also extended elastic tubular elements are used, filled with an energy composition that generates a reheated agent under high pressure, with the help of which the specified mines and wells are arranged in the rock massif; the massif is damaged and ground. The bottomhole is cleaned by pressure at the bottomhole end to damaged parts of the rock massif with a working medium in the form of reheated steam-gas phases under pressure.
EFFECT: efficient complex action at a bottomhole with higher efficiency, lower labour and power inputs.
SUBSTANCE: method to construct station tunnels with low subsidence of earth surface includes erection of an advance support and a temporary support along a tunnel vault, erection of permanent lining and mining of bottomhole rock, according to the invention, in a bottomhole under protection of the advance support along the longitudinal axis of the tunnel there are injection fibreglass anchors installed, the temporary support is erected providing for maintenance of the advance support, and mounted from steel arcs directly following face advance with filling of the support space with concrete, the permanent lining is erected after temporary support concrete gains strength. At the same time injection fibreglass anchors are cut in layers with a tunnelling unit together with rock in the bottomhole as it advances. At the same time the advance support is erected by drilling of wells along the tunnel vault at the angle to its longitudinal axis, placement of metal pipes in wells and filling of pipes with cement mortar.
EFFECT: increased quality of tunnel construction by reduction of earth surface subsidence at main stages of construction.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: complex for tunnelling of a subway mine of round cross section comprises mechanisms of rock breaking arranged on a carcass equipped with a movement drive, a transshipment device for loading of rock mass into transport facilities. The transshipment device is made in the form of a chute of cylindrical shape fixed on the frame and normally oriented towards the bottomhole, the lower edge of the chute is located at the sharp angle a to the mine base and with limitation of the upper edges of the chute with the horizontal plane arranged at the level of the central axis of the mine or with certain downward displacement. Inside the chute in its middle part there is an infinitely closed double-chain scraper contour on driving and tension sprockets with a curvilinear external profile of scrapers, and with the possibility of interaction of scrapers in the lower weight-bearing branch with the chute base, and the upper idle branch - with resting against the rollers.
EFFECT: improved reliability of complex operation, elimination of rock mass accumulation near a bottomhole as a result of mine tunnelling, reduced labour intensiveness of complex maintenance and its increased efficiency due to elimination of complex idle time.
SUBSTANCE: method of tunnel building includes the following operations: soil development and its transportation, support of mine workings at driving with shotcrete, probably with anchors, arcs and net, geophysical measurement of rock density in bottom-hole zone, which results are used for correction of length of planned driving and thickness of layer of shotcrete in order to speed-up driving and to reduce shotcrete flow rate.
EFFECT: accident prevention, possibility of correction of driving method in order to speed-up it and correction of structure of temporary support in order to improve its efficiency, improving safety of underground operations.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes stages, at which the diagram of bore holes location is designed using a computer applying the design software, the navigation plane (N) of the bore holes location diagram is identified, initial embedding points to be drilled are identified in the navigation plane, and final embedding points to be drilled are selected. Besides, the bottomhole profile is downloaded into the design software, which represents the bottomhole shape in the set of bore holes to be drilled, and final points of the bore holes to be drilled are placed in the diagram of the bore holes location, into locations in compliance with the bottomhole profile, in the system of coordinates of the bore holes location diagram by means of the design computer, as a result of which bore holes of various length in the diagram of the bore holes location develop the shape of this bottomhole profile.
EFFECT: improved method to design the location diagram of boreholes with complex shape.
12 cl, 17 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes erection of wall, prior reinforcement of rock massif along extraction track by drilling longitudinal and slanting wells and forcing reinforcing cementing solutions into these wells, destruction and cleaning of rocks under protection of cementing cover, erection of permanent support, following reinforcement of contour-adjacent massif by cementation solutions through wells, drilled perpendicularly to mine axis. Draining wells are additionally drilled with delay through cementing layer having length greater than thickness of reinforced rocks zone, to form a draining layer around reinforced cover.
EFFECT: higher effectiveness.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly underground structures erected in difficult mining and geological conditions, namely in soft watered ground bedded under tunnel scoop and forming tunnel base.
