Reserve spillway for earth dams
SUBSTANCE: reserve spillway 2 for earth dams with a washable earth insert is arranged in the dam at the ASL elevation. Reserve spillway 2 consists of a surface that fixes erosion, which can be rectangular or as a trapezoid, and the material can be concrete or asphalt. The water lines are located inside the eroded soil insert, the lower part of which is located at the highest water level elevation, and the outlet is at the elevation, depending on the water channel slope. Water channels serve for initial erosion of the underlying soil. Sand is used as the soil for the eroded soil insert. The technique of calculating the reserve spillway with a washable soil insert at the level of the ASL elevation.
EFFECT: increased reliability of the reserve spillway by secure pass of emergency spillway flood, preventing dam destruction and flooding the underlying territory to avoid environmental and property damage.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: water flow energy dissipator includes water line 1, pressure pipelines 2 provided with swirling devices 3. Pipelines 2 are connected with outlet sections to closed housing 5 in the form of a chamber towards each other. Mixing chamber 6 of a square cross-section is located under housing 5. Baffle wall 7 of chamber 6 has concave pressure face 8 made so that it faces upwards and to the side of outlet sections of pipelines. At the mixing chamber outlet point, a discharge channel is covered with plate 16 connected to partition wall 11. Baffle wall 7 of chamber 6 has inclined hole 9 attaching chamber 6 to discharge channel 10 and directed towards partition wall 11. Partition wall 11 is intended for changing the direction of the flow leaving outlet hole 15 of mixing chamber 6 to discharge channel 10, where jet flow from inclined hole 9 is connected to one common flow, which reduces bottom velocities after partition wall 11. Closed housing 5 is also provided with pipe 13 with gate valve 14 for pressure supply of air or atmosphere.
EFFECT: improving efficiency and reliability of dissipation of kinetic energy of the separated and again joint flow; high protection degree of a discharge channel against dynamic effects provided by air accumulations opening to the lower pool, which improves reliability of a water flow energy dissipator, reduces length of the closed section of the discharge channel and excludes the need of a well device for the lower pool of the channel.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: vertical longitudinal flow directing element 4 in the form of supporting pier with radome 7 in the lower part is installed in steep canal 1 with the revetment walls and bottom between the longitudinal walls 5 and 6. The length of the flow directing element 4 is larger than the length of vertical walls 5 and 6. The radome 7 is oriented along the axis of transit canal and divides it into two canals with equal input cross-sections. The end portion of the radome has convex shape. Lateral walls of the canal are made with annular stilling pools 12, 13. Flat vertical gate 8 and 9, which is the regulating device for annular chamber 12 and 13 designed in the form of knee-shaped turn to at least 180° relative to the initial portion, fixed to the wall of steep canal 1, is pivotally attached to the lower ends of the end longitudinal walls 5 and 6. The height of walls 5, 6 and 4 is equal to the height of canal 1 walls. Pivotally flat vertical gates 14 and 15 oriented along the transit canal at an angle of 25-35° to the walls of canal 1 are fixed additionally opposite the radome 7 from side of the convex outer form to the walls of steep canal 1.
EFFECT: water level pressure boosting is reduced in front of the separation walls, which improves the reliability of the device operation.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in the top of the gully 1 there is a console hinged drop structure in the form of a wide narrowing tray 2. Under the tray 2 in the width and profile of the top of the gully a nonwettable film 14 is laid. The receiving part of the tray 2 is placed between the drain-shaped shafts 3 and is fixed with concrete blocks 4 and anchor pins 5. In the rear narrowed part of the tray 2 a wide knee-shaped pipe 6 is mounted. The outlet of the pipe 6 is directed vertically downwards. In the cushion pool 7 there is an energy absorber 8 in the form of a self-centring hollow cylinder with the axis 9. The cylinder 8 is extended under wide-transverse elongated pipe 6 directing the flow. The protruding ends of the axis with the ropes 11 are connected with the protrusions of sidewalls 13 of the tray 2. The cross-section of the bottom of the tray 2 can be formed flat, inclined to the centre or stepwise.
