Hydraulic bore mining of minerals
SUBSTANCE: hydraulic bore mining of minerals includes drilling of technological wells, placement of hydraulic seals and pressure pipelines in them, erosion of the productive formation. The erosion of the productive formation is carried out in the direction from the side of the split trench to the outlet to the surface. Mining is formed, the stability of its arch is determined by the parameters of erosion along the width and height of the reservoir and the physical and mechanical properties of the rocks being developed. The pulp is delivered to the pulp-receiving ditch through the formed rock mine in the gravity-flowing regime.
EFFECT: increased productivity of the process of minerals mining.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for hydromechanical benefication involves drilling of production wells, water-jet destruction of a mineral deposit in extraction chambers of the deposit with its changer over to a movable state as a part of a hydraulic mixture, hydraulic lifting via the well to day surface from extraction chambers of the hydraulic mixture in the form of pulp, hydraulic transportation of pulp to a benefication place, and gravitational benefication of the mineral deposit in water medium. Destruction of the deposit is performed during formation of an extraction chamber with a vertical symmetry axis in the form of a rotation figure: cylinder, cone or ball, thus creating a circular flow of coal hydraulic mixture, which is swirled about the vertical symmetry axis, and depositing foreign heavy inclusions and sand at the bottom of the extraction chamber in the created hydraulic cyclone. Suction of coal hydraulic mixture is performed from the level above deposit level; turbulent hydraulic transportation of pulp from the extraction chamber to the place of its preparation for benefication is performed via pipelines. Hydromechanical treatment of pulp is performed so that a brown coal suspension is performed. Target products are obtained in the form of a concentrate of humic acids and a concentrate of bitumens by tangential supply of the flow of the brown coal suspension to a conical sedimentation basin, filling of the sedimentation basin with further settlement of the brown coal suspension and staged pumping-out of highly disperse fractions that are settled subsequently with their supply to different accumulation tanks for collection of target products and benefication tailings. The processing line implementing this method consists of three sections - borehole hydraulic mining, hydraulic transportation and benefication - subsequently dispersing brown coal till fineness.
EFFECT: implementation of staged production of target products.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: development method comprises opening-up of developed field reserves, ditch driving along the whole length of the production block, water flooding of the production block for disintegration of clay sand and their subsequent improvement by the production complex with installation of pressure of head hydraulic transportation and concentration plant. Before grooving of slits by cross-cut and longitudinal passes of slit-cutting unit, and also water flooding of the production block for disintegration of clay sand and their subsequent improvement, using experimental and analytical methods the bending compression and tension characteristics of high clayey sands in various locations of placer deposits are determined. The dynamics of change of elastic characteristics in these sections is determined, the correlation of response curve of resiliency of sand at water saturation of separate sections of the field with the relative wave resistance of sand in these sections is studied, and grooving of cracks at the distance from each other depending on the change of response curve of sand resiliency of at water saturation is performed.
EFFECT: achievement of high level of disintegration of clay sands difficult for wash-out, minimising of process losses of valuable component and decrease of mining expenses.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining and can be used at mining operations. Proposed method comprises drilling the row of test wells to fit downhole hydromining units therein and to washout minerals therefrom by fluid jets forced by said units for pulp to be delivered to surface. Drilled pipes are inclined in the plane perpendicular to spread of said row. Wells are drilled in a row to distance equal to double efficient length of washout jet while rows are spaced apart through distance equal to efficient length of washout jet. Washout is performed from wells towards hanging layer to form the face with hemispherical cross-section perpendicular to well axis.
EFFECT: reliable egress of minerals, washout at dried face.
3 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining and can be used for hydraulic process of coal production. Main and auxiliary openings are driven via tandem and/or single faces that delineate blocks, barrier and safety pillars. Water is forced into faces by pump stations after cleaning at drainage complexes, mechanised settlers and/or water headers. The latter are located in intercommunicated chambers located at lower points of hydraulic site blocks and exiting into accumulation openings via which hydraulic transport is performed and rock is discharged. Abandoned pillars are liquidated after working of extraction pillar at backstroke in tow-side or single-side cuts. Water is cleaned at mechanised settlers and/or water headers with application of combination of water cleaning technical means and processes. For this, used are, for example, water impermeable partitions with water bypass nearby bottom, thin-layer clarifiers, flotation, coagulation, water processing by constant pulsating current, etc.
