Method for dispersants efficiency determination for elimination of oil spills in ice seas
SUBSTANCE: method for to determination of dispersants efficiency includes recording of the physical parameters when the phase of the liquid sample being examined and placed in containers is changed. During method implementation, at least four containers are filled with liquid at the same time, then oil products and a portion of dispersant applied dropwise are successively applied to the liquid surface in each container. Then the containers are shaken for a time equal to the natural dispersion time for petroleum products in the test liquid, and the contents of the containers is shock-frozen until it freezes completely. The frozen contents of the containers are then separated by two horizontal cuts into the upper, middle and bottom blocks. The middle and bottom blocks are removed from the container shell, and the resulting ice samples are melted and filtered separately. After that, the mass of the filtered residue of oil products obtained from each sample is measured. The dispersant efficiency of the is determined by the ratio of the weight of the filtered oil product to the total mass of oil products in the mixture placed in the test vessel, taking into account the natural dispersion determined at the zero stage of testing, where at the zero stage of testing, the natural dispersion of oil products in the thickness of the liquid sample to be examined is determined at least to the middle zone of test capacity and natural dispersion time.
EFFECT: increased accuracy and speed of dispersants efficiency determination.
2 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of mechanical engineering and can be used in rocket, aviation and other technical applications where the systems with tanks with working liquid are used and which are imposed by high requirements in view of the content of mechanical contaminants. Determination of the content of contaminants in the fuel supplied to the rocket unit tank is performed pre-gaging. The gaging includes temporary connection of the filling pipeline outlet a the drain line containing a control filter, the unit upstream the pipeline for adding into the liquid flow of artificial pollutants, passing through the pipeline of the liquid added by the artificial pollutants, with measurement of the volumes of liquid passed through the pipeline and the sampling line, and the pollutants settled on control filters of the drain line and the sampling line, and determination of correction coefficient. The formula for assessment of the correction coefficient is offered. For determination of the pollutant content in the liquid passed into the tank the formula containing the correction coefficient is offered. As far as the determination is performed in view of pre-gaging performed with adding of liquid flowing in the filling pipeline, of pre-set amount of artificial pollutants and in view of possible errors of manufacture and installation of sampling devices, the results of determination using the offered method will characterise the content of pollutants in the fuel supplied to the rocket unit tank with higher accuracy.
EFFECT: improvement of accuracy of determination of the content of pollutants in the fuel supplied to the rocket unit tank and decrease of financial and labour costs.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises the allocation of a plot of a floodplain meadow with the test grass cover. Then, on this plot downstream the small river or its tributary at least three alignments of measurement in the transverse direction are marked. Along each alignment at least three test plots are marked on each side of the small river or its tributary. After marking, the distance is measured from the taken centre of coordinates on one side of the small river or its tributary to the centres of the test plots. In addition, the height of location of the centre of each test plot is measured from the surface of the small river or its tributary. After cutting the grass samples are subjected to tests and based on the results of the tests the patterns of influence of the distance along each alignment and the heights of location of the test plots above the water edge on the biophysical and biochemical characteristics of the grass samples are revealed. After testing the samples of the cut grass of the floodplain meadow for biophysical parameters by weight and drying time, depending on the parameters of the relief in the alignments of measurements the part of the dried samples is taken for digestion and subsequent biochemical analysis by at least three biochemical substances: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
EFFECT: method enables to improve the ability to compare the samples of grass on different accounting plots by the content of nutrient biochemical substances in the form of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
6 cl, 7 dwg, 16 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: one version of the method implementation implies that a sample is put in an analyser and its initial weight is measured. Then the sample is enriched by letting it to absorb moisture. The analyser temperature is increased and the initial post-enrichment point when the sample is again of its initial weight is defined. Afterwards the analyser determines the final moisture content of the sample at the moment of test completion. In one version of the method implementation the results of measurements by auxiliary analysers are shifted in respect to the standard analyser in order to get more constant results.
EFFECT: reduction of discrepancy in the analysers' readings, provision for strict and coordinated supervision for the control of moisture content determination process.
