System for localization of maritime area oil pollution
SUBSTANCE: system for the localization of the maritime area oil pollution consists of mobile modules installed in stages, each of which includes an emergency response vessel, a working motorboat, booms arranged in a special way, an oil-gathering unit and temporary containers for collecting oil-water mixture. The mobile modules are installed in such a way that each boom is placed J-shaped. The distance in length between the working motorboats of adjacent modules - pitch ΔS - is 150-200 m, the dstance in width between them - displacement ΔL - is 100-120 m. The distance between the emergency response vessel of a previous module and the working motorboat of a subsequent module - overlapping ΔH - is 30-40 m. The booms arranged J-shaped are installed with the pitch ΔS therebetween, where their lowest points are displaced at the ΔL value.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of water area purification from oil and oil products due to the implementation of multistage removal.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: injection assembly consists of the water intake unit, pipeline with water supply valve into the bowl, laid on the seabed at a remote distance from the shore, and pure water supply system located on the bottom or along the perimeter of the bowl bottom. Discharge assembly consists of collection system of the upper water layers and pipeline with drain valve of the upper water layers. Supply of the clean water into the bowl and discharge of the upper contaminated layers of water from the bowl are performed. Natural injection of the clean water into the bottom part of the bowl is performed by means of the water intake unit from the bottom sea layers. Natural drainage is performed at low tide of the sea when opening the drain valve of the upper layers of water through the water discharge assembly. Discharge assembly is located below the water level in the bowl.
EFFECT: simplification of water supply system due to the use of sea ebbs and flows.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a block of one and more pipelines bent at the angle and connected to each other by sides. The block is fixed on the path of coastal flows. The pipeline is made in the form of a sector of round tubular cross section of spiral form with a multi-faceted helical surface along its internal and external perimeter with an inlet hole. The pipeline is made of sections, each mounted of two subsections. Subsections are made of strips bent towards one side along straight bending lines placed at the angle to edges of strips, and coiled into a ring with alternate formation of isosceles, equilateral and scalene triangles of various sizes along the strip length. Sides of triangles differ from each other by a linear value multiple to integer number Δ. At two sides of the largest equilateral triangle there are two identical scalene triangles arranged with their large sides, sides of which are less than the side of the largest equilateral triangle by the value Δ. To the middle side of one of scalene triangles there is a smaller equilateral triangle is fixed, sides of which are less than the side of the largest equilateral triangle by the value of 2Δ. To the second side of the smaller equilateral triangle there is an isosceles triangle fixed by its base, sides of which are less than its base by the value of Δ and the side of the largest isosceles triangle by the value of 3Δ. To the side of the isosceles triangle there is an isosceles triangle fixed, the base of which is less than its side by the value Δ and the side of the largest equilateral triangle by the value of 4Δ. At the opposite side to the middle side of the second scalene triangle there is an isosceles triangle fixed by its side, the base of which is less than its side by the value Δ and the side of the largest equilateral triangle by the value of 3Δ. To the base of the isosceles triangle there is an isosceles triangle fixed with its side, the base of which is less than its side by the value of Δ and the side of the largest equilateral triangle by the value 4Δ. At one side of the subsection there is a hole in the form of a square, the side of which is less than the side of the largest equilateral triangle by the value 3Δ, and at the other one there is a hole in the form of an isosceles trapezoid. The large base of the trapezoid is equal to the side of the largest equilateral triangle, and the smaller base is less than the larger base by the value of 3Δ. Sides of the trapezoid are less than the larger base by the value of 2Δ. Subsections are connected to each other by holes in the form of trapezoids to form sections with inlet and outlet holes in the form of squares. Sides of holes are equal to each other and arranged at the angle, the value of which determines the spiral shape of the pipeline. Sections of the pipeline are connected into a pipeline, by alternate rotation by 90° of each subsequent section relative to the previous one.
EFFECT: treatment of areas of water of bays and gulfs by direction of flows in their stagnant waters and increasing water circulation.