EFFECT: working of coal at complex mining and geological conditions, lower costs.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining and can be used for hydraulic borehole mining of minerals. Proposed method comprises opening of the deposit via central and peripheral wells, placing the equipment therein and opening of adjacent chambers in layers, from bottom to top, starting from peripheral chambers. Prior to opening of the next layer through the entire bed thickness, undercut chamber is formed nearby soil of formed chamber and, parallel with said layer, of artificial ceiling of hardening material with inclination to centre. Shrinkage of fallen rock and filling of opened space with hardening material, opening and backfilling of central chamber at development of every chamber. After making of said artificial ceiling, several hydraulic cuts are made over the height of temporary wells. After formation of undercut space, rocks are hydraulically fractured from lower hydraulic cuts to force fluid into fracture unless rock failure into undercut space. Caved rock is partially flooded by hydraulic fracture fluid and giants to wash out the rock. As rock disintegrates, pulp is fed to the surface. As magazine level drops below design mark, hydraulic fracturing is repeated from hydraulic cut closest to stripped area, shrinkage, wash-out and discharge of pulp. Then, said jobs are repeated unless stripped area reaches aforesaid artificial ceiling. Now, shrunk rock is completely washed put, pulp is discharged and stripped area is filled.
EFFECT: selective extraction, decreased losses of minerals and costs, lower environmental effects.
8 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises exposure of producing formation by production well equipped with jetting equipment and jetting of minerals. Nearby soil of developed strata horizontal drain hole is drilled for preliminary drying of working zone and creating conditions for operation of jetting in air. Note here that minerals are broken by jetting, gravity and increasing rock pressure resulted from underground water level decrease. This allows mining the minerals at strength of 3-5 MPa. Light grade well is drilled in vertical plane with drain well inclined to mouth to allow outflow of hydraulic mix by gravity and accumulated in settler. Operation of wells of hydromining complex is performed in turns. First, drain well is activated. After water level drop below giant jet nozzle, giant jet is activated. Minerals are mined by intervals in direction from bottom to mouth of operation well and with withdrawal of casing tubes.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of hydromining.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a machine with a hydraulic drive of reciprocal and return-rotary displacement, a two-channel tubular frame, a jet working element, a system to supply and distribute discharge liquid. The working element is equipped with the main and auxiliary jet-forming shafts with attachments and separated channels of discharge liquid supply to them. The main shaft is installed at the angle of 90°, and auxiliary shafts - at the angles of accordingly 45° and 3-10° to the longitudinal axis of the working element. Supply of the discharge liquid to channels is adjusted to a two-position distributor installed on the shaft of the hydraulic drive of return-rotary displacement.
EFFECT: simplified design, increased reliability of design, increased safety and efficiency of labour.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: first preparatory field mines are driven - level haulage and ventilation drifts with identical geodetic elevations, block crossdrifts and accumulating drifts with an inclination for a self-flow transport, stripping wells are drilled at the right angle to the bed plane, then, line cuts are washed by the hydraulic method. Level haulage and ventilation drifts stretch at identical geodetic elevations to form a ventilation scheme with horizontal depression. The area of line cuts is increased to initiate the process of caving of a hanging massif in a stope. The stope bottom is formed by washing of line cuts with an inclination providing for accumulation of caved coal through self-flow. The caved coal is magazined to control shift of side rocks in the stope. Chambers that are adjacent to the mined space are separated by barrier sight pillars. Oversize material is crushed, and coal mass is periodically discharged in dosing manner into the accumulating drift to provide for stope bottom movement up the pitch.
EFFECT: elimination of air leaks through a mined space, reduced contamination of coal by caved rocks, higher reliability of breaking face functioning and labour safety.
SUBSTANCE: system capable of using naturally reheated fluids produced from hydrothermal channels with the purpose to develop and use practically unlimited quantity of thermal energy contained in specified fluids. The system comprises the main system made of three parts: a funnel, pipe sections and any combination of several mechanical fixtures. The extracted thermal energy is used to drive steam turbines or other equipment for generation of power, which is transported to earth surface, water desalination or for any other production, requiring thermal energy. Besides, the specified thermal energy may simultaneously or separately be introduced into the extracting plant for extraction of resources in order to extract precious metals, mineral and chemical substances without system modification.
EFFECT: provision of a reliable mechanism for extraction of thermal energy from an ocean bottom and such precious resources as minerals, metals and chemical substances.
37 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes exposure and development of reserves by open-cut method, exposure, preparation and working-out the reserves in cut edges by underground method, transportation of rock mass and maintaining protective pillars. When eliminating the front of open mining at safety distance there performed is an exposure of underground mining unit in cut edge that includes several beds. There passed are ventilation and pulp-haulage drift ways that are cut by pulp-haulage roadway, and from the surface there drilled are wells along coal beds till pulp-haulage roadway. Broken working is done from well upwards and downwards by hydraulic or drill-hydraulic methods, and pulp transportation is done by wells and pulp-transportation mines till draining complex.
EFFECT: invention allows increasing the coefficient of mineral resources extraction and reducing environmental losses.
