Service spillway of hpp dam
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used to regulate the water level in water bodies that have a threat of flooding, for example, on the rivers Zeya, Amur and other similar reservoirs. Also for the transfer of flood waters from the Zeya Reservoir to the downstream to achieve 310 meters A.S.L. by 1 August so that the spillways do not cause damage to the base of the Zeya Dam. The service surface spillway at the Zeya HPP is supplemented by at least one classical aqueduct. The aqueduct is functionally a continuation of the service surface spillway. The conjugation with the aqueduct is made above the springboard of the service surface spillway. The aqueduct, from conjunction with the tray of the service surface spillway before reaching the horizontal position of the aqueduct, has smooth curvature, allowing the watercourse to undergo without spray, i.e. smooth flow to the outlet, which is made at a considerable distance from the dam base. The aqueduct is throughout rigidly fixed to the bearing supports. The aqueducts themselves are made of stainless steel, or of any known non-corrosive metal, or metal with corrosion-resistant coating and/or concrete and/or reinforced concrete and are solid or modular or precast solid. The aqueducts in the walls have branch pipes that are installed in the walls of the aqueduct at an angle 45°±25°. The branch pipe is curved relative to the aqueduct across the river, water enters the branch pipe at an angle 45°±25°, but exits from the branch pipe at an angle 80°±25°. The branch pipes are installed in such a way that the water jets emanating from neighbouring aqueducts collide with each other, and the water energy is quenched and its speed slows down. The speed of the water flow of the falling water and the water flowing through the aqueduct is 30-50 m/sec. If this stream is not retarded to the river current (2-3 m/s), then this stream will bring considerable destruction on the shoreline of the river, and also threaten the vessels in the riverbed.
EFFECT: rational distribution of water resources and prevention of floods, lowering the level of reservoirs and protecting the dam base from destruction.
7 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: coastal water intake includes waterfront pavilion, receiving chamber with water intake windows overlapped with grid, and suction chamber with suction pump tube. Inside the suction chamber a U-shaped flat structure is installed with curved corner surfaces and ties at the ends and in the middle of the structure. In the side walls of the U-shaped structure water discharge windows are installed. Water discharge windows are closed with gates at various heights. The bean-shaped baffle wall is installed opposite the suction pipe.
EFFECT: reduction of energy consumption during operation of the coastal water intake.
SUBSTANCE: floating water intake comprises a water receiving chamber 1 with water receiving windows 2 and overflow windows 3, a suction chamber 4 with first stage pumps 5. The water receiving chamber 1 and the suction chamber 4 are made in the form of a float with an air chamber 6 in the lower part of the water intake structure and are placed in a reservoir 7, filled with water 8 and installed on the bottom of a surface spring 9. Equipment of the water intake structure in the form of a float in a reservoir makes it possible to use it under high speed of flow and variations of water levels in the water source, which improves operating qualities of the water intake structure. Maintenance of the permanent water level in the suction chamber reduces energy inputs for pumping water during operation of a water receiver.
EFFECT: in process of water intake at controlled elevations from a surface spring there are less sediments arriving to a water receiving chamber, and it is possible to clean water receiving holes, which increases reliability of operation of a water intake structure.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a distributing channel 5, an intake pipe cap 2 and a drain pipe. The device comprises a diffuser from composite pipe sections of a conic section, designed in the form of a lock 1. The lock 1 is fixed by means of a hinge on the edge of the channel 5, having a slewing gear in the form of a control wheel 6 with a stopper. The inlet end of the diffuser 1 has the pipe cap 2, the cut angle of which is equal to 6…9° to the bottom of the channel 5. The outlet end of the diffuser 1 is joined with the pipe section 3 of a constant cross section with a flexible hose 4. The curvature radius along the axis of the diffuser is Ro=1.25din, where din - diameter of the intake pipe cap. Operational reliability under conditions of a variable water level in the channel is increased and an effective protection of the lock against wastes and sediments is provided.
