Design of foundation slab with adjustable forces
SUBSTANCE: design of a foundation slab with adjustable forces, divided into sections by hinge action units, in which the hinge axes form a rectangular grid in the plan, intersecting in each span in the action places of the maximum span bending moments.
EFFECT: reducing the material consumption of the foundation slab design due to optimization of its reinforcement in two directions, along the entire slab area.
SUBSTANCE: pile field design is developed in the potential foundation area; after that, load on one pile is calculated; total number of piles of the same configuration with coordinate fixation to locality is determined at each pile sinking point, as well as depth of static sounding and location of static sounding points is determined. Then, static sounding is performed at pile sinking points by indentation of a conical tip of the probe into soil. Parameters characterising resistance of soil on cone and on side surface of the pile at introduction of the probe are recorded every 0.2 m as per TEST-K4 devicea. Calculation of carrying capacity and parameters at check points are recorded and entered to a database. Then, dynamic tests of each driven pile are performed. After the driven pile is kept for 5-35 days, field tests of test piles are performed by means of a static pile test device by static load, thus picking up pile settlement readings from measuring instruments at the specified loads, and values of the pile carrying capacity are determined. Then, correlation of the obtained results with static sounding data and pile sinking forces is performed considering engineering and geological conditions of the construction site. Then, mass sinking of the rest piles is performed. When the specified force on the pile being sunken is achieved, sinking is stopped and the pile is cut on a certain level above the ground surface.
EFFECT: improving operating efficiency and reducing prime cost of erection and preliminary work, at erection of the foundation as a whole, at simultaneous improvement of durability and reliability.
5 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of construction, particularly to building structures, as well as to the construction of foundations and basements. Foundation under the column grid formed by cruciform foundation slabs and ground base. Cruciform foundation slabs are laid on the concrete base and pivotally interconnected by means of reinforced-concrete inserts. Concrete base rests on the solid underlayer, laid on the surface of cleared and compacted ground base. Perimeter of foundation building footprint is surrounded by the wall in the ground, which is embedded in the ground base to the desired depth.
EFFECT: technical result is to provide the load distribution on the entire surface of the ground base, preservation of existing buildings and structures, reduction of the labour intensity.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the construction, namely to the construction of shallow foundations in difficult engineering-geological conditions. Method for erection of non-penetratable foundation includes installation of the foundation frame on the foundation soil and its fixation in the design position by means of ground anchors. Foundation soil is preventively pressurized by means of pressure of the injected concrete into space, bounded by the coating, which is adjacent to the bottom surface of the foundation frame, surface of the foundation soil, and flanging oriented downward to the foundation soil to the desired depth and installed along the contour of the foundation frame.
EFFECT: reducing the uneven precipitations of foundation - foundation soil system during construction and operation of the building or edifice, improving the stability, reducing the materials consumption and labour intensity.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: prefabricated foundation shell includes an external shell with an expansion in a lower part, resting against a board or a prepared foundation. The shell comprises flat trapezoidal boards installed vertically, as inclined with equal angles of boards inclination, and with the largest angle of boards inclination, which are opposite to direction of action of highest moment forces, or from jointly installed vertical and inclined boards. The inclined board is made at the opposite side of directing actions of highest moment forces and is parallel to the side of the support board. The joint of mutually crossing trapezoidal boards is made via vertical or inclined as arranged symmetrically to a slot in upper and lower parts of the boards by half of their height. All opposite composite trapezoidal boards have smaller size. In the upper part of the foundation a column base is made as through under single or double branch column.
EFFECT: increased bearing capacity, reduced labour intensiveness and material intensity.
2 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, in particular, to erection of prefabricated foundations of industrial and civil buildings. The prefabricated foundations includes flat trapezoidal boards that are mutually crossing. Crossing of two and more boards may be made at equal angles between boards, also with reduction of the angle in direction of high moment loads. Boards rest onto a cut in a support board. Trapezoidal boards are joined via a vertical slot in the middle part or made as displaced aside with lower moment forces, and a column base has slots for fixation.
