Method for installing geothermal heat exchangers for low-grade heat extraction
FIELD: heating system.
SUBSTANCE: method for installing geothermal heat exchangers for low-grade heat extraction comprises drilling wells using a drill string. Well drilling for the installation of probes is carried out without transferring the drilling rig from one place and at an angle of 20-45 degrees to the horizon. A reinforced concrete ring with a diameter of 1.5 m is installed into the soil, its upper end is buried by 0.3-0.4 m from the surface. A ring area with a width of 0.5 m is arranged at the same level. The bottom of the ring is poured with a concrete blinding. On top of the reinforced concrete ring a well support of the drilling rig is mounted, drilling axis inclination is determined, the drilling rig is mounted on the well support, the concrete ring is used during the drilling process as a sump, and after well completion - as a decompression chamber of the geothermal collector. When the predetermined drilling depth is reached, a replaceable pilot extractor is lowered on the rigid cable to the drill string. After extracting the pilot to the drill string performing the role of a casing pipe, the prepared geothermal probe is lowered, the drill string is screwed with drilling rig rotator and raised by 0.5 m.
EFFECT: reduction in the number of operations, in particular, of lifting the drilling rig, casing the wellbore with a casing pipe, excavating an additional pit or a sump for the drilling fluid circulation, transferring the drilling rig to a new drilling site.
10 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: collector with heat-transfer medium bears against outer surface of heated pipeline. Geothermal heat pump is used as heat source for heat-transfer medium. The heat pump contains connecting pipelines, throttles, steam generator, evaporator, three ejectors connected in series, three condensers where the third condenser has heating pipe, three circulating pumps, heat accumulator with collector. Each ejector consists of inlet chamber, nozzle and diffusor. Heat accumulator collector is connected with steam generator via the first circulating pump. Steam from generator is supplied through throttles to nozzles of the first, the second and the third ejectors. Inlet chamber of the first ejector is connected with evaporator outlet via connecting pipeline. The inlet chamber of the second ejector is connected with diffuser of the first ejector via the second circulating pump. The inlet chamber of the third ejector is connected with diffuser of the second ejector via the third circulating pump and the second condenser. Outlets of condensers are connected with evaporator inlet. Ejector exiting steam enters the third condenser and heats heating pipe connected with collector on heating pipeline.
EFFECT: higher pumping efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: pipeline comprises sections, shutoff valves and accessories, outer insulation ply and heater connected to heat carrier source Said heater is composed of at least two hearing sections, each being made up of snake-curved pies with heat carrier fluid. Heat source for said heat carrier represents a geothermal heat pipe and heat accumulators located in depth of non-freezing soil ply. Heat pump consists of interconnected compressor, evaporator and throttle. Heat accumulator comprises housing with insulation filled with solid heat-accumulating compound and provided with feed and discharge tubular coils filled with heat carrier. Discharge coil is connected by its ends via valves with appropriate inlet and outlet of heating sections while feed coil is connected by one end with said throttle and by another end with heat pump compressor.
EFFECT: higher reliability and efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: as per proposed method, a pressure brine-carrying formation is developed by means of a well; high-mineralised geothermal brine is removed from it along a production casing string. After that, along an annular space between production and intermediate casing strings, which is interconnected via the wellhead with ground reservoirs and delivery equipment, as well as with an absorption zone formed before development of the brine-carrying formation at the interval of a geological cross-section of the well below the unit of a regional water-tight stratum. Brine is removed during opening, development and further operation of the formation to the absorption zone and the ground reservoirs with a possibility of using a hydraulic mineral potential of the brine from the reservoirs. Protection of the production string against deposition of hard formations on its walls from the produced brine during its movement from the formation to the well mouth is performed by temperature control of the upper part of the string at the interval of probable temperature phase transition due to continuous or periodic pumping along the brine flow in the string with a possibility of heat transfer to it of a heat carrier with initial temperature exceeding expected brine temperatures without any temperature control at the interval of probable temperature phase transition. According to the invention, heat carrier pumping is performed inside the brine lifted along the production string by arranging in the same string of a closed circulation circuit with the heat carrier in the form of service water. This circuit is made in the form of a coaxial heat exchanger drawn in the string to the depth that is not less than the value of phase transition interval. It consists of a heat-conducting vertical cylindrical housing coaxial to the string, closed in the base and provided from above with holes for water supply to the housing. Inside the housing there is a central pipeline with an open lower end that does not touch the base and an upper end opened for water discharge above the well mouth. With that, water is pumped first via an annular space of the heat exchanger, which is formed with the housing and the pipeline, in the direction opposite to the direction of brine lifting via the production string; then, it is supplied via the central pipeline to the heat exchanger outlet. Use of hydraulic mineral potential of the brine is performed with discharge of a less concentrated fluid formed at use together with discharged excess brine from the formation and reservoirs to the absorption zone. Before the fluid is supplied to a common discharge line, it is filtered from mechanical impurities.