EFFECT: prevention of gully erosion and effective dissipation of energy of falling water.
3 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: absorber comprises conduit 1, vertical tube head wall 2, float 3 with adjustable length rods 4 and ring gate 6, stilling basin 8 with labyrinth L-shaped baffles 19, 20, 21, end portion of which is formed by quiescent tank 18. Tube head wall 2 is formed as a cone expanding upward with orifices 7. Dissipator 5 is installed in tube head wall 2. Head wall 2 is provided with circular stop 16 at the outlet end and circular constrainer 17 on the inner surface of ring gate 6. Gate 6 is formed as a thin-walled hollow cylinder with the projections 9 and rods 4. Gate 6 is secured on supports 10 with a possibility to move relative to head wall 2. Tank 18 has skimming weir 22 with horizontal shelf 23. Float 29 connected by rod 27 with valve 24 is installed in tank 18. Outlet pipe 25 is provided with regulating valve 31.
EFFECT: improvement of efficiency and uniform distribution of discharge intensity across the width of the absorber and reduction of bottom flow velocity.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: dissipating device comprises a stilling basin 2, located between the supply pressure conduit 1 and discharging channel 19. In stilling basin 2 there is chamber 3 designed of two broken inclined cantilever walls 4 and 5 fastened to the side walls of the basin 2. Slots 12, 13 are left between the basin bottom 2 and lower ends of the walls 4 and 5. Additional nozzle 6 is located inside the chamber 2. Additional nozzle 6 is made of two guide plates 7, 8 coaxially to pyramidal threshold 9, mounted on the bottom of chamber 2. Slots 10, 11 are made in the upper part in plane of their symmetry relative to each other between the walls 4, 5 and plates 7, 8. Basin 2 is provided with vertical overflow wall 16. The lower end of the wall 16 is provided with grid connected with basin in the form of perforated pipes 17.
EFFECT: reliability and efficiency of device operation are increased, dynamic effect on the wall is reduced and uniformity of distribution of specific flow rates across the width of the basin is improved.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering, namely, to channels used in water-engineering systems and irrigation systems as open spillway structures. The method includes erection of a channel of polygonal profile with two pairs of symmetrical slopes and a triangular base. Reinforced concrete anchor beams 1 are laid into a single longitudinal row along the top of the triangular base. At the left and right to these beams they fix gabion mats 2, laid across the riverbed along the line of bottom slopes m2. Gabion mats 2 are made of light fascines and perforated pipes laid in layers into a metal net. Along the line of side slopes m1 in tight rows they lay flexible mats 3, made from light fascines, wrapped into a geonet of tubular shape. Gabion 2 and flexible 3 mats are tied to each other with the help of a metal wire and in some points are attached to slopes of the channel with the help of reinforcement rods 4. The method may be most efficiently used in low-head dam and dam-free water-engineering systems, and also a manifold irrigation network in piedmont and mountain hard-to-access areas.
EFFECT: channel of polygonal profile, erected by the proposed method, turns into a reliable spillway or coupling structure of open type, designed for safe passage or discharge of maximum possible water flows.