6 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining operations.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the mining industry and can be used in stripping and mining operations at the fields, composed of dense and semi-hard rocks, with use of boom surface miners, spreaders and other mining machines. The method comprises continuous extraction and direct overburden waste disposal, continuous extraction, transportation, sorting of mineral resources. The front of mining operations is located along the short axis of the career field, the continuous working of overburden bench of high altitude is performed simultaneously on two sub-benches using boom surface miners. The overburden on the conveyors of the boom surface miners is fed through the receiving devices to the conveyors of the loading consoles of the spreader. The process of combining the conveyors of the boom surface miners with the receiving devices of the loading consoles and positioning of the spreader relative the boom surface miners is provided by the automatic control system. The mining operations are carried out with the use of excavating milling machine, the mineral resources are fed by the loader to the hopper of the mobile reloading unit with a conveyor and then to the mobile-sorting unit.
EFFECT: increase of the productivity of mining operations in the development of deep deposits of mineral resources composed of dense and semi-hard rocks.
SUBSTANCE: method of development of solid mineral fields using the excavating milling machine and scrapers comprises the use of the excavating milling machine for rock loosening with placement of milled rock mass into the dug-out trench from which it is taken by the scraper which follows the excavating milling machine continuously without stopping. The scraper scoops the rock mass to the ladle by means of the loading tray which fills the front part of the ladle with rock mass and then moves using a rake wall, and the released front part of the ladle is filled with rock mass again. Hydraulic cylinders of the tray control mechanism lift the loading tray with rock mass for final filling of the ladle front part. The ladle is unloaded through the formed slot between the ladle bottom and the loading tray lifted in guides by means of the back wall which moves to the front part of the ladle with the rake wall.
EFFECT: method improves the operational reliability and productivity when performing stripping and mining works on the fields formed by dense and hard rocks using excavating milling machines and scrapers.
2 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: this process comprises open coal extraction by cut chambers, production of barrier posts and backfilling of said chambers. Drilling hardware represents a milling driller located on day surface with drilling tool inclination of 45-90 degrees from vertical line. Note here that coal removal from blocks is performed with the help of hydraulic drawing device at liquid-to-solid ratio equal to 1:3. There, coal pulp is directed to coal dewatering to 7-8 % while effluents are forced to desliming and circulation.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and safety of edge seams development.
6 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises the cleaning of coal bed or beds by striking by open mining operations and installation on a bed of a drilling unit, for coal drilling-out at an angle from 60° to 90°, with reference to the bed strike axis, and to the depth 100 meters and deeper. To increase a productivity of coal extraction, and also to decrease of load on the cutting working body in case of emergencies, a bucket auger is formed by two parts, namely the cutting working body and a lift cylindrical ladle connected to each other by the coupling device. Inside the bucket auger an auger-drill element for loading of minerals into the lifting cylindrical ladle is installed.
EFFECT: improvement of efficiency of development of steeply pitching coal beds and environmental safety of mining operations.
7 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to open development of mineral fields, more exactly to open development of the long steep dipping fields with internal dumping. Method when borrow pit length is divided to turns, from them first turn is developed to design depth with external dumping, and second turn is developed using internal dumping, locating overburden to the developed space of the first turn with common formation of the dumping tiers with progress of mining towards end through full depth. At that the work zone through height is divided to two parts, bottom part opening and development are performed by longitudinal inclined layers with lifting 20-25% towards end using the wheel loaders and vehicles able to move over these steep grades, height of the bottom part is determined as per mathematical equation. The top part of the work zone is developed using the transverse development system and sliding access tracks, their width is accepted based on the condition of their use for dumping of the exploded rocks upon their widening and simultaneous assurance of two-way passage of vehicles ensuring the cargo movement between the bottom and top shelves, the longitudinal inclined layers of the bottom part of the work zone are developed by separate formed in series from top to bottom near-vertical-horizontal layers with maximum height, determined considering trajectory of the loader bucket movement, during development of each successive near-vertical-horizontal layer the rocks are preliminary loosened, the loader excavates it and loaded in vehicles located at horizontal sites at minimum distance to the mine working.
EFFECT: technical result is decreased additional sides spacing to arrange the opening mine working, and reduced distance of overburden transportation from the work zone of the borrow pit to the internal dumping.
FIELD: mining operations.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises the construction of three artificial elements: impervious screen, a protective berm, a protective coating. And the impervious screen is created by drilling of inclined wells of large diameter in the winter period from the upper site of the ledge nonworking edge side most affected to thawing, parallel to the slope surface at its full height followed by filling them with ice rock stones, chilled fresh water and freezing with natural cold, and the protective berm is erected over the mouth parts of the wells, starting from the upper edge of the ledge of the tapered section of calculated height, using layered freezing of overburden rocks, which in the summer period, including the surface of the ledge slope, to prevent thawing, covered with the protective coating, which is made in the form of removable flexible moisture-heat- and light-reflecting mat, removed with the onset of winter, the thickness of which is determined based on the mathematics.