SUBSTANCE: accessory comprises a block of one and more pipelines bent at the angle and connected to each other by sides. The block is fixed on the path of coastal flows. The pipeline is made with formation of multi-pass helical surfaces of triangular shape at its external and internal perimeter and unidirectional multi-pass helical lines. The pipeline is made of sections. Each section is made in the form of a circular sector mounted from a strip bent alternately to different sides along the straight lines in the form of bending lines. Bending lines are placed on the strip at equal distances from each other and are placed at the angle to edges of the strip to form quadrangles of different size with two parallel sides arranged on the strip alternately and parallel to each other. The strip is coiled into a ring with multi-faceted surface. Sections are connected to each other by free sides of specified quadrangles in the form of a hollow pipeline of triangular shape with throughput section. The throughput section is bent at the angle from 30° to 180° and more to form along its perimeter an external and an internal surfaces of multi-pass helical surfaces of triangular shape and unidirectional helical lines.
EFFECT: treatment of areas of water of bays and gulfs by direction of flows in their stagnant waters and increasing water circulation.
SUBSTANCE: device includes a block of one and more pipelines bent at an angle and connected to each other with lateral sides and mounted in one block. The block is fixed on the way of flow of coastal currents to change direction of some part of water flows, to increase their speed and introduce these flows to a water area of bays and gulfs. Each pipeline is made in the form of a sector of a circular tubular cross-section, along the outer and the inner surfaces of which broken screw lines and screw surfaces are formed. A pipeline consists of sections, each of which is mounted of a strip bent to one side along straight lines arranged at an angle to the strip edges, with variable formation throughout the length of the strip of equilateral and isosceles triangles that are different as to sizes. Two similar equilateral triangles are located with their bases on two sides of the biggest equilateral triangle. On lateral sides of isosceles triangles there located are two similar equilateral triangles with two similar isosceles triangles located to them with their bases, on one of which an equilateral triangle is located. Sides of smaller equilateral triangles differ from sides of bigger equilateral triangles by one and the same linear value. Sections are connected to each other with free sides of the above triangles.
EFFECT: cleaning of stagnant and dirty waters of water areas of bays and gulfs owing to creating constant circulation of clean sea water inside them.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a unit of one or more bent pipelines with a wave shape of the passage section, interconnected by lateral sides. The unit is fixed in the flow path of coastal currents. Each pipeline with the wave shape of the passage section is curved at an angle from 30° to 180° and more with a pitch of screw lines along the outer perimeter, changing by a diameter of the pipeline, and with a wave screw surface along the inner perimeter in the form of waveform pockets. The pipeline is mounted of sections with a multi-start wave screw surface of a double curvature. The surface of sections is provided with screw grooves inside and outside the pipeline at an angle to its axis as the waveform pockets with centres of the curvature, located outside and inside the cross section of the pipeline. The pipeline is mounted of sections, each of which is designed as a circular sector. The circular sector is made of a strip wound in a ring with the formation of quadrangles different in sizes with two parallel sides. In this case, the sections are interconnected by free sides of the quadrangles in the form of a hollow pipeline with the formation of the waveform screw surfaces along the outer and inner surfaces as the waveform pockets along the outer and inner surfaces, which can be different by the shape and sizes along the perimeter of the pipeline, directed to one side at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the pipeline with the wave shape of the passage section. The distance between the fold lines is equal to the sum of the perimeter lengths of geometric figures of the pockets of the inner and outer surfaces.
EFFECT: purification of aquatic areas of bays and gulfs by means of a flow in their stagnant water and an increase of water circulation.
FIELD: physics, acoustics.
SUBSTANCE: invention is used to protect underwater structures and equipment from biofouling. The method includes, at the output of a bypass channel, generating and emitting energy, information, high-gradient and bioresonance signals which act on fish and change their behavioural characteristics; simultaneously emitting noise signals and creating a dense air-bubble screen which rises on the surface of biofouling and impurities. The air-bubble screen and the noise acoustic waves are additional barriers for aggregation of fish near the output of the bypass channel with superheated water. A floating boom is turned on the water surface to form a continuous barrier for biofouling and impurities rising to the surface, which are then collected in form of dirty foam. A mobile system equipped with acoustic radiators is used to forcefully move the aggregation of fish - natural predators for biofouling, from a remote part of a water body to a region adjacent to a supply channel by continuously emitting energy, information, high-gradient and bioresonance signals. Simultaneously, a second acoustic module and a second acoustic-bubble module are used to form an acoustic barrier for fish - natural predators of biofouling, as well as an acoustic-bubble shield in the narrowest part of the water body. Recycled water being cooled in the water body is further purified from biofouling and impurities and fish are not released from this part of the water body. Simultaneously, a third acoustic module and a third acoustic-bubble module are used to form an acoustic barrier for juvenile fish- natural predators of biofouling, as well as an acoustic-bubble shield at the input of the supply channel of the facility of the power system. As a result, recycled water cooled in the water body is further purified from biofouling and impurities. Simultaneously, intense ultrasonic waves and low-frequency electromagnetic waves act on the biofouling at the input of a water-intake window, with simultaneous removal of biofouling from the mechanical protective screen, and at the output of the inlet pipe of the underwater structure. Simultaneously, an acoustic filter mounted at the input of the equipment of the facility of the power system performs fine purification of water from biofouling, as well as biological and mechanical impurities.