EFFECT: increased bearing capacity, reduced material intensity and labour intensiveness.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: reinforced concrete board to erect non-submerged foundations is formed with a flat reinforced concrete structure. A flat reinforced concrete structure of a slab is made in the form of two beams crossing at the angle of 90°, and in the place of connection of beams there are curvilinear side vertical surfaces with radius of curvature, equal to 1.5 of beam width. The length of the beam is four times more than its width, at the same time the width of the beam is determined in accordance with the area of the pillar base.
EFFECT: reduced contact stresses in a system of foundation slab-soil base, reduced material intensity and labour intensiveness.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the construction of shallow foundations. Slab foundation, reinforced with recessed cage located outside the foundation along its perimeter at some distance from the edge of the plate. Deepening of the bottom of the cage exceeds the depth of maximum horizontal ground motions. The distance between the cage and the edge of the slab is set according to the planned design bearing capacity or settlement of the foundation and in the composite cage made of reinforced components their upper parts are connected by a belt.
EFFECT: technical result is the increase of the reliability and load-bearing capacity of the slab foundation, reduction of its settlement, reduction of material consumption.
8 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: monolithic system of a base with a resistant composite coating from homopolymer having semi-continuous configuration comprises load-distributing elements for formation of seams. Comprises a base that includes blocks from polystyrene foam and a bearing semi-continuous cement-concrete coating, the formwork for which is formed by blocks from polystyrene foam that are part of the base. Load-distributing elements are made in the form of load-distributing plates. Each of load-distributing plates comprises two anchors with two reinforcement bars for setting the position of the seam shaper and a hinged joint made as capable of counterclockwise rotation under action of a support moment, developed by the load, and clockwise rotation under action of the support moment developed by load-distributing plates.
EFFECT: efficient operation of a base under action of various loads, reduced material intensity and labour intensiveness.
6 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: combined frame-raft foundation for low height construction on soft soil includes a girder reinforced concrete foundation under all bearing walls of the building from factory-built slabs joined to each other and combined into a system of cross bands laid onto a levelled base on the hydraulic insulation layer in the form of a film under the entire building, each of the slabs is made with a section of closed shape with an insulant arranged inside, and the space between the slabs of the frame is filled with earth mass and a layer of the insulant on top, forming the bearing structure of the first floor slab. Slabs of the girder reinforced concrete foundation under all bearing walls are made in the form of a shell of trapezoid rigid shape of section of spatial and closed type, formed from upper and lower slabs of the spatial type, connected to each other. The lower slab is arranged as wider than the upper one and is equipped with boards along the length. The upper slab is made with inclined ribs. In the boards and in the lower part of inclined ribs there are slots, where bushing keys are embedded, with the help of which the upper and lower slabs are connected to each other, and in the places of joints the slabs are equipped with reinforcement protrusions for joining with reinforcement of adjacent elements with node embedding.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of a frame raft foundation due to increased rigidity, improved thermal protection properties, reduced material intensity and labour costs in manufacturing, provision of operation reliability.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: basement comprises a natural or an artificial base with a curvilinear cylindrical surface, a membrane laid onto the base and a support contour in the form of a system of cross beams. The membrane is laid via gaskets made of two layers of the material sliding relative to each other, onto the curvilinear cylindrical surface of the natural or artificial base arranged in a pit and turned upwards with a convexity. In the transverse direction the membrane is attached by edges to the support contour in the form of a system of cross beams, which is submerged into the natural base.
EFFECT: reduced subsidence of a basement, higher reliability of a structure above the basement, creation of an efficient membrane basement, reduced material intensity.
FIELD: construction, particularly new building erection and existent building reconstruction under any engineering-geological circumstances.