25 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building, in particular, to devices of safety systems. The method of multi-criteria assessment of comfort of a working area in production premises consists in determination of concentration of air-dispersed admixtures and parameters of microclimate of air volume, first they determine working area air dustiness as the first criterion of its comfort. For this purpose they prepare and tune equipment for determination of pure filter mass, then the pure filter is weighed on a scale. After this they tune a plant for forced deposition of a dust aerosol in the working area of the production room. Then air is sampled with capture of dust particles on the filter, the filter is weighed with caught particles of dust, the concentration of the dust aerosol is calculated in mg per cubic metre. Afterwards they assess dustiness of working area air, comparing the obtained concentration with the permissible value. Further they measure air temperature using a thermograph or psychrometer, air moisture using a stationary or an aspiration psychrometer, and they determine speed of air movement using a cup or a windmill anemometer. On the basis of the produced parameters - air temperature in the working area, its moisture and speed of movement, they calculate extent of comfort, afterwards they assess comfort of microclimate parameters according to the following scale: 1 - very hot; 2 - too hot; 3 - warm, but nice; 4 - feeling of comfort; 5 - cool, but nice; 6 - cold; 7 - very cold. Thenthey select an indicator powder from the entire set of sorbents, available gas analysers with account of statistic data of this or that production type, then appropriate indicator tubes are prepared for each detected air admixture, filling them with the appropriate indicator powder, and a sample is taken with the help of a gas analyser. At the same time a certain volume of air passes via an indicator tube for a certain period of time, afterwards they analyse the taken sample, for this purpose they apply an indicator tube to a standard scale available within a set of this or that type of a gas analyser, and by the length of the indicator powder that changed its colour they determine concentration of the harmful substance in the inspected air. Then actual concentration of hazardous substance produced as a result of the experiment, is compared with the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) by norms, and the comparable assessment table is filled in, then, using the tables, they detect substances with effect of summation, and perform calculations according to the following formula:
EFFECT: higher efficiency, effectiveness and reliability of system actuation.
7 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in defining concentration of aero dispersed impurities and air microclimate parameters. First, dust level of working zone is defined as the first criterion of comfort. For this, hardware is prepared and tuned for determination of clean filter bulk. Then clean filter is weighed to adjust the unit for forced deposition of dust aerosol in shop-floor working zone. Then, air is sampled with dust particles trapping on filter to weight filter with trapped particles so that dust aerosol concentration is calculated in mg per square meter. Note here that air volume (m3) that passed through filter should be pre-reduced to normal conditions, that is, to volume is would occupy at 0°C and 101325 Pa. Than, dust level is defined to compare obtained concentration with tolerable magnitude so that parameters of air micro climate may be estimated as second criterion of comfort. Note that, first, air temperature is measured by thermograph or dry-and-wet-bulb thermometer. Then, air humidity is defined by whatever instruments and air velocity is measured to calculate comfort level in working zone therefrom. Now, degree of comfort is estimated on the following scale: 1 - very hot, 2 - very warm, 3 - warm, but pleasant, 4 - sense of comfort, 5 - pleasant chilly, 6 - cold, 7 - very cold.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and reliability, fast operation.
SUBSTANCE: method of determining content of water in petroleum products involves drawing a sample of the analysed petroleum product through a layer of water-coagulating material. The sample of the analysed petroleum product is then drawn through a layer of bulky water-absorbing material. Concentration of water in the petroleum product is then determined from the weight of water held in the water-absorbing material, for which a sample of the petroleum product which does not contain water is first passed through a layer of water-coagulating material and a layer of bulky water-absorbing material. The bulky water-absorbing material is then weighed and that weight is taken as the standard, and to determine content of water in the similar analysed petroleum product, the same bulky water-absorbing material with identical geometric dimensions is used and the sample has the same volume as the standard. After passing the sample of the analysed petroleum product through a layer of bulky water-absorbing material, the latter is weighed and the obtained weight is compared with the standard weight.
