Intensive steam condenser with contrast and gradient wetting
FIELD: heating system.
SUBSTANCE: intensive steam condenser with a contrast and gradient wetting is made in the form of a cooled cylinder, on the outer surface of which alternating transverse annular strips with hydrophobic coating with a gradient wetting angle and strips with hydrophilic coating are applied. Moreover, the wetting angle of the surface with the hydrophobic coating decreases from the line of the maximum value of the wetting angle to the line of the minimum value of the wetting angle.
EFFECT: invention allows to increase the intensity of condensation due to the application of special coatings with gradient wetting, and due to the reduction in the hydraulic resistance during the flow of a two-phase flow along the condensation surface.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat engineering, and namely to material, the emitting/absorbing capacity of which is close to that of an absolutely black body. Metamaterial represents periodically alternating strips of conducting material (metal) and dielectric; with that, width of dielectric strips is larger than length of emission maximum wave at the specified temperature; conducting material cross section has the shape of rectangles with a flat end face projecting onto the emitting surface, or triangles with a vertex directed towards the emitting surface and leaving it; in both cases the curvature radius between adjacent planes of the conducting material shall be less than length of emission maximum wave at the specified temperature; at the triangle cross section of the conducting material the height of triangles is larger than length of emission maximum wave at the specified temperature.
EFFECT: creation of material, the emitting/absorbing capacity of which is close to an absolutely black body.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: production plant is proposed for deposition of a material onto a bearing substrate and an electrode for use with such a production plant. The bearing substrate has the first end and the second end that are at the distance from each other. On each end of the bearing substrate there is a contact seat. The plant comprises a body, which forms a chamber. At least one electrode is made as stretching via the body to receive the contact seat. The electrode includes the inner surface, which forms the channel. The electrode heats the bearing substrate to the required temperature of deposition due to direct flow of electric current via the bearing substrate. In flow communication with the electrode channel there is a cooler to reduce electrode temperature. On the inner surface of the electrode there is a coating of the channel for prevention of losses during heat transfer between the cooler and the inner surface.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve efficiency and to increase service life of an electrode.
27 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: sectional heating radiator includes supply and discharge aluminium headers for heat carrier passage and aluminium tubular sections as heat sinks; the new feature is that external and internal surfaces of heat sinks, as well as internal surfaces of supply and discharge headers are provided with coating from aluminium oxide, which is applied by plasma chemical method; at that, coating thickness of external surfaces of heat sinks is 5…10 mcm, and that of internal surfaces of headers is 20…100 mcm.
EFFECT: increasing radiation coefficient, which allows reducing the surface area of radiators, reducing the number of sections or heat carrier flow rate, reducing corrosion and erosion wear and improving ornamentality without any additional coating.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to heat exchangers and can be used in such industries as metallurgy, machine industry and processing of agricultural products. There proposed is method for manufacturing heat-retaining element with coating from high-radiating material at least on one of the surfaces of the main part of the element, which consists in the surface treatment with liquid representing water solution containing high-temperature binding substance and polyamine hardener or silicate of alkali element, and application by plastering, sputtering or dipping to the above pre-treated surfaces of the coating made from material the thermal emissivity of which in far-infrared region is higher than that of material from which the main part of the element is made. At that, the above coating material is applied in a layer 0.02 to 3 mm thick. There also proposed is heat-retaining element with coating from high-radiating material, which is made as per the described method; at that, material from which the main part of element is made is chosen form the group including refractory material, ceramic material, iron or steel; cross section of element can be round, square, rectangular, rhomb-shaped, hexagonal or multangular, and the element itself can be made in the form of honeycomb, tube with rectangular cross section, ball, ellipsoid or plate, with one or several inner holes, and cross section of the above holes can be round, square, rectangular, rhomb-shaped, hexagonal or multangular.
EFFECT: heat-retaining element contributes to increase of heat exchange function and thus to energy saving.
7 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device for automatic analysis of heat carrier parameters, which contains a sampling device having the possibility of sampling, preparation and supply of analysed sample of liquid or gaseous heat carrier, a liquid analyser and an electronic control unit. The sample preparation device includes one heat exchanger consisting of a steam receiver and a refrigerator, and the liquid analyser includes one measuring cell, which can contain one or more sensors for measurement of heat carrier parameters. A heat carrier parameter control method is proposed as well.
EFFECT: reduction of dimensions and improvement of reliability.
7 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method for determining a range of sizes of suspended nanoparticles consists in passage of gas (mixture of gases) containing analysed particles, through diffusion batteries of a meshed type and their introduction to supersaturated vapours of a low-volatile enlarging substance. Then, lighting of a flux of particles with a light beam and recording of parameters of light signals shaped by enlarged particles at their flying through the pointed-out area of the flux is performed. In order to improve accuracy of determination of the range of sizes, the main flux is separated into six parallel fluxes. With that, five of them are passed through five diffusion batteries with a different slip, and one of them is passed directly. Then, these fluxes pass through six devices of condensation growth and then to a field of vision of a charge-coupled device matrix and the obtained six areas of images of enlarged fluxes of particles are transmitted to a computer for an analysis of their range of sizes. Unlike known ones, the method allows performing simultaneous processing by means of a computer of six images of enlarged particles, which characterise different dimensional ranges of nanoparticles.
EFFECT: reducing the time required for measurements and improving their accuracy.