EFFECT: improved operational reliability of the device by providing water extraction from different levels.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering, namely, to water intake facilities used for water intake in areas of rivers with complicated hydrological conditions. An underflow filtering water intake comprises a water collecting gallery 1, on top of which a filtering water intake is arranged, comprising a metal grid 2 and filtering flexible mats laid on top of it in two dense rows. Flexible mats are made of light fascines wrapped in a geonet. The first row 4 of mats is laid along the longitudinal axis of the gallery 1, and the second row 5 is laid across the gallery and in direction of the riverbed flow, and also with the inclination that is more than the inclination of the river bed.
EFFECT: increased reliability of water intake operation and provides for possibility of its use for drinking water supply to small settlements, individual enterprises and institutions, private households, and also as a reserve water intake, in case of emergencies in large settlements.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering, namely, to water intake facilities erected for water intake in areas of rivers with complicated hydrological conditions. A pit is mined for a water collecting gallery 1, as well as a trench for a tubular water intake 7. The water collecting gallery 1 is erected from solid concrete or reinforced concrete, and then the tubular water intake 7 is erected. On top of the water collecting gallery 1 they install a filtering water intake comprising a metal grid 2. On top of the metal grid 2 they lay flexible mats 2 in two rows, made of light fascines wrapped into a geonet. At the same time the first row 4 of mats 3 is laid above the metal grid 2 in direction of the longitudinal axis of the gallery 1, and the second row 5 - across the gallery 1 and in direction of the river flow, and also with the inclination that is more than the inclination of the river bed. The additional tubular water intake 7 is arranged in front of the water collecting gallery 1 under the river bed at one side and in direction of the river flow. The tubular water intake 7 is made of perforated pipes 8 and flexible mats 3 laid around them. The mouth part of the tubular water intake 7 with inclination enters the gallery 1 at the level of water level.
EFFECT: invention provides for higher reliability of operation of an underflow water intake under conditions of mountain, foothill and plain areas of rivers.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a supply 1 and a transit 2 channels, coupled with a water-receiving chamber, a draining pipeline with a flat gate in its inlet part and a dirt-collecting lattice 9. At the inlet of the water-receiving chamber there is a wall face. The wall face is made on top with a hollow pipe 8, having air outlet holes 10, connected by flexible hoses 12 with perforated tubes 13, separated on a garbage protection device in the form of the lattice 9. Perforated pipes are fixed on the lattice 9 at the side of the flat gate that closes the inlet hole of the draining pipeline. Perforated pipes 13 are connected to a source of compressed air supplied momentarily with a compressor 14, connected with a time relay 16, along an air duct 15 into a hollow pipe 8.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of operation of a device on channels with high inclinations and prevented clogging of a lattice.
3 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a double circular boom floating on water surface. The boom is closed at the bottom along the inner contour with a meshed bottom or electrodes, where electric current is supplied. The air-lift flow is formed in the space between the booms at the bottom. The air-lift flow captures fine protected items from upper levels of the water reservoir and sends them to fish discharge. Large protected items from the lower layers of water are separated from the water-receiving tract with the meshed bottom or electrodes. The water-intake flow at the inlet is vertical, directed at the bottom upwards and is perpendicular to the flow at the outlet. Water is discharged from the space inside the double circular boom.
EFFECT: invention provides for efficient protection of fish.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a body made in the form of a semi-cylinder and a well. The body is separated by perforated partitions of semi-circular shape with formation of filtering sections between them. With external ends the partitions are connected to a coastal wall, in the middle part of which there is a vertical cylindrical well. The cover is installed on top of sections. Loading baskets are made of a geosynthetic material, have perforated walls that form cells between each other, where a foam polystyrene charge is located. Hinged loops with eyes are fixed on the upper parts of the baskets.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of device operation due to increased extent of water treatment and improved operation conditions.
SUBSTANCE: filter comprises a cylindrical body, the axis of which is arranged horizontally and in parallel to a flow of treated liquid, representing a shell, filtering elements and a washing accessory. Filtering elements are arranged of tubular form with the outer surface of filtering, represent slot grids, arranged in the form of a cylindrical spiral from a high-precision profile of a V-shaped form, and are fixed at two sides of the body. The washing accessory represents a T-shaped bracket, with two tubular frames installed on it with the possibility of rotation in bearing assemblies, on the sections of which arranged in parallel to filtering elements there is perforation.