SUBSTANCE: energy dissipator comprises a horizontal section of a water conduit 1 and a circular dissipation chamber 3. The chamber 3 is equipped with a vibratory screen 9, placed coaxially to the hole of a vertical inlet nozzle 2, installed in the end of the water conduit 1. The vibratory screen 9 is made of spherical shape with convexity upwards with a circular support in the form of a disc 10, interacting as capable of vertical movement with ledges-limiters 7 and 8 in the upper position, and in the lower - with ledges-limiters 5 and 6, fixed on the flat bottom 4 of the chamber 3. The vibratory screen 9 has stands 11 and 12, equipped with springs 13, 14 and made in the form of guide adjustment bolts with fixed nuts 15, 16. In the centre of the flat bottom 4 of the chamber 3 there is a vertical outlet nozzle 17, which is placed in a discharge header 26 with a drain pipeline 27.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of operation under condition of variable water level in a dissipation chamber.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: dissipating device comprises a flow conduit 1 with shoulder 2 in the annular chamber 3, conjugated with the additional square chamber 4. Dissipating chamber 3 is provided with longitudinal walls 5, attached on the bottom by the additional rectangular dissipating chamber 4 in the form of two vertical water escape separating walls parallel to its walls, and at the outlet section of annular chamber - convergently at an angle to one another. The upper end of walls 5 of confuser has wall 16 radially incurved, mounted with gap to opposite free gap between the sidewalls of chamber 3. The lower end of vertical baffles 5 to the side of tailrace channel 15 is located in front of the flushing gallery 8 with transition curvilinear walls 9, located over the side walls of gallery 8 and interfaced with output threshold 12 of gallery 8. The output threshold 12 is located above the chamber 4 bottom and designed with horizontal shelf 14 and coupled with bottom of tailrace channel 15. The bottom of gallery 8 is coupled with pipeline 10 with plain gate 11 through the opening. Due to collision of jets in chambers 3 and 4 at sites: drop, curvilineal walls curved radially, overflow through the walls, as well as generation of water flow occurs in gallery in front of output threshold 12, energy dissipation is provided, reduction of bottom velocities at outlet and smooth entry into the tailrace channel are achieved. Performance of flushing gallery with threshold with horizontal shelf permits to create helical motion in it, friction between the flow layers and eliminate siltation of gallery at the same time.
EFFECT: improving work efficiency under conditions of variable water flows, increase of the device reliability.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering. A water discharge channel includes two composite parts with symmetrical pairs of slopes, an upper one with slope gradient m1 and a bottom one with slope gradients m2, and a triangular base. On a vertex of a triangular base there laid in one longitudinal row are reinforced-concrete anchor beams 1, on the left and on the right to which gabion mattresses 2 laid across the bed along the line of bottom slopes m2 are attached. Gabion mattresses are made of light fascines and perforated tubes laid into mesh wire layer by layer. Flexible mattresses 3 made of light fascines wrapped into a geogrid of tubular shape are laid along the line of side slopes m1 in tight rows. Gabion 2 and flexible 3 mattresses are connected to each other by means of mesh wire and attached in some places to slopes of the channel by means of reinforcement bars 4. The channel of the polygonal profile of the proposed structure is converted to a reliable water discharge or conjugation structure intended for safe passage or discharge of maximum possible water consumptions. It can be used effectively as much as possible as a part of low-pressure dam and dam-free hydraulic assemblies, as well as the main irrigating network in piedmont and mountainous difficult-to-access sections.
EFFECT: improving efficiency and reliability of channel operation.
FIELD: construction, road engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering. The method includes preparation and levelling of the base on the dam crest, manufacturing of reinforced concrete elements, their assembly and connection. Discharge overflow structures from prefabricated reinforced concrete elements are made using self-sealing concrete mixtures, of optimal size, for instance, along the height and length to 5.0 metres, thickness of up to 0.5 metres and weight of up to 30 tons. They connect the reinforced concrete elements to each other by speed method with the help of coupling joints 5 directly on the dam crest. The mounted reinforced concrete sections make a single water drainage front - thin-walled reinforced concrete labyrinth water drain with wall thickness of at least 15 cm.
EFFECT: higher quality and operating characteristics of reinforced concrete elements of a thin-walled labyrinth water drain with simultaneous reduction of construction time.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydrotechnical construction, namely to soil dams built in areas with high seismicity. The invention is aimed at the reduction of cost of the structure and increase of the damping ability of the seismoisolating dam layer. The aseismic soil dam built in narrow cross sections includes the main soil part of the dam body and the seismoisolating layer with dynamic characteristics significantly differing from those of the soil of the main part of the dam body. The seismoisolating layer is located along the whole contact of the dam with the base and boards of the cross section (canyon). The seismoisolating layer is formed by the installation into this layer of inclusions in the form of similar utilised metal-cord tyres from cars, which cavities are filled with gumbrine. The tyres are arranged parallel to the base and boards of the cross section (canyon) with an equal step chequerwiseboth in the same row, and between rows, the quantity of which is no less than two.