EFFECT: high quality of purification and reliability of protecting underwater structures and equipment from biofouling.
SUBSTANCE: device includes an elastic cloth installed across the flow. The elastic cloth is made as meshed according to shape and size of the flow and is fixed to the frame. The frame is installed on a rotary crosspiece, which has a drive. At the same time the frame comprises a rotary axis parallel to the direction of the flow with the possibility of frame rotation with the elastic cloth perpendicularly to the direction of the flow and fixation of the frame in the necessary position. At the side part of the crosspiece there is a loading cart for removal of dirt.
EFFECT: increased quality of irrigating water treatment, simplified design and reduced energy intensity of treatment.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises the construction of the dam in which body the pipe culverts are placed inclined to the horizon in the direction of the water course, which inlet pipes are mounted at an angle to the river bed, and the dredging in front of the dam in the form of water-settling pit. In the water track downstream from a potential source of negative impact a permanent waterlock is created. At the bend of the pipe culvert above the dam level a plunger-valve is mounted, which cross section is 10-15% of the pipe cross-section. The inlet of the pipe is protected by the filter and the outlet - by a grid. At the outlet end an antierosion tray is placed, equipped with a small spring-board. The dimensions of the pit is calculated considering the time of layering of water-oil emulsion according to the formula: where L is length of the pit, m; Q3 is water flow in a water-settling pit, m3/sec, Q3=Q1; Q1 is water flow in the water course, m3/sec; F3 is the cross section of the water-settling pit, m2; t is time of layering of water-oil emulsion, sec; a3 is the width of the pit bottom, m; c3 is the pit width by the water edge, m; H is the dam height, m; h1≥0.5 is dam height above the maximum water level in the pit, m; hp=H-h1 is the pit depth, m. The protective waterwork, resulting in the process of implementation of the method comprises the dam with the pipe culverts placed in its body and the plunger-valves mounted on them from the side of the water inflow and a water-settling pit in front of the dam for collecting water with waterproof walls. At the outlet end of the pipe an antierosion tray is placed equipped with a small spring-board. The upper end of the plunger-valve is made bent down and is located on a bend of the pipe above the level of the dam. The inlet opening of the pipe is equipped with an inlet pipe which lower diameter is 150-200 % of the pipe cross-section. On the inlet opening of the pipe the filter is installed, made in the form of a removable convex grid coarse-meshed dome, and the outlet opening of the pipe is protected by the grid. The grid mesh size of the outlet opening is made greater than the mesh size of the grid filter of the inlet opening.
EFFECT: increased reliability and efficiency of protection of hydrological net from extreme oil pollution in emergency situations in the pipeline transport.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes laying of non-woven geosynthetic material fabric on the surface of the plot. At that in the pre-starting period, the bog vegetation is preliminary removed in the emptied water reservoir. Then, the area with a minimum design level of water of less than 0.5 m and the shallow waters are divided into plots, and then on the prepared surface of the plots the non-woven geosynthetic material fabric is laid. At that the cut edges of the fabric are buried by 45-50 cm on the border of the plots, then the nonwoven material fabric is fixed by the anchors followed by surcharging with the soil layer of 5-8 cm.
EFFECT: method enables to eliminate the bog vegetation in the bed of the water reservoir before putting it into operation and to stop its growth during the period of its exploitation.