EFFECT: increased reliability of device operation, simplified layout of a water-intake unit and higher efficiency of its cleaning from sludge ice and debris, and provides for protection of young fishes against ingress into a water-intake.
7 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: filter comprises a cylindrical body, the axis of which is arranged horizontally and in parallel to a flow of cleaned fluid, representing a shell, filtering elements and a distribution device. Inside the body there is a header, with perforated pipes welded to it. Outside the body along the outer perimetre of the filter below the filtering element arranged between the body and the shell with a deflector, at the side of cleaned fluid flow movement there is a wedge-shaped perforated header installed. There is a vibrator installed on the body shell. Filtering elements are arranged of tubular shape with the external filtering surface, representing slot grates arranged in the form of a cylindrical spiral from a high-precision V-shaped bar with an anti-adhesion biologically inert coating and are fixed at both sides of the body.
EFFECT: higher reliability of device operation, efficiency of its cleaning from sludge ice and debris, and provides for protection of young fishes against getting into a water intake.
6 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: water flow energy dissipator includes water line 1, pressure pipelines 2 provided with swirling devices 3. Pipelines 2 are connected with outlet sections to closed housing 5 in the form of a chamber towards each other. Mixing chamber 6 of a square cross-section is located under housing 5. Baffle wall 7 of chamber 6 has concave pressure face 8 made so that it faces upwards and to the side of outlet sections of pipelines. At the mixing chamber outlet point, a discharge channel is covered with plate 16 connected to partition wall 11. Baffle wall 7 of chamber 6 has inclined hole 9 attaching chamber 6 to discharge channel 10 and directed towards partition wall 11. Partition wall 11 is intended for changing the direction of the flow leaving outlet hole 15 of mixing chamber 6 to discharge channel 10, where jet flow from inclined hole 9 is connected to one common flow, which reduces bottom velocities after partition wall 11. Closed housing 5 is also provided with pipe 13 with gate valve 14 for pressure supply of air or atmosphere.
EFFECT: improving efficiency and reliability of dissipation of kinetic energy of the separated and again joint flow; high protection degree of a discharge channel against dynamic effects provided by air accumulations opening to the lower pool, which improves reliability of a water flow energy dissipator, reduces length of the closed section of the discharge channel and excludes the need of a well device for the lower pool of the channel.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: vertical longitudinal flow directing element 4 in the form of supporting pier with radome 7 in the lower part is installed in steep canal 1 with the revetment walls and bottom between the longitudinal walls 5 and 6. The length of the flow directing element 4 is larger than the length of vertical walls 5 and 6. The radome 7 is oriented along the axis of transit canal and divides it into two canals with equal input cross-sections. The end portion of the radome has convex shape. Lateral walls of the canal are made with annular stilling pools 12, 13. Flat vertical gate 8 and 9, which is the regulating device for annular chamber 12 and 13 designed in the form of knee-shaped turn to at least 180° relative to the initial portion, fixed to the wall of steep canal 1, is pivotally attached to the lower ends of the end longitudinal walls 5 and 6. The height of walls 5, 6 and 4 is equal to the height of canal 1 walls. Pivotally flat vertical gates 14 and 15 oriented along the transit canal at an angle of 25-35° to the walls of canal 1 are fixed additionally opposite the radome 7 from side of the convex outer form to the walls of steep canal 1.
EFFECT: water level pressure boosting is reduced in front of the separation walls, which improves the reliability of the device operation.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in the top of the gully 1 there is a console hinged drop structure in the form of a wide narrowing tray 2. Under the tray 2 in the width and profile of the top of the gully a nonwettable film 14 is laid. The receiving part of the tray 2 is placed between the drain-shaped shafts 3 and is fixed with concrete blocks 4 and anchor pins 5. In the rear narrowed part of the tray 2 a wide knee-shaped pipe 6 is mounted. The outlet of the pipe 6 is directed vertically downwards. In the cushion pool 7 there is an energy absorber 8 in the form of a self-centring hollow cylinder with the axis 9. The cylinder 8 is extended under wide-transverse elongated pipe 6 directing the flow. The protruding ends of the axis with the ropes 11 are connected with the protrusions of sidewalls 13 of the tray 2. The cross-section of the bottom of the tray 2 can be formed flat, inclined to the centre or stepwise.