EFFECT: design features of the offered design of the seismoisolating layer allow weakening more effectively seismic waves at the expense of an increased damping and diffraction ability.
SUBSTANCE: earthquake resistant subsurface dam being constructed in broad sites, comprises the upper main part of the dam body and seismic isolation layer of the dam body located between the upper main part of the dam body and base, dynamic characteristics of which are significantly different from those of subsurface of the main part of the dam body. Seismic isolation layer is formed by installing inclusions in the form of one-type recycled metal-cord tire casings of heavy vehicles in this layer. The cavities of these tire casings are filled with gumbrine. The tire casings are arranged horizontally at regular intervals in staggered order and in the horizontal plane. In the vertical plane the tire casings also arrange at regular interval in staggered order with number of rows not less than two. Design features of the proposed structure of seismic isolation layer permits to attenuate seismic waves more effectively due to the increased damping capacity and diffraction.
EFFECT: cheaper construction and improvement of damping capacity of seismic isolation layer of subsurface dam.
SUBSTANCE: static, dynamic or vibration sensing is carried out preliminary at the selected points to the depth from 1 m with respect to the top of the earth fill. At the same time the samples of compacted soil of undisturbed structure are selected in order to determine the moisture and density of skeleton of the specified soil from several drilled wells at points at a distance of not more than 1 metre in plan from sensing points. Laboratory researches of standard compaction with definition of compacting factor depending on the density of soil skeleton, are carried out on the selected samples of soils from the body of compacted fill. Construction of correlation dependence is performed between the specified values of compaction factor and values of the resistance to penetration of standard cone into the soil during sensing, taking into account determinations previously performed in the laboratory followed by evaluation of compaction quality of the earth fill.
EFFECT: improving the accuracy of definition and identifying the areas of non-compacted soil for its subsequent local postcompaction.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering, in particular to the construction of high-head dams made of local building materials with unearth impervious elements. Earth dam contains the thickened concrete diaphragm 1 as impervious element. Diaphragm 1 is separated form the concrete pad 10 by the perimeter seam 11 and longitudinal inspection galleries 5 are made in it at intervals by height. Horizontal joints-cuts 9 closed for inspection galleries 5, which prevent the disclosure of joints toward the downstream pool, are made on the upper edge of concrete diaphragm 1. Part of concrete diaphragm 1, located above its foundation part, is made of particularly hard concrete mixes pressed by layers. Screen 7 of asphalt concrete or rolled concrete enriched with cement mortar is also made on the upper edge of diaphragm 1. Concrete diaphragm 1 is cut into separate sections by vertical functional-sedimentary joints 8.
EFFECT: increase of strength of impervious element of the dam and possibility of carrying out the required repair is provided.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering and can be used in the construction of rock-fill dams on rivers in hard-to-reach areas with limited resources of natural building materials suitable for the construction of watertight element. Diaphragm of rock-fill dam on the rocky foundation 1 is made in the central area by filling the longitudinal cavity with water-resistant material. This cavity is formed between the prefabricated panels 5 installed back-to-back one upon the other. Process longitudinal cavity is formed by placing the prefabricated panels 5, supported by a vertically mounted metal tubular studs or metal studs 3 with longitudinal grooves, for example I-beams, channel beams, rails, interconnected by rods 4 into the single frame, providing the overall stability of the diaphragm during the construction period. Metal tubular studs 3 are made with holes for injecting the tiered impermeable and plastic material 6 of the diaphragm, filled firstly with rock macrofragmental material.