EFFECT: prevention of thawing of frozen rocks of non-working ledge edges of pits.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises preliminary loosening of a block of rocks and half-rocks by simultaneous massive drilling holes in it with the maximum density across the whole area of the block prepared for extraction, using a multibar drilling unit, followed by the extraction of rock by machine ways destroying the rock solid blocks between the holes.
EFFECT: complete elimination of harmful effects on the environment and the operational staff at drilling and blasting loosening rocks.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method of open mining of mineral deposits with creation of a dump. The method includes separation of career space by zones, height and pit perimeter, cutting of ledges and horizons on which overburden and mining works with removal of rocks by truck or by rail into dumps and via ore chutes to reloading points are conducted, and dumps are built up using the cyclic action facilities. Meanwhile a convex form of a working edge is formed, gradually being fitted into the edge differentiated by steepness on a final contour which is built up in view of minimum disturbance of walls of slopes and a edge according to the technology with minimum consumption of explosives (E) with removal and dumping of rock into a main dump located near a zone of overburden works outside a contour of a steep edge of a pit of the 1st phase; initially temporary dumps are used with self-transportation of rocks outside a pit, and with their partial re excavation, provide the minimum shoulder of tramming of rocks and ore using the crushing reloading points and conveyors from inclined planes on the top horizons to the steep and vertical at completion of a pit. And with deepening of mining operations the overburden zone is divided into two sites and rock is moved by combined transport from two sides into a dump under construction parallel to a edge slope in view of deformation of its separate sites, and rock dumping on a dump after crushing is carried out by line transport facilities using the mobile console, the minimum shoulder of tramming of rock and ore and costs of development of mountain weight on the first and the subsequent stages (turns) are ensured, and the first two layers of a dump are dumped according to cyclic and line TsPT technologies using motor transport or loaders (at re-excavation of rocks) that provides stability and robustness of the dump front according the developed technology of dumping, at the final stage the third layer is dumped, and the fourth layer of dump if necessary, according to its calculated volume and height and limit depth of a pit.
EFFECT: improvement of efficiency of field development during construction of a dump with large volume and height at decrease of costs of stripping and improvement of safety of dumping.
SUBSTANCE: after performance of drilling and blasting operations in an overburden bench during layer-by-layer excavation of the blasted rock to an extended bench and a final blade circuit on the formation roof of the mineral deposit within excavation heading throughout the length of the slab there left is a layer of the rock with negative temperature. This allows developing a zone of stable freezing, warming it up and strengthening it by action of solar insolation during development of the upper part of the breakdown. The rest rock layer is excavated to a final blade circuit after disposal of the upper part of breakdown throughout the length of the excavation slab.
EFFECT: reduction of influence of repeated freezing on productivity of a drag line and provision of its stable operation during excavation of blasted rocks of an overburden slab.
3 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves positioning of an automated complex for deep development relative to the working face considering the direction of ore bodies settings. Control of mine rock parameters is performed by means of control sensors of physical and mechanical characteristics of mine rocks for adjustment of a mine rock cutting force considering rotation speed of a working element and movement speed of the working element in a vertical plane throughout the cutting depth and cutting direction by means of hydromechanisms of telescopic retraction and a turning mechanism of the head section. Width of capture of the ore body plane in a horizontal direction is provided by means of the positioning mechanism of the complex relative to guides; with that, information on circuits of destructed mine rock is sent from control sensors of mine rock circuits to a system control unit.
EFFECT: increasing productivity, improving reliability and enlarging technological efficiency of destruction of rocks of different strength and coherence degree by controlling a cutting force in a zone of processing and formation in a surface layer of the processed massif of destruction zones considering strength characteristics of rock.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes drilling of the single down wells with placement there of explosive charges, consecutive detonation of single down wells and formation of a compensation crack along the contact ore - rock with formation of a concave exposure surface in solid ore, rows of concave wells in the ore cavity are arranged in congruent manner to a concave exposure of the compensation crack at the distance equal to the least resistance line, the last row is arranged along the line of the contact ore - rock, rings of wells are drilled with insufficient drilling 1 m to the contact ore - filling, finally the rows of rings of wells are drilled at the boundary with the compensation crack, in the wells the explosive charges are placed with insufficient charge, rows of rings of wells are blasted with delayed action to the surface of exposure of the compensation crack, and finally a row of rings of wells at the contact ore - rock is blasted.
EFFECT: invention allows to improve safety and efficiency of conducting explosive works.
3 dwg, 1 ex