EFFECT: prevention of gully erosion and effective dissipation of energy of falling water.
3 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: absorber comprises conduit 1, vertical tube head wall 2, float 3 with adjustable length rods 4 and ring gate 6, stilling basin 8 with labyrinth L-shaped baffles 19, 20, 21, end portion of which is formed by quiescent tank 18. Tube head wall 2 is formed as a cone expanding upward with orifices 7. Dissipator 5 is installed in tube head wall 2. Head wall 2 is provided with circular stop 16 at the outlet end and circular constrainer 17 on the inner surface of ring gate 6. Gate 6 is formed as a thin-walled hollow cylinder with the projections 9 and rods 4. Gate 6 is secured on supports 10 with a possibility to move relative to head wall 2. Tank 18 has skimming weir 22 with horizontal shelf 23. Float 29 connected by rod 27 with valve 24 is installed in tank 18. Outlet pipe 25 is provided with regulating valve 31.
EFFECT: improvement of efficiency and uniform distribution of discharge intensity across the width of the absorber and reduction of bottom flow velocity.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: dissipating device comprises a stilling basin 2, located between the supply pressure conduit 1 and discharging channel 19. In stilling basin 2 there is chamber 3 designed of two broken inclined cantilever walls 4 and 5 fastened to the side walls of the basin 2. Slots 12, 13 are left between the basin bottom 2 and lower ends of the walls 4 and 5. Additional nozzle 6 is located inside the chamber 2. Additional nozzle 6 is made of two guide plates 7, 8 coaxially to pyramidal threshold 9, mounted on the bottom of chamber 2. Slots 10, 11 are made in the upper part in plane of their symmetry relative to each other between the walls 4, 5 and plates 7, 8. Basin 2 is provided with vertical overflow wall 16. The lower end of the wall 16 is provided with grid connected with basin in the form of perforated pipes 17.
EFFECT: reliability and efficiency of device operation are increased, dynamic effect on the wall is reduced and uniformity of distribution of specific flow rates across the width of the basin is improved.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering, namely, to channels used in water-engineering systems and irrigation systems as open spillway structures. The method includes erection of a channel of polygonal profile with two pairs of symmetrical slopes and a triangular base. Reinforced concrete anchor beams 1 are laid into a single longitudinal row along the top of the triangular base. At the left and right to these beams they fix gabion mats 2, laid across the riverbed along the line of bottom slopes m2. Gabion mats 2 are made of light fascines and perforated pipes laid in layers into a metal net. Along the line of side slopes m1 in tight rows they lay flexible mats 3, made from light fascines, wrapped into a geonet of tubular shape. Gabion 2 and flexible 3 mats are tied to each other with the help of a metal wire and in some points are attached to slopes of the channel with the help of reinforcement rods 4. The method may be most efficiently used in low-head dam and dam-free water-engineering systems, and also a manifold irrigation network in piedmont and mountain hard-to-access areas.
EFFECT: channel of polygonal profile, erected by the proposed method, turns into a reliable spillway or coupling structure of open type, designed for safe passage or discharge of maximum possible water flows.