EFFECT: enhanced method's efficiency.
5 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods for energy accumulation in cogeneration systems operating in a trigeneration cycle, in systems for removal of geothermal energy by an absorption heat pump, in systems using low-potential heat energy by means of the absorption heat pump. According to the method, excessively generated electric energy is converted to thermal energy and used with excessively generated thermal energy for chemothermal energy accumulation in the absorption heat pump. In order to obtain the heat, liquid cooling agent accumulated in the condenser is supplied to an absorber.
EFFECT: possible accumulation both of thermal and electrical energy at daily manoeuvring of the energy supplied to a user.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: geothermal device includes a heat exchanger connected to a heat pump, a subsurface heat exchanger installed in a geothermal well, pipelines attaching the heat exchangers so that a closed system is formed, which is filled with a working medium in the form of liquid; with that, the subsurface heat exchanger includes downtake and rising pipes interconnected with each other in the lower zone. Free space of the geothermal well is filled with a filler with high draining ability; the subsurface heat exchanger contains at least six rising pipes located from the downtake pipe at the distance that is not shorter than their diameter; with that, the pipes of the subsurface heat exchanger are interconnected with each other by means of a head piece. The downtake pipe has the possibility of the uniform supply to its outer surface of draining liquid and the filler of the geothermal well with the possibility of its moistening. The geothermal well filler moistening system includes a storage chamber located below the head piece.
EFFECT: improving the thermal capacity of a subsurface heat exchanger and enlarging its scope of application.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of power engineering, in particular to power plants using the energy of deep heat of the Earth. Petrothermal power plant comprises a well, drilled down to the depth with the bottomhole temperature no less than 600° C, the heat take-off system located in the well, containing the steam boiler, two connected pipelines, each of which consists of separate parts, and the parts of the water injection pipeline are connected with the parts of the steam removal conduit with rigid bars forming the sections, while a part of the well near the steam boiler with coverage of its heating zone, is filled with a water-proof material, the other part of the well is filled with rock lifted to the surface during well drilling with observance of its location in earth crust in the place of drilling. The mounting device of heat take-off system of petrothermal power plant includes a mounting derrick with the hydrolift, bench, made as a sliding welding table with chamfers forming at the centre of the table, when these parts are connected, an opening with the possibility of advancement through it into the well of sections of the heat take-off device.
EFFECT: reliable operation of petrothermal power plant, power increase is ensured.
5 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power engineering and may be used in systems of heat and cold supply with usage of geothermal heat with the help of a steam ejector heat pump. Substance: cooled coolant is supplied into a well, and heated one transmits heat to a consumer with the help of a steam ejector heat pump, besides, heat of the well in the warm period is used to generate cold for cold supply needs. In case of low or no loads of cold and heat supply they generate electric energy with the help of a turbogenerator, operating on the pair of coolant - low-boiling coolant, which is produced in the generator of the steam ejector heat pump, at the same time coolant vapours are sent to a steam turbine for generation of electric energy, and spent steam is sucked into a condenser of the steam ejector heat pump with a steam-jet ejector.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to reduce prime cost of heat and cold supply due to flexible mode of complex generation of thermal energy, cold and electric energy.