SUBSTANCE: semiconductor structure for photo converting and light emitting devices consists of semiconductor substrate (1) with face surface misaligned from plane (100) through (0.5-10) degrees and at least one p-n junction (2) including at least one active semiconductor ply (3) arranged between two barrier plies (4) with inhibited zone width Eg0. Active semiconductor ply (3) consists of 1st and 2nd type spatial areas (5, 6) abutting of barrier plies (3) and alternating in the plane of active semiconductor ply (3). 1st type spatial areas (5) feature inhibited zone width Eg1 < Eg0, while 2nd type areas have inhibited zone width Eg2 < Eg1.
EFFECT: higher efficiency owing to increased photo flux and higher level of photo generation and charge carrier separation, higher probability of photon generation and lower probability of radiation-free recombination.
11 cl, 11 dwg, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: first step includes obtaining low-hydroxylated insoluble fullerenols by reacting concentrated fullerene solution in o-xylene with aqueous ammonia solution in the presence of a tetrabutylammonium hydroxide phase-transfer catalyst at 35-40°C. At the second step, the obtained low-hydroxylated insoluble fullerenols are hydroxylated to transform them into a water-soluble form by mixing with 6-15% aqueous hydrogen peroxide solution and heating for 4-5 hours at 65°C. Water-soluble fullerenols are then precipitated from an alcohol-containing solution.
EFFECT: simplifying the method while preserving quality characteristics and full extraction of the end product.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 4 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to pharmaceutical industry, namely to selenium nanocomposites of natural hepatotrophic galactose-containing polysaccharide matrixes, representing water-soluble orange-red powders containing zerovalent selenium (Se0) nanoparticles sized 1-100 nm in the quantitative content of 0.5 - 60 wt %, possessing antioxidant activity for treating and preventing redox-related pathologies, particularly for treating toxic liver damage, to a method for producing and to an antioxidant agent containing the above nanocomposites.
EFFECT: invention provides the targeted agent delivery to liver cells, as well as higher agent accessibility and lower toxic action of selenium.
7 cl, 11 ex, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method includes forming a near-field mask on the surface of a dielectric substrate and irradiating the obtained structure with a femtosecond laser pulse. The laser radiation is first passed through a nonlinear optical crystal with a coefficient of transformation into a second harmonic equal to 5-7%. The dielectric substrate coated with the near-field mask is irradiated with the obtained bichromatic femtosecond pulse with energy density in the range of 25-40 mJ/cm2, which is less than the laser radiation energy density normally used in similar nanopatterning.
EFFECT: high resolution and low laser radiation energy consumption.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for hydroconversion of heavy oil fractions - feed stock, the method including a zero step and subsequent N steps. The zero step includes feeding, into a reactor, material, a catalyst precursor - aqueous solution of a Mo (VI) salt or salts of Mo and Ni, and hydrogen at pressure of 4-9 MPa under normal conditions; reacting the material and hydrogen at 420-450°C in the presence of a precursor of a suspended nanosize molybdenum or molybdenum-nickel catalyst formed in the reactor; atmospheric or atmospheric-vacuum distillation of the hydrogenation product; removing the low-boiling fraction with a boiling point not higher than 500°C as a product and returning the high-boiling fraction or part thereof into the reactor. The next steps include feeding, into the reactor, material, a catalyst precursor, the returned part of the high-boiling fraction and hydrogen; reaction thereof; said atmospheric distillation of the hydrogenation product; removing the low-boiling fraction as a product; returning part of the high-boiling fraction into the reactor; burning at 1000-1300°C or gasification of the remaining part of the high-boiling fraction, after which trapped ash-slag residues are subjected to further oxidising burning at 800-900°C and the obtained ash product, which is carbon-free, is used to regenerate the catalyst precursor and produce an industrial concentrate of vanadium and nickel. The number of steps N is determined using formulae:
EFFECT: high output of low-boiling fractions, low molybdenum consumption, high degree of extraction of molybdenum, vanadium and nickel from the solution, enabling calculation of the required reactor volume, obtaining an industrial concentrate of vanadium and nickel, low hydrogen consumption.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in obtaining coatings, reducing coefficient of secondary electronic emission, growing diamond films and glasses, elements, absorbing solar radiation. Colloidal solution of nano-sized carbon is obtained by supply of organic liquid - ethanol, into chamber with electrodes, injection of inert gas into inter-electrode space, formation of high-temperature plasma channel in gas bubbles, containing vapours of organic liquid. High-temperature plasma channel has the following parameters: temperature of heavy particles 4000-5000K, temperature of electrons 1.0-1.5 eV, concentration of charged particles (2-3)·1017 cm3, diameter of plasma channel hundreds of microns. After that, fast cooling within several microseconds is performed.
EFFECT: simplicity, possibility to obtain nanoparticles of different types.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of nanotechnologies and can be used for obtaining composite materials with high electric and heat conductivity, additives to concretes and ceramics, sorbents, catalysts. Carbon-containing material is evaporated in volume thermal plasma and condensed on target surface 9 and internal surface of collector 7. Plasma generator 3, which includes coaxially located electrodes: rod cathode 4 and nozzle-shaped output anode 5, are used. Gaseous carbon-containing material 6 is supplied with plasma-forming gas through vortex chamber with channels 2 and selected from the group, consisting of methane, propane, and butane. Bottom of collector is made with hole 8 for gas flow to pass.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce energy consumption of the process, extend types of applied hydrocarbon raw material, simplify device construction and provide continuity of the process and its high productivity.
2 dwg, 3 ex