5 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a block of one and more bent helical pipelines joined to each other by sides and mounted in one block. The block is fixed on the way of a flow of coastal streams to change direction of some water flows, their increased speed and introduction of these flows into a water area of bays. Each helical pipeline is made as bent at the angle from 45° to 170° with a multiturn helical surface equipped with helical grooves inside and outside of the helical pipeline at the angle to its axis in the form of pockets of polygonal shape in the form of various geometric figures with four and more sides. The distance between straight lines of the bend is equal to the length of each polygon element. Pockets on internal and external surfaces may differ both in shape and dimensions along the perimetre of the helical pipeline. The pipeline is made of sections, every of which is made in the form of a circular sector, made of a strip wound into a ring with a polyhedral surface and formation of four quadrangles of different size with two parallel sides arranged in parallel to each other. At the same time the sections are connected to each other by free sides of the specified quadrangles in the form of a hollow helical pipeline.
EFFECT: efficient treatment of stagnant and contaminated water in water areas of bays due to development of permanent circulation of pure sea water inside them.
SUBSTANCE: oil skimmer vessel is proposed, comprising a hull with propulsive machinery and having a tank inside the hull, a system of garbage collection, oil separation and pumping, as well as an inlet threshold arranged upstream the tank. Besides, the vessel comprises the second tank with the second threshold, arranged in series downstream the first tank, as well as two water channels, by means of which the lower part of appropriate tanks is connected to a propulsor located on the vessel deck, besides, the first threshold is lower than the second one.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of oil and garbage collection.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: device includes a rope and an enclosure in the form of floating sections of a guard boom, which are connected to each other Ends of extreme sections and the rope are fixed on opposite river banks. The rope is fixed above river surface and sliding rings are freely put on it. Ends of the enclosure and connection points of the sections are connected to the corresponding rings by means of carriers of the corresponding length. An installation method of the device consists in installation of the enclosure at an angle to river flow direction. First, the rope with rings put on it is drawn above the river surface. The enclosure is towed along the rope to the opposite bank and sections are connected in series to the corresponding rings by means of the carriers.
EFFECT: reliability, durability and efficiency of installation of an enclosure to prevent oil spreading.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: this invention relates to protective device intended for prevention of fluid leaks into ambient water. Proposed device comprises dome-like fluid impermeable membrane. Besides, it incorporates individual-control floating devices attached to membrane for its positioning and stabilisation. To extract fluid, membrane is provide with discharge hose. The latter comprises also said individual-control floating means for positioning and stabilisation of discharge hose. Note here that said individual-control floating means are underwater apparatuses.
EFFECT: higher accuracy and ease of positioning.
7 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device is mounted on a floating craft provided with a winch, a boom and a system of ropes. Longitudinal tie-rods are fixed by means of hinges on one side on the frame of the device, and a rectangle-shaped framework is installed on their other side. The framework with a large-cell mesh with a concave surface is installed with a possibility of changing the position relative to the water body surface. In the upper part of the framework there fixed is a mesh with cells of smaller dimensions, and in the lower part there fixed is a knife throughout the framework width. The boom with a roller on the end is fixed in the middle part of the frame with a possibility of changing an inclination angle. A rope attaching the mesh framework to the two-drum winch is hitched over the roller. The drums are connected to each other with a safety clutch. The direction of synchronous rotation of the drums is provided with a reverser. On one drum the rope is located in an upward direction, and on the other - vice versa.
EFFECT: improving the cleaning efficiency of water bodies from blue-green algae.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: surface of a film of oil or oil products is treated with a reagent which contains a natural polymer and the reaction product is collected. The reagent used is polysaccharide microgel with mass of 20000-200000 Da and particle size of 50-600 nm in an aqueous solution with concentration of not less than 0.2 g/l. According to the first version of the method, before and after spraying the reagent, the periphery of the film of oil or oil products is treated with a biodegradable surfactant in the form of an aqueous solution with concentration of not less than 0.1 g/l. According to the second version of the method, the reagent is first mixed with a biodegradable surfactant in the form of an aqueous solution with concentration of not less than 0.1 g/l. Mixing is carried out until the ratio of the polysaccharide microgel to the biodegradable surfactant is 12:1-2:1.
EFFECT: high efficiency of the process of collecting oil or oil products from a water surface, low specific consumption of reagents and low residual content of said reagents in water.