SUBSTANCE: cottages (1) of the network are connected to common energy accumulator (2) in soil. Control device (3) has the possibility of moving heat carrier in pipeline (4) connected to energy accumulator (2). Each cottage (1) has an individual corresponding heat pump, and each heat pump is connected to pipeline (4) so that heat carrier can flow through the heat pump. Heat pumps are parallel connected in relation to each other by means of pipeline (4) containing two main pipelines (4a, 4b) for heat carrier. At that, two main pipelines (4a, 4b) are made so that they are interconnected on their ends that are remote in relation to energy accumulator (2). One of the main pipelines has the possibility of heat transfer from energy accumulator (2), and the other pipeline has the possibility of transferring heat carrier back to energy accumulator (2). Each heat pump is connected on one side to one of the main pipelines (4b), via which heat carrier flows to the corresponding heat pump and on the other side to the other main pipeline (4a), through which heat carrier again flows back to energy accumulator (2). At that, at least one of the heat pumps installed in cottages (1) has optional possibility of heat or cold generation for local use in the cottage in the form of air heating in the room and/or running water, or air cooling in the room.
EFFECT: increasing economy of heating or cooling of a variety of cottages.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: system capable of using naturally reheated fluids produced from hydrothermal channels with the purpose to develop and use practically unlimited quantity of thermal energy contained in specified fluids. The system comprises the main system made of three parts: a funnel, pipe sections and any combination of several mechanical fixtures. The extracted thermal energy is used to drive steam turbines or other equipment for generation of power, which is transported to earth surface, water desalination or for any other production, requiring thermal energy. Besides, the specified thermal energy may simultaneously or separately be introduced into the extracting plant for extraction of resources in order to extract precious metals, mineral and chemical substances without system modification.
EFFECT: provision of a reliable mechanism for extraction of thermal energy from an ocean bottom and such precious resources as minerals, metals and chemical substances.
37 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: when implementing the method during the heating period, low-potential heat is removed from soil. Supply of liquid heat carrier is performed through soil layers by means of the main closed circulating system with closed-type vertical loops installed by means of wells. Then, heat is transferred so that it is converted by means of a heat-pump cycle to a higher temperature level to the heat supply network of the power supply site. During the non-heating period, accumulation of external heat discharges in the soil is selected and supply of heat carrier through the soil layers is changed over to an additional closed circulating system with an intermediate heat exchanger for utilisation of heat discharges, which is installed into it. When changing over from heat removal to accumulation of heat discharges, depth of heat carrier supply is changed through the soil layers from intersection level of vertical loops of one or several water-bearing soil layers to the level above the roof of upper water-bearing layer. For that purpose, some part of the loops used for heat extraction from soil is used at heat extraction and accumulation of heat discharges as per a shortened version by installing those loops as a part of the additional circulating system with the length corresponding to the second of the above levels. The rest loops are installed as a part of the main circulating system with the length corresponding to the first level. When changing over from the soil heat extraction to accumulation of heat discharges, the method allows changing heat carrier supply depth through the soil layer from the intersection level of vertical loops as a part of the main circulating system of one or several water-bearing soil layers to the level above the roof of upper water-bearing layer, thus installing vertical loops in compliance with the last level as a part of the additional circulating system, the length of which is chosen as shortened relative to that one which is chosen in compliance with the first level of length of loops of the main circulating system. The task of the seasonal change of levels is solved either by using known structural designs with wells of various depths as a part of loops, or based on the proposed design of the downhole heat exchanger.
EFFECT: more effective seasonal change of levels.