SUBSTANCE: foundation structure comprises shallow foundation and reinforcement members. Reinforcement members are made as vertical bars of precast or cast-in-place piles having diameters less than 200 mm and arranged along foundation perimeter. The piles are spaced a distance from outer foundation faces. The distance is equal to 0.1-0.5 of reinforcement member diameter. Distance between neighboring piles is equal to 2-4 reinforcement member diameters and reinforcement member length is 15-20 diameters thereof.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity due to creating compressive operational conditions under different engineering-geological circumstances, increased dynamic rigidity of foundation base and reduced foundation deformation and vibrational amplitude.
FIELD: building, particularly panel foundations for multistory buildings and structures, which apply non-uniform loads to ground base.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming crossing slots in ground; reinforcing the slots with frames and concreting the slots. For panel foundation erection in clay ground pit is preliminarily dug in ground. Then crossing slots adapted for reinforcing frames receiving are created in pit ground, wherein the reinforcing frames have projected parts. Areas of reinforcing frames intersection are additionally reinforced along with connecting projected parts and concreting thereof to fill the slots.
EFFECT: increased operational effectiveness and reduced costs.
FIELD: building, particularly to erect bored cast-in-place foundations of increased load-bearing abilities including ones having bottom marks typical to shallow foundations.
SUBSTANCE: stepped foundation comprises bored cast-in-place sections formed with the use of auger. Lower foundation step includes four peripheral cylinders of Dp.l. diameters and heights equal to above diameters. Peripheral cylinder centers are located at apexes of square having side lengths equal to Dp.l.. Square center coincides with center of support. Central support abutting four peripheral cylinders of lower foundation step has four expanded parts with Dc.exp diameters determined as Dc.exp=(1.0-1.2)Dp.l. and cylindrical bore having diameter Dp.up determined as Dp.up=(0.6-0.8)Dp.l.. Foundation bottom is 0.7 m below ground surface. Foundation erection method involves forming drilled pile sections; serially drilling wells having daug.1 diameters as each peripheral cylinder having Dp.l. is forming; creating each peripheral cylinder having height equal to Dp.l. by supplying working material for above cylinder forming; filling remainder well section with ground material, particularly with ground excavated from above object. Auger having diameter, which provides necessary Dp.l. diameter is used. The auger provides usage of technological processes, which provides 1.05-1.1 increase of pile diameter in comparison with auger diameter daug.1 and 1.1-1.2 increase of ground pile diameter in comparison with daug.1 diameter. After four peripheral cylinders of lower foundation step creation well having daug.2 diameter is drilled by means of direct auger rotation and ground excavation to day surface. The well has center coinciding with central support center and depth selected so that the well reach tops pf peripheral lower step cylinders. Then lower expanded part of central support is formed, wherein the expanded part has expansion degree Bc.exp./daug.2 equal to 1.5-2.0. During cylindrical bore drilling the expanded part has expansion degree Dp.up/daug.2 equal to 1.2-1.5.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity per foundation volume unit, extended field of technical means.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: construction, particularly to erect foundations in natural base.
SUBSTANCE: method involves driving pair of members pivotally connected with each other and provided with single bevels at lower ends thereof in ground; digging-out trench; installing guiding member on trench bottom; forcing plate members in ground up to plate members abutting upon guiding member and closing of beveled upper ends thereof; installing the similar pair of members having lengths exceeding that of the first pair in trench; driving above pair in ground up to upper beveled ends closing; concreting the trench.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity of the foundation due to inclined members embedding and ground compaction under foundation bottom.
FIELD: construction, particularly to erect multistory buildings on non-uniformly compressible clay base.
SUBSTANCE: method involves excavating crossing trenches in ground; filling the trenches with concrete and joining thereof with slab covering the trenches. Trenches are excavated from pit bottom for different depths. Lower trench parts are provided with widened abutment sections having reinforcement bars included therein. The reinforcement bars are used as non-stretched threads. Trenches and slab are reinforced with nettings. Cell centers of the slab are anchored.