EFFECT: safety of rock-fill dam, arranged between the steep rocky banks in the narrow alignment, with characteristically high flood levels in the river is improved, construction periods are reduced.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for use in hydraulic engineering, in particular, to create dams of tailing dumps in areas with significant anthropogenic load on water facilities. The method includes preparation of the base for the dam and laying of soil material into the dam bank. Soil material is represented by anthropogenic bottom deposits of contaminated water facilities having permissible filtration capacity and sufficient strength according to hydroeconomic calculations. Anthropogenic bottom deposits are previously prepared by dehydration in containers from geotextile material to moisture of 40-50% and compaction under by gravity on a specially prepared site. Afterwards containers with dehydrated residue are delivered to the place of construction by dump trucks and are laid by mobile cranes in layers. The promising direction is usage of this device in areas of far north, since in these areas usually there are no sufficient soil materials suitable for creation of antifiltration elements. Local materials used to fill the dam bank are in permafrost condition and their usage causes significant difficulties. Utilisation of heterogeneous bottom deposits is provided, environmental compatibility and fail-safety of dam operation increase, erected structures are more stable.
EFFECT: reduced filtration losses, timing of construction, minimised complexity and labour intensiveness of works.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering. Device comprises a frame 1, antenna units 6, arranged along the perimeter of frame 1, and motion sensor 5. Device hung on propulsion unit 7 with hydraulic drive 8, which moves along the dam crest, with processing unit 4, integrated in it. Hydraulic drive 8 allows setting the frame 1, consisting of two parts, joined by means of hinges 2, to operating position to move it along the upstream slope. It is possible to detect defects and damages both of the protective coating along the upper slope, and soil condition, constituting the body of dam, located underneath, for formation of demultiplexing and subsidence at early stage of their formation.
EFFECT: quality of the performance of operational monitoring is improved, and the presence of propulsion unit with hydraulic drive permits to speed up significantly the performance of investigation of low-pressure earth dams.
SUBSTANCE: earth dam comprises a body, a base with an upper layer of ice-saturated soil, drainage slots and tubular drains. Drainage slots are made for the depth of the upper layer of ice-saturated soil of the base upstream the upper and lower slope of the body. A tubular drain is laid onto the bottom of the last slot.
EFFECT: efficient drainage of a thawing frozen base of a dam in process of construction of an earth dam in permafrost area.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises the following processes: erection of retaining prism, construction of dismantling dredge piping, receiving and alluviation of hydraulic fluid, formation of sediment pond, lighting, accumulation and storage of process water in it, discharge, intake and return of technically pure water in water recycling system. The sediment pond for storage of recycled water reserve and the final lighting of the hydraulic fluid from the central zone of the hydraulic fill is formed behind the contours of the hydraulic fill.
EFFECT: increase in intake capacity and stability of the hydraulic fill.
SUBSTANCE: stone dam contains impervious element in the form of soil-cement-concrete screen covered with film. The screen is recessed under the upstream face of the dam. It is designed as an inclined plate, leaned via the inclined sliding seal on the concrete prism. Near the bottom border of the soil-cement-concrete screen there are galleries. They are located every 20-40 m of height and serve to control the status of the screen and for its repair. Reinforced concrete gallery for cementation of rock base is arranged on the contact of concrete prism with rocky foundation.
EFFECT: increase of reliability of impervious element, ability of dam work in the conditions of extreme low temperatures, dam repair without draining the storage reservoir.
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to dam building in Northern regions. Proposed dam has upstream and downstream fills, diaphragm, transition layers and drain located in downstream fill. It has also heat curtain arranged in cross section of dam in zone of transition layers and made in form of row of successive holes, each furnished with at least one heating device. Number and pitch of holes and number and parameters of heating devices are chosen to keep transition layers and drain in zone of action of plus temperatures created by heat curtain. Resistance electric heater can be used as heating device.
EFFECT: improved reliability of dam and operation of drain.
2 cl, 3 dwg