SUBSTANCE: hole opener contains a centralizer, a housing with a central feedthrough channel and grooves, the blades fitted with rock cutting elements and ledges designed as a teeth, fixed in housing grooves with a possibility of extension and a mechanism of blade extension into the working position, a hollow shaft with the top thread for joining with the borehole equipment, a lateral hole and a lower bushing placed in the feedthrough channel of the housing with fixing due to twisting with reference to the housing, and the blades are fitted with the roots interacting with the hollow shaft bushing during extension of blades into the working position, and the device for fixing of blades in inoperative position containing radially spring-loaded circular segments. The roots are designed as radial pistons inserted into the housing with a possibility of limited radial movement under the action of internal excessive pressure due to the ring segments which are installed inside and blades installed which are installed outside. The roots are designed with a possibility of interaction with the hollow bushing of the shaft through ring segments, and the ring segments are designed as longitudinal plates.
EFFECT: reliability and durability of the hole opener.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: blade underreamer includes a body of cylindrical form and rock destruction tool made as blade symmetrical in all directions, wider in the central part and narrowing gradually to ends. The blade end parts are separated from the main middle part by springing inserts, for example, by plates perpendicular to the blade rotation axis. At that the blade end parts are made as a half of ellipsoid of rotation with embedment of cutter elements, in particular, single-point diamonds along its whole surface. The blade is made so that it can be rotated in vertical plane at horizontal pin penetrating the body and blade in their middle. The body has two diametrical openings shaped to lengthwise cavities in width equal to the biggest thickness of the blade in retractable part. One opening is higher than the second one; it allows burial of one half of the blade inside the body through the lower opening and in the other part of the blade through the upper opening in transport position. When the blade is retracted fully into operating position through openings it is placed perpendicular to longitudinal axis of the body. At that blade the bottom part of the blade medium top part is placed on upper opening lower surface while blade top part upper surface thrusts against bottom opening upper surface thus locking the blade in operating position. The top part of the body has a groove with thread made at its conical lateral side for the purpose of its connection to the pipe string. Below this thread, through groove bottom inside the body there is a cylindrical stepped channel placed in parallel to longitudinal axis of the body and offset in regard to this axis, in wide top part of it there is a piston (12) closed from the top by cover with two openings: small feedthrough opening and large opening connected to return valve at the cover top. The piston is made as integrated unit with pusher passing through narrow lower part of the channel and having a groove contacting the blade top part at free end, bottom surface of the groove is made as an arc. Cylindrical bore shifted relative to body lengthwise axis is arranged nearby said stepped channel, in parallel to it, to feed flushing fluid to processing zone.
EFFECT: improved productivity of well reaming, improved reliability of the equipment and its maintainability, increased reaming size of the well.
SUBSTANCE: expander comprises the housing, piston with a rod, hingedly installed vanes, reinforced with hard alloy, thrusters, bushing, upper support with spheric boring and nut. The bushing is fitted with keys and sphere installed in spheric boring of the upper support, fitted with longitudinal slots facing towards bushing keys. The piston with the rod is installed in the axial channel of the housing enclosed from below with the nut, with longitudinal slots for vanes installed in them hingedly on axles. The bottom end of the hollow rod is fitted with the bottom bearing surface with longitudinal slots, where on axles the thrusters connected to vanes through hinged axles are placed. The housing cavity under the ring-type piston has the constant hydraulic connection through radial holes in the housing body of the hollow rod with its axial channel, and the cavity above it is connected by a bypass hole with the well cavity.
EFFECT: possibility of expansion of a well bore below the casing shoe at any depth, the possibility of monitoring of radial load on a rock-breaking tool, the possibility of wash-over of a well bore, the possibility of returning of the rock-breaking tool into transport position after the pressure resection in the axial channel of the drill pipe string.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: well bottom cleaning device includes an actuating element with a tie-rod, on the lower end of which a soil collecting machine is fixed. The tie-rod is hinged in the actuating element and installed with a possibility of movement of the soil collecting machine in radial direction and rotation relative to the actuating element axis, in which there additionally arranged and installed is a tie-rod movement mechanism made on the basis of gear engagement. The actuating element is hollow; in its cavity there installed is an actuating axial element with a gear groove interacting with a drive gear fixed on the tie-rod end and being an element of a hinge connection of the tie-rod and the actuating element. The soil collecting machine is made in the form of a bucket hinged on the lower end of the tie-rod and provided with side location of the intake part, with a slanted side wall facing to the widened well wall, and with a flat bottom. The axis of the hinge connection of the bucket with the tie-rod is located perpendicular to the axis passing through bucket centre of gravity, and to the side intake part of the bucket, which is equipped along the perimeter of the cutting edge. Deflecting walls are installed between the bottom and the upper wall of the bucket.