EFFECT: simple and accurate determination of the weight of water in an analysed petroleum product.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of determining content of contaminants in a liquid flowing in a pipeline involves continuous collection of a portion of the liquid into a collection line, with the condition that the speed of the liquid in the inlet element of the collection device and the speed of the liquid in the pipeline where the collection device is fitted are equal. The collected liquid is then passed through the control filter of the collection line. The filtered liquid is then returned into the pipeline and measured values of the mass of contaminants deposited on the control filter of the collection line and volume of liquid passing through the pipeline and the collection line are used. Content of contaminants in the liquid flowing in the pipeline is determined after preliminary calibration using the formula: where m1 is the mass of contaminants in the liquid passing through the pipeline; m2 is the mass of contaminants deposited on the control filter of the collection line; V0 is the volume of liquid passing through the pipeline - volume of liquid passing through the collection line and the control filter; kt is a compensation factor. Preliminary calibration involves temporary connection of the outlet of the pipeline to a drain line having a control filter. The liquid with the measured volume and contaminants deposited on the control filter of the drain line and collection line are then passed through the pipeline. The compensation factor kt is determined using the formula: where m1t is the mass of contaminants in the liquid passing through the pipeline during calibration, and contaminants deposited on the control filter of the drain line; m2t is the mass of contaminants deposited on the control filter of the collection line; V0t is the volume of liquid passing through the pipeline during calibration; V2t is the volume of liquid passing through the collection line during calibration.
EFFECT: high accuracy of determining content of contaminants in a liquid flowing in a pipeline.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: procedure for evaluation of dust content of working zone consists in forced sedimentation of aero-dispersed impurities on filter from certain volume of air. To determine weight of clean filter equipment is initially prepared and set. Further, the clean filter is weighted on a balance (analytical or electron). Successively, there is set an installation for forced sedimentation of dust aerosol in the working zone of a shop floor. Air is sampled with capture of dust particles on the filter. The filter with captured particles of dust is weighted. There is calculated concentration of dust aerosol in milligrams per cubic metre by formula: C=(m2 -m1)/V0, where m2 is weight of a dusted filter, mg; m1 is weight of a clean filter, mg; V0 is volume of air (m3), passed through the filter. Also, volume of air (m3) passed through the filter should be preliminary reduced to normal conditions (i.e. to volume, which it would occupy at temperature 0°C and normal atmospheric pressure equal to 101325 Pa by formula: where 273 is absolute temperature, K; T is temperature of air (gas) °C; Bact is actual barometer pressure at the moment of sampling, Pa; Bn is normal atmospheric pressure equal to 101325 Pa; v is flow rate of sampling, l/min; τ is time sampling, min; 1000 is coefficient of conversion of litres into cubic metres (1 m3=1000 l). There is evaluated dust content of the working zone by comparison of obtained concentration with an allowed value.
EFFECT: raised efficiency, operation speed and reliability of system response.
2 tbl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: part of liquid flowing in pipeline is continuously bled into sampling line through control filter with measurement of its flow rate. Besides liquid flow rate in sampling line is established provided that liquid speeds are equal in intake element of sampling and in pipeline in the area of sampling device installation. Content of contaminants is defined in liquid that flows in pipeline, taking into account weight of contaminant particles deposited on a control filter of sampling line, as well as volume of liquid that passed through the pipeline and volume of liquid gone through sampling line via control filter.
EFFECT: improved accuracy of measurements.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: environment protection.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of environment protection and is intended for catching dry aerosols in case of detecting aerotechnological surface contamination. Method of catching dry aerosols includes precipitation of dry aerosols on depositing substrate. As substrate chemically inert finely dispersive powder which possesses good surface wettability is used. Before precipitation, gradient of temperatures between substrate and atmospheric air flow is created. Aerosol precipitation on substrate is performed by turbulent diffusion of aerosol particles into substrate from border layer, formed when turbulent and convective flows move above the substrate and by catching precipitated particles by means of capillary condensation.
EFFECT: increase of quality of aerosol particles collecting and reliability.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: veterinary medicine.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises selection of only living, mature females of Trichuris vulpis from colon, blind gut of wild and/or domestic carnivorous animals infected spontaneously with whipworms in the study with helminthological methods when autopsy, into separate tubes with officinal isotonic solution (0.9%) of sodium chloride (solutio Natrii chlorati isotonica) and the exposure of the tubes with the females of Trichuris vulpis at t = 37.5-39°C for 5 hours under conditions of a thermostat.