SUBSTANCE: tunnel has composite lining including hollow metal members driven in ground and forming screen, load-bearing frames and grouting concrete. Metal members are connected one to another through interlocks. At least some of metal members have rigidity varying along length thereof and increasing in direction opposite to metal member driving direction. Metal members have constant outer diameters.
EFFECT: increased tunnel reliability and operational safety due to prevention of original ground deformation during tunnel building and operation; reduced ground settlement at base of tunnel built under motor road without traffic interruption, reduced building time, power and labor inputs, material consumption due to optimal material distribution along driven member in accordance with load distribution among member parts.
24 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes making a mini-tunnel by serial pressing through, in soil with concurrent feeding of special solution, at least two hollow concrete sections connected with pressing, each of which is made with end portions open at ends, one of which is made on outer side with ring-shaped groove open from end portion, wherein metallic ring is mounted projecting beyond section end, with thickness not greater than groove depth, hollow of which together with inner hollow of end portion of section forms shelf-like cone, and other end portion of section is made stepped and narrowing towards end with forming of bushing portion with one shelf for ring of adjacent section cone and no less than with one shelf for ring compacting insert made of soft pressurizing gas and water impermeable material, tightly clinging by one side to surface of shelf, and by other - to inner surface of ring, while shelves of bushing portion are made within limits of section wall half thickness, which half is directed outwards. End portions of pipeline sections adjacent to mini-tunnel are made matching with adjacent mini-tunnel sections or transfer sections are used and/or inserts, while pipeline is connected to mini-tunnel after pressing through in soil and/or embankment of the last mini-tunnel section.
EFFECT: lower costs, higher reliability and durability.
8 cl, 16 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes cleaning pipes and wells and further maintenance while providing for continuous draining of sewage by liquidating breakdowns, liquidating random obstructions, and also launching new areas of network into operation, while at least one constructed network area is driven though soil or body of existing embankment by, micro-tunneling by means of serial pressing through in soil with concurrent feeding of special solution, at least two hollow concrete sections connected with pressing, each of which is made with end portions open at ends, one of which is made on outer side with ring-shaped groove open from end portion, wherein metallic ring is mounted projecting beyond section end, with thickness not greater than groove depth, hollow of which together with inner hollow of end portion of section forms shelf-like cone, and other end portion of section is made stepped and narrowing towards end with forming of bushing portion with one shelf for ring of adjacent section cone and no less than with one shelf for ring compacting insert made of soft pressurizing gas and water impermeable material, tightly clinging by one side to surface of shelf, and by other - to inner surface of ring, while shelves of bushing portion are made within limits of section wall half thickness, which half is directed outwards. After pressing through all sections of reconstructed network portion free ends of end sections are connected to existing network.
EFFECT: higher reliability and durability, lower costs.
8 cl, 16 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes continuous feeding of electric power having appropriate frequency and voltage to consumers due to maintenance operations, and also launching new areas of network into operation, while at least one of constructed network areas is driven in soil or in body of existing embankment by micro-tunneling by means of serial pressing in soil with concurrent feeding of special solution of at least two hollow concrete sections, connected to each other and to network with pressing, each section being made with open end portions, one of which is made on outer side with open circular groove at end portion, wherein metallic ring is mounted, projecting behind end piece, having thickness no greater than groove depth, hollow of which together with inner hollow of end portion of section forms shelf-like cone, and other end portion of section is made stepped and narrowing towards end with forming of bushing portion with one shelf for ring of adjacent section cone and no less, than with one shelf for ring compacting insert of soft pressurizing gas and water impermeable material, tightly clinging by one side to shelf surface, and by other side - to inner surface of ring, while shelves of bushing portion are made within limits of outward-directed half of thickness of section wall. After pressing through all sections of reconstructed network portion, free ends of end sections are attached to existing network.
EFFECT: lower laboriousness, lower costs, higher reliability and durability.
8 cl, 16 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly underground structures built under difficult mining and geological conditions, namely in presence of soft watered grounds at tunnel base.