2 cl, 6 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: self-propelled oil-skimmer represents a marine installation - a catamaran with restricted area of sailing. It comprises bodies with hydrojet engines, a vacuum reservoir for collection of a thin layer of film oil product with water, and also an accessory for collection of wastes. Each body of the catamaran is equipped with a structurally coupled settling tank, polypropylene filters, a receiver with vacuum pumps, and tanks for reception of oil products and water. A reservoir for collection of a thin layer of film oil product with water is made in the form of a floating structure placed between the bodies, the collecting chute of which is connected to a collecting pipe arranged along the floating structure. The latter via at least one device of automatic regulation of liquid flow rate, equipped with a throttling gate valve, is connected to settling tanks. Each of settling tanks is equipped with at least one thin synthetic net, which may cover horizontal motion of the liquid along the entire section of the settling tank.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of water treatment with simultaneous increase of operational reliability.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: contaminated surface is treated with a sorbent. The sorbent saturated with oil is collected and transported to be utilised. Finished products from ash and foam concrete of autoclave hardening are used as a sorbent.
EFFECT: reducing sorbent consumption, increasing its retaining ability and a possibility of its being used at negative ambient temperatures.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention suggests an oil and oil sludge sweeper, which is comprised of a metal body shaped as a deck, hollow boards and a container formed between them, a bottom with openings inside it, a bevelled bow, a tray with protecting lateral walls and a marine engine. A waste heat boiler (WHB) for the collected oil sludge is installed on the sweeper; WHB consists of a body being a combustion and oil sludge mixing chamber, which is mounted at the base frame installed on the deck and an afterburner chamber with a water-heating coil mounted in it; in the rear part of the afterburner chamber there is an air duct feeding air to the afterburner chamber in order to ensure the preliminary heating of air before its delivery to the afterburner and ejector chamber; besides in the afterburner chamber there is a preheating coil with water used as a heat carrier for oil sludge heating.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of oil and oil sludge collection from the water surface with simultaneous disposal of oil and oil sludge.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is referred to environment protection and may be used for localisation and collection of film of oil and oil products at water surface. Stationary floating booms and oil-collecting devices are installed downstream the river flow with connection of tanks for collection and temporary storage of oil products. Oil film is bypassed by a loop of floating booms by means of at least two vessels thus creating a pocket for its catchment. Oil layer at water surface is thickened when horizontal plane in the oil film shape is changed and the total length of floating boom outline is maintained permanent. Oil film is tugged by vessels downstream the river flow up to the place close to the stationary floating booms.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of water surface treatment at rivers with high flow speed and localisation of large volumes of oil products without use of additional special-purpose devices.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the environment protection and is designed to collect and remove spilled oil and petroleum products from the surface of open water reservoirs, as well as in waste treatment facilities. The device comprises a housing mounted on an oil recovery vessel of the "catamaran" type, a container with a magnetic adsorbent and an oil collection drum with a magnetic system. The housing is opened for input and output of treated water. The bottom of the housing is made in the form of a tape moving in the direction to the oil collection drum. The container with the magnetic adsorbent is mounted in the front part of the open housing above the water surface and is provided with a drum feeder with an adjustable flow rate of the adsorbent into the petroleum product layer. The oil collection drum is made with the rotation direction counter the direction of the tape and mounted with the ability of linear contact with its lower part of its surface. The device for removal of adhered petroleum products from the surface of the oil collection drum is designed as a scraper transforming into a chute with a rotating screw mounted inside the chute.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of accumulation of oil and petroleum products from the surface of water environments is provided.
FIELD: environment protection, particularly for cleaning polluted water or land areas.
SUBSTANCE: method involves introducing hydrophobic powder or fine granular sorbent and air in central area of water jet; spraying thereof under increased pressure by air-and-water mixture spray. Sorbent is introduced together with air in amount of 20-25% to 80-75% of water. To increase jet head axial rotary motion is imparted to the jet at hydraulic elevator outlet.
EFFECT: increased uniformity of sorbent application, possibility of uniform mixing thereof in water and, as a result, reduced sorbent consumption, increased accuracy of sorbent spraying from remote distance, increased spraying distance, increased sorption rate, possibility to implement above method in strong windy conditions, increased safety for maintenance staff.
2 cl, 2 ex