EFFECT: method enables to select a large amount of fertilised eggs of T vulpis, not contaminated with particles of undigested feed, the particles of destroyed tissue of genitals of female of T vulpis and secondary bacterial microflora.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine and biology, namely to a method for additional electron-dense contrast enhancement of acid groups of biomolecules accompanying the histochemical detection of sodium cations in pulmonary and tracheal cell and tissue ultrastructures. Substance of the method consists in fixing tissue slices, washing the surface in bidistilled water, placing into a diluted agent containing 4% osmium tetraoxide 1 ml and 2% potassium hexahydroantimonate 8 ml. The tissue slices are stained for 4 hours while stirring strongly and washed in bidistilled water. The tissue slices are further prepared by slicing thinner and dehydrated; the semi-thin and ultrathin slices are produced and studied by a transmission electron microscope, which is followed by computer processing to detect diffuse selective staining of the acid cell ultrastructures and intracellular substance.
EFFECT: using the declared method enables the additional electron-dense contrast enhancement of the acid groups of biomolecules accompanying the histochemical detection of sodium cations in the pulmonary and tracheal cell and tissue ultrastructures.
5 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: preparation method of a dielectric specimen for investigation on a focused-beam electronic microscope of its micro- and nanostructure involves application of a current-carrying coating onto the specimen surface and provision of electrical contact of the specimen coating with the current-carrying object table. The current-carrying coating is applied by wetting of the specimen surface with a solution of hydrophilic non-evaporable non-flammable non-toxic current-carrying ionic liquid in the form of tetrachloroferrate of N-decylpyridinium in acetone and further drying of the specimen in the air till complete removal of a volatile component.
EFFECT: prevention of accumulation of electrical charges on the surface of dielectric specimens.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: sampling device contains a main pipeline, a sampling section joined with the main pipeline with a possibility of sampling with coverage of liquid flow cross section, a sampling tap and a manometer. The sampling tap is designed as housing and bushing which is rigidly joined with a handle, and in a starting position the bushing shuts a drain hole of the housing, and the handle can move together with the bushing, opening the drain hole of the housing in working position. The hollow cylinder with the central channel is installed in the main pipeline, and the hollow cylinder from side of liquid flow movement is fitted with the input cone tapering the flow and the output cone expanding the flow on the other side of the hollow cylinder. The whirler fitted inside with tangential channels is installed in the central channel of the hollow cylinder from the input cone. The bushing of the sampling tap covers hermetically from outside the housing with the drain hole and can move restrictedly in axial direction with reference to the housing. The housing has the first and second external cylindrical grooves and the cutting spring lock ring is located inside. The bushing is fitted with internal ring sampler.
EFFECT: improvement of quality of liquid sampling, improvement of operational reliability of the sampling tap and increase of level of correctness of identified process parameters of wells and layers according to analyses of samplings.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises the steps: collecting from the bile ducts of liver of domestic and/or wild animals infected with fasciolas of only live adult F. hepatica. Placement them into individual tubes with filtered and centrifuged bile diluted with isotonic solution of sodium chloride 1:1. Exposure of tubes at t = 38-39°C if F. hepatica is from cattle, and t = 39-40°C if F. hepatica is from sheep and/or goats, under conditions of thermostat for 5 hours. Subsequent washing eggs in isotonic solution of sodium chloride.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain up to 100 percent of fertilised eggs of Fasciola of species Fasciola hepatica and can be used for study in the laboratory or field experiments in solving fundamental and applied scientific tasks in the field of epizootiology, treatment and prevention of fascioliasis of domestic or wild animals.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agricultural machinery industry. The device for sampling chopped straw from grain combine harvesters comprises collectors, a retainer, a bracket and a control lever. The collectors are arranged in rows, the number of which in the transverse direction is determined by the header coverage and the selected number of the studied areas, and in the longitudinal - replication of sampling. The collectors are interconnected in longitudinal rows by means of flexible connections equal in magnitude, so that the total length of the row does not exceed the distance to the ground mass descent area on the stubble. The first collectors in each longitudinal row have easily removed connections on the holes in the rod-float leveller which is located perpendicular to the direction of the combine movement and retained by the retainer driven by the control lever.
EFFECT: invention provides a boundary separation of the comparable areas in sampling and reduction of the probability of failure of experimental equipment.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method of analysis of a set of ferromagnetic particles. The method is characterized by that the particles of the named set are levelled in such a way that each of the named particles is oriented practically in the same direction. Then the particles of the named set are fixed in this aligned direction and the internal areas of the named particles levelled in such a way are uncovered. After that the nature of the alloy comprised by each of the named particles is identified, the named particles are grouped by categories depending on their nature and the metallurgical structure and chemical composition of one or more of the named particles in each category are determined.