SUBSTANCE: tunnel comprises prefabricated lining including hollow metal members driven in ground and forming a screen, load-bearing frames and grouting concrete. Metal members are joined by means of locking means. At least some metal members driven in ground have constant outer diameters. At least part of above metal members are composed of sections having different lengths. Lengths of the metal members decrease in direction opposite to the driving direction.
EFFECT: increased reliability and operational safety due to prevention of original ground surface settlement during tunnel building and operation; prevention of ground settlement during tunnel building under traffic road without traffic interruption, reduced time of tunnel building, labor and power inputs, material consumption due to optimal material distribution along driven member in correspondence with loading of its sections.
21 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly to reconstruct underground structures and reinforce foundations and engineering services in confined space.
SUBSTANCE: method involves reinforcing foundation in vicinity of existent structures; building vertical tube with the use of well rings; excavating ground with the use of grab; breaking tunnel liner and driving tunnel. Method of foundation reinforcement near existent structures involves injecting quick-setting cement mix through perforated pipes installed in wells drilled through support foundation part and ground; drilling guiding wells beyond vertical tube below upper tunnel level and ground water level; providing guiding wells with casing pipes; injecting grouting mortar in ground through casing pipes up to grouting mortar appearance at well head; installing well rings having perforation orifices along ring perimeters and installing injectors in above orifices; additionally reinforcing contour part of vertical tube by supplying grouting mortar through orifices in well rings; breaking tunnel link section after well ring laying onto upper liner plate of deep tunnel by cutting orifices having necessary dimensions; removing tunnel link section and seating well ring on rock base; concreting well ring; forming two orifices in well ring before tunnel driving arranged in direction of tunnel reconstruction; driving the tunnel and installing support members.
EFFECT: extended field of usage, reliability and safety of operations.
FIELD: mining industry, applicable in driving of horizontal workings.
SUBSTANCE: compensation and blast holes are drilled in a rock mass over the entire length of the raise. The blast holes are charges partially or completely, and they are subjected to a short-delay blasting into compensation holes and then the formed compensation cavities. The interval of slowing-down between the holes blasted in succession, depending on the detonation characteristics of the explosive, charge diameter, physico-technical properties of the rock mass, height and diameter of the newly formed compensation cavities should provide for breaking of the rock from the mass and full outburst of the rock mass from the cavity, i.e. to prevent the pressing effect of the rock mass in the contour of the raise.
EFFECT: determined the interval of slowing-down between the holes blasted in succession with prevention of the rock mass pressing in the contour of the raise, which allows to increase the height of the blasted section and enhance the physico-technical properties of the raise driving.
1 dwg, 1 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining, particularly to machines for mine heading and can be implemented at metropolitan tunnel engineering. The suggested equipment includes a rock destructing body with bore bits equipped with cutting tools, the said body assembled so as to turn on a cross bar of a support case with spacing hydro-cylinders, the equipment also includes an indexer of longitudinal travel and a manipulator with a grip for assembling liner plates. Bore bits are made with autonomous rotation drives and are installed in the rock destructing body so as to travel radially, while spacing hydro-cylinders are arranged in pairs in vertical planes on both sides of the support case. The spacing hydro-cylinders and the indexer are located in a supported part of the tunnel and they rest on the inside surface of liner plates, while the manipulator is installed directly on the working body.
EFFECT: ability to bore tunnel of an alternate diameter and to expand already bored tunnel with the same complex of equipment; also increased safety of equipment maintenance.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: explosion operations.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns mining and railway construction, particularly drilling and blasting driving of horizontal and slightly sloping mines and railway tunnels. Method of cut-hole formation involves drilling of advance slightly sloping well and filling it with water. Further the cut-holes, relievers and cropper holes are drilled. Explosive charges are loaded into blast holes and well. Pinpoint blasting charge weight in the well is calculated by the well diametre, cut-hole length, physical and operational properties of cut-hole rock, overburden pressure and explosive detonation speed. Explosion of pin-point blasting charge in water generates hydroshock wave reducing shock hazard in a bump-hazardous rock bed in the zone of new face.
EFFECT: high-quality cut-hole, increased ratio of advance per blast hole during pit and tunnel driving.