EFFECT: improving operating efficiency of the device; providing cleaning of a widened flat bottom of a well.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device for hole reaming comprises a drilling tool, a guide element mounted in front of the drilling tool, and a stabilising element mounted behind the drilling tool. The surface of the guide element has a cylindrical shape. The device comprises rods connected with the ends of the guide element and the stabilising element. The cylindrical surface of the guide element is articulated by the inclined annular chamfer to the end of the guide element, the surface of the stabilising element has a cylindrical shape articulated by the inclined annular chamfer to the end of the stabilising element, the surface of the drilling tool has a cylindrical shape articulated by the inclined annular surfaces with cylindrical surfaces of the guide element and the stabilising element. The method of hole reaming comprises making a pilot hole and its reaming by the said device in the forward and reverse directions.
EFFECT: improving the efficiency of hole reaming.
8 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions pertains to drilling of wells and can be used for their enlargement and also in process of repair in wells. Assembly of tools is placed in a well transferring it from transport position to the operating one. Section of the well borehole is enlarged bottom-up with centring of the tool assembly in regard to the casing string. In the process of the well borehole enlargement the tool assembly is centred additionally in regard to the surface of the well borehole formed as a result of its enlargement. Centring of the tool assembly in regard to the casing string is made at least in two points located above the expandable hydraulic underreamer of the tool assembly. Enlargement is made up to the diameter equal or exceeding the initial diameter of the well, whereupon section of the well borehole is enlarged up to the required diameter. Centring of the tool assembly made in regard to the surface of the well borehole formed as a result of enlargement is carried out at least in one point located below the expandable hydraulic underreamer of the tool assembly and in regard to the casing string additionally at least in one point located below the expandable hydraulic stabiliser of the assembly. The tool assembly is used that includes expandable hydraulic underreamer, expandable hydraulic stabiliser installed directly under the expandable underreamer. In the tool assembly at least two centralisers are made expandable and hydraulic and installed directly over the expandable underreamer. In the lower part of expandable hydraulic centraliser there is a choking unit.
EFFECT: improving new surface quality of the well received as a result of its enlargement, enhancing productivity and efficiency of works on bottom-up enlargement of the well borehole.
17 cl, 23 dwg
FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: extending reamer comprises body, piston, spring, pusher and articulated working tool. Rock destruction tool is composed of all-symmetric blade, a bit wider in central section and gradually converging at ends, to run in vertical plane on horizontal pivot penetrating through the body and blade mid part. Said body has two diametrical openings shaped to lengthwise cavities in width equal to that of the blade. One opening is arranged above the other to allow the blade one half to penetrate inside the body via lower opening and blade second half to pass via upper opening to transport position. Blade completely extended to working position via said openings, it is located perpendicular to body lengthwise axis. Note here that blade top part lower surface is placed on upper opening lower surface while blade bottom part upper surface thrusts against bottom opening upper surface to lock the blade in operating position. Body top part has thread for connection with string while cylindrical stepped channels is made under said thread and shifted relative to body lengthwise axis. Wide part of the body accommodates piston closed from above by piston cover with bore and made integral with pusher that passes through channel narrow part and has recess at free end in contact with blade top surface. Recess bottom is shaped to an arc. Cylindrical bore shifted relative to body lengthwise axis is arranged nearby said stepped channel to feed flushing fluid to processing zone. Blade return spring is arranged between the blade and body to force the blade to transfer position.