SUBSTANCE: energy dissipator comprises a horizontal section of a water conduit 1 and a circular dissipation chamber 3. The chamber 3 is equipped with a vibratory screen 9, placed coaxially to the hole of a vertical inlet nozzle 2, installed in the end of the water conduit 1. The vibratory screen 9 is made of spherical shape with convexity upwards with a circular support in the form of a disc 10, interacting as capable of vertical movement with ledges-limiters 7 and 8 in the upper position, and in the lower - with ledges-limiters 5 and 6, fixed on the flat bottom 4 of the chamber 3. The vibratory screen 9 has stands 11 and 12, equipped with springs 13, 14 and made in the form of guide adjustment bolts with fixed nuts 15, 16. In the centre of the flat bottom 4 of the chamber 3 there is a vertical outlet nozzle 17, which is placed in a discharge header 26 with a drain pipeline 27.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of operation under condition of variable water level in a dissipation chamber.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: dissipating device comprises a flow conduit 1 with shoulder 2 in the annular chamber 3, conjugated with the additional square chamber 4. Dissipating chamber 3 is provided with longitudinal walls 5, attached on the bottom by the additional rectangular dissipating chamber 4 in the form of two vertical water escape separating walls parallel to its walls, and at the outlet section of annular chamber - convergently at an angle to one another. The upper end of walls 5 of confuser has wall 16 radially incurved, mounted with gap to opposite free gap between the sidewalls of chamber 3. The lower end of vertical baffles 5 to the side of tailrace channel 15 is located in front of the flushing gallery 8 with transition curvilinear walls 9, located over the side walls of gallery 8 and interfaced with output threshold 12 of gallery 8. The output threshold 12 is located above the chamber 4 bottom and designed with horizontal shelf 14 and coupled with bottom of tailrace channel 15. The bottom of gallery 8 is coupled with pipeline 10 with plain gate 11 through the opening. Due to collision of jets in chambers 3 and 4 at sites: drop, curvilineal walls curved radially, overflow through the walls, as well as generation of water flow occurs in gallery in front of output threshold 12, energy dissipation is provided, reduction of bottom velocities at outlet and smooth entry into the tailrace channel are achieved. Performance of flushing gallery with threshold with horizontal shelf permits to create helical motion in it, friction between the flow layers and eliminate siltation of gallery at the same time.
EFFECT: improving work efficiency under conditions of variable water flows, increase of the device reliability.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering. A water discharge channel includes two composite parts with symmetrical pairs of slopes, an upper one with slope gradient m1 and a bottom one with slope gradients m2, and a triangular base. On a vertex of a triangular base there laid in one longitudinal row are reinforced-concrete anchor beams 1, on the left and on the right to which gabion mattresses 2 laid across the bed along the line of bottom slopes m2 are attached. Gabion mattresses are made of light fascines and perforated tubes laid into mesh wire layer by layer. Flexible mattresses 3 made of light fascines wrapped into a geogrid of tubular shape are laid along the line of side slopes m1 in tight rows. Gabion 2 and flexible 3 mattresses are connected to each other by means of mesh wire and attached in some places to slopes of the channel by means of reinforcement bars 4. The channel of the polygonal profile of the proposed structure is converted to a reliable water discharge or conjugation structure intended for safe passage or discharge of maximum possible water consumptions. It can be used effectively as much as possible as a part of low-pressure dam and dam-free hydraulic assemblies, as well as the main irrigating network in piedmont and mountainous difficult-to-access sections.
EFFECT: improving efficiency and reliability of channel operation.
FIELD: construction, road engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering. The method includes preparation and levelling of the base on the dam crest, manufacturing of reinforced concrete elements, their assembly and connection. Discharge overflow structures from prefabricated reinforced concrete elements are made using self-sealing concrete mixtures, of optimal size, for instance, along the height and length to 5.0 metres, thickness of up to 0.5 metres and weight of up to 30 tons. They connect the reinforced concrete elements to each other by speed method with the help of coupling joints 5 directly on the dam crest. The mounted reinforced concrete sections make a single water drainage front - thin-walled reinforced concrete labyrinth water drain with wall thickness of at least 15 cm.
EFFECT: higher quality and operating characteristics of reinforced concrete elements of a thin-walled labyrinth water drain with simultaneous reduction of construction time.
FIELD: hydraulic engineering, particularly automatic spillways arranged in upper pool of waterworks facility.
SUBSTANCE: spillway includes water drain funnel with full annular water drainage as viewed from above, transition part with elbow in lower part and branch pipe adjoining transition part. Drain funnel defines dodecagon in plane. Four faces of dodecagon forming two orthogonal pairs are oriented in parallel to longitudinal and transversal branch pipe axes. Elbow is of rectangular cross-section. Transition part end abutting elbow is of square cross-section with length of square side equal or less than that of elbow cross-section side. Side surface of transition part includes 12 cylindrical sections. Four sections having generator lines oriented in the single direction with branch pipe exes are trapezoidal in plane. Remainder 8 sections are triangular in plane.
EFFECT: simplified structure and increased economy for spillway erection.