EFFECT: improvement of accuracy and reliability of the analysis of ferromagnetic particles.
14 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to forecast of ageing processes of the synthetic polymer materials (SPM) depending on duration of their operation or storage. Analysis of the volatile organic compounds (VOC) migrating from SPM is performed by active sampling for sorbent, with further thermal desorption and gas chromatographic analysis. Forecast of the ageing processes of the material and estimation of toxicity of the gas discharge are performed as per dynamic of the qualitative and quantitative composition of gas discharge components in SPM initial state, and during artificial climatic thermal-humidity ageing. Dynamics analysis of the total gas discharge (ΣT) from each material is performed for all substances migrating from studied SPMs. Change of toxicity is estimated and forecast of the material ageing is performed as per developed indices of total gas discharge (ΣT) and as per hygienic index P=(ΣTinitial/ΣTn)/V, where Tinitial and Tn are indices of toxicity of gas discharge of each substance in initial state and after ageing, respectively, and ΣTinitial and ΣTn are total indices of toxicity of gas discharge of all components of SPM in initial state and after ageing, V is duration of ageing (year, month).
EFFECT: invention ensures high accuracy of the method of VOC qualitative and quantitative composition determination in gas discharge during materials ageing and the analysis results repeatability.
FIELD: physics, acoustics.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to an apparatus for irradiating a sample with focused acoustic energy, a device which is part of said apparatus, a cartridge for said device and a method of irradiating a sample with focused acoustic energy. The apparatus comprises a device, a cartridge, a completely solid-state connector and a source for generating acoustic energy. The cartridge has a chamber for receiving a sample, and the completely solid-state connector provides a completely dry coupling of acoustic energy between the source and the cartridge. The device and the cartridge are adapted for inserting the cartridge containing a sample into the device and are separable, and the focused acoustic energy is focused high-intensity ultrasound. The device has a source for generating acoustic energy and the cartridge has a chamber for receiving a sample.
EFFECT: improved sample processing.
17 cl, 24 dwg
FIELD: motors and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: simulation device contains an oil batcher, a dispersion chamber and a lubricant oil decomposition chamber (1). At the air outlet downstream the chamber the diffuser (2) is located. On the chamber the heater (3) with the thermocouple (4) and the thermorelay (5) is installed. The device includes the air duct (6) supplying the pumped-over hot air into the lubricant oil decomposition chamber connected through the manometer (7) to the air compressor (8). The device contains the cylinder (13) filled with ultra-pure nitrogen, (23, 24) the sealed gage tank with air cavity with oil and a cover for oil filling, with the oil pipeline connected to it through the gas pipeline with the regulator (12), the adapter (11) and cap nuts. The gage tank (9) is connected through the adapter (11) with cap nuts (20, 21) to the measured capillary (15) in a cooling jacket (16) with circulating water through the thermostat with the pump (18) and radiators, attached to the decomposition chamber by means of the cap nut (22) and the sealing cone (25). Also the device comprises the additional chamber (26) screwed to the main decomposition chamber of (1) coaxially and sealed with a gasket (27), with the rod with a flywheel (17) installed inside, with threaded and non-threaded parts. Meanwhile the threaded part is implemented with a possibility of movement in the internal washer with a thread (28) for adjustment of the decomposition chamber volume and change of conditions of simulation of oil concentration, while the non-threaded part is sealed in a gland with graphite seal (29).
EFFECT: improvement of accuracy of simulation of composition of oil decomposition products in aviation gas-turbine engines.
SUBSTANCE: injection assembly consists of the water intake unit, pipeline with water supply valve into the bowl, laid on the seabed at a remote distance from the shore, and pure water supply system located on the bottom or along the perimeter of the bowl bottom. Discharge assembly consists of collection system of the upper water layers and pipeline with drain valve of the upper water layers. Supply of the clean water into the bowl and discharge of the upper contaminated layers of water from the bowl are performed. Natural injection of the clean water into the bottom part of the bowl is performed by means of the water intake unit from the bottom sea layers. Natural drainage is performed at low tide of the sea when opening the drain valve of the upper layers of water through the water discharge assembly. Discharge assembly is located below the water level in the bowl.
EFFECT: simplification of water supply system due to the use of sea ebbs and flows.