EFFECT: increased rigidity of foundation slab due to provision of ribs in ground.
FIELD: construction, particularly to erect foundations on natural bases.
SUBSTANCE: shallow foundation comprises support mats and foundation building blocks. Support mats have through orifices along mat perimeters. Upper parts thereof have extensions shaped as truncated cones and adapted to immerse piles in ground as load increases during structure overbuilding.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing ability.
FIELD: construction, particularly to reconstruct buildings and building structures.
SUBSTANCE: foundation comprises supports, sheath freely formed in ground inside area defined by foundation so that convexity thereof faces upwards and connected to supports by means of flexible ties. Cement mix layer, metal arch trusses and reinforced concrete layer are serially arranged on ground inside area defined by foundation. Metal sheets are laid on arch trusses and connected with each other through welded joints to create flexible sheath. Pre-stressed flexible ties inserted in through support orifices and provided with fixing anchors are placed over the sheath. In the second embodiment foundation comprises support, sheath freely arranged in ground inside area defined by foundation so that convexity thereof faces upwards and connected to supports by means of flexible ties. Ground mix layer reinforced with cement mix, metal sheets and reinforced concrete layer are serially located on ground inside area defined by foundation. Metal sheets are bent along predetermined profile and connected with each other to create sheath. Relaxed flexible ties inserted in through support orifices and provided with fixing anchors are placed over the sheath.
EFFECT: increased operational reliability.
4 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: construction, surface mounted structures.
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to construction and can be used when erecting buildings with considerable loading on a compressed clay bed. The technique for erecting a solid core foundation slab with closed vertical walls, directed downwards, involves designing a foundation pit, trenches, reinforcing them with frames and filling with concrete, and joining the surface with a slab. The trenches are dug from the bottom of the foundation with different depths. The trenches are then joined, thereby forming several closed contours, whose depth increases from the central part of the slab to the edges. The technical outcome is increase in strength of the foundation slab due to effect of the square shaped closed edges in the ground.
EFFECT: increased strength of the foundation slab.
FIELD: constructional engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to constructions on heaving soils. House footing based on freezing through soils includes a rigid body with flanges and indents from soil side, footing indent inserts made of heat-insulating material, e.g. polystyrene foam at such ratio of flange and footing indent areas that soil pressure from the lower flange surface is not less than standard pressure of frost soil heaving, soil pressure from the lower insert surface is not exceeding design compression resistance of insert material. Also, the said footing contains supplementary heat insulation laid outside of the footing. The upper edge of supplementary heat insulation is passed from external edge of the footing in the form of interrupted inserts through rigid body of the footing and connected to supplementary heat insulation of opposite external edge of the footing. Relative area of interrupted inserts (β=Aint.ins./A0) is given by the relation β≤1-σmax/R, where Aint.ins. is sectional area of interrupted inserts, m2, A0 is gross sectional area of the footing within inserts arrangement regions, m2, σmax is maximum external load pressure in footing material, MPa, R is design resistance of footing material, MPa. Indents and flanges of the footing from soil side are alternating along footing length. Indents centres from soil sides are provided under interrupted inserts centres of supplementary heat insulation from each external edge of the footing.
EFFECT: possibility to lay foundation above the design depth of heaving soil frost penetration level.
4 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to construction of the basements of buildings. The basement structure of a building includes heat - and waterproofing layer (17, 18, 40) which is laid on a flat horizontal surface (51) layer of the material breaking capillary action. The basement structure includes a frame (31) which surrounds specified heat - and waterproofing layer (17, 18, 40), at least, in its top part, thus fixing integrity of basement structure in a horizontal plane and which serves for punctiform bracing of the building supported by basement structure. The specified basement structure is encapsulated with foil (111) from a metal material.
EFFECT: prevention of smell penetration in a building and water-proofing maintenance; possibility of fast and energy conserving erection of the basement.
8 cl, 8 dwg