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and reliability, decreased sizes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises electric heaters with adsorber arranged in series in air feed line. Note here that adsorber is composed of two different-diameter cylinders fitted one into another. Note also that adsorber smaller cylinder wall is tightly fitted on outer surface of tube discharging vapor-gas mix into atmosphere. Adsorbent is arranged in spring-loaded cassette displacing in vertical direction between larger cylinder inner surface and smaller cylinder outer surface. Said adsorber cylinders are made of bimetals. Note that larger cylinder inner surface material features thermal conductivity 2.0-2.5 times higher than that of outer surface material. Smaller cylinder outer surface material features thermal conductivity 2.0-2.5 times lower than that smaller cylinder on the side of the tube discharging vapor-gas mix into atmosphere.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of reaming.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: well reamer includes a housing with inclined slots on outer side and a stock arranged in it, a piston interacting with the stock, which has an annular shape and is arranged in a chamber formed with a stock outside wall and a housing inside wall, which are fixed on inclined slots of the housing and hinged by means of tie-rods to a piston of a lug with cutters on working surface, and a lower adapter with an internal converging channel, which is connected from below to the housing. The piston is equipped from below with a hollow bushing with side channels, below which inside the hollow bushing there is a constriction and a cylindrical outer surface that has the possibility of sliding interacting with the converging channel of lower adapter and with possibility of leaving the above convergent channel when the piston is moving relative to the housing. Lugs with rows of cutters are located uniformly along the perimetre of the housing and arranged with distance along the perimetre between lugs, which exceeds the width of lugs at least by two times, provides a gap between them, walls and of the well and the housing in working position for creation of liquid lifting speed, which is sufficient for carryover of slurry from those gaps and cooling of cutters.
EFFECT: invention allows increasing operational life owing to providing similar work load of cutters during a reaming process, improved resistance of vibration and stabilisation at destruction of mine rocks, improving quality of formation of the well shaft, and providing the liquid lifting speed, which is sufficient for cooling of cutters and carryover of slurry.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: reamer comprises a body with inclined slots outside and a stem installed in it, a piston interacting with the stem, which is made circular and is arranged in the chamber formed by the external wall of the stem and the internal wall of the body, feet with bits on the working surface fixed in inclined slots of the body and connected hingedly by means of traction rods with a piston, and a lower mandrel with an internal narrowing channel, connected at the bottom with the body, besides, the piston at the bottom is equipped with a hollow bushing with side channels, below which inside the hollow bushing there is a narrowing and a cylindrical external surface, which is made as capable of sliding interaction with a narrowing channel of the lower mandrel and with the possibility of exit from this narrowing channel as the piston moves upwards relative to the body. Areas of traction rods connection with the piston are arranged as tight. The piston is equipped with calibrated longitudinal holes arranged between areas of traction rods connection with the piston evenly along the diameter.
EFFECT: possibility to considerably increase resource of reamer operation as a whole, possibility to operate on a loaded drilling mud without washout of its elements and without mudding of closed sections of the reamer.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: drill rig contains the base platform installed around the rotary table sections, and swivel located above the centre of the rotary table sections. On the base platform a spatial frame with vertical guides of the swivel is installed. In the guides the rollers of axles of balancers of telescopic mechanisms are located. The ends of balancers through pivots are connected in pairs by short axles. The upper balancers of telescopic mechanisms are connected by a long axle, on which the swivel is fixed. On the base platform the hydraulic cylinders of lifting sections of telescopic mechanisms are also located. The heads of upper sections of hydraulic cylinders are connected by an axle, on which on pivots the middle parts of the upper balancers of the bottom section of telescopic mechanisms are installed. The middles of the bottom balancers of this section on bearings of swing are installed on the axle fixed on the spatial frame. On the frame vertical guides of the drum are also located, were the drill-pipe stands are located. Above the centre of gravity of the drum the rotating separator is located. The separator is located in the chuck collet on hydrolifts, and the rollers of chuck collet tips are installed in the vertical guide frame.
EFFECT: invention provides automation of trippings and expansion of the operational and layout characteristics of the drill rig.