Method of driving raises
FIELD: mining engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method of driving the raise includes preliminary slotting along raise contour over entire height and subsequent crushing of rock array separated from rock mass by blast method. The raise shape is made in the form of a truncated pyramid with a larger base downwards, holes are drilled along side faces and ribs of the pyramid and explosive charges positioned therein are blasted simultaneously, forming a slit along the raise contour. The block of rock separated from the rock array in the rise contours is crushed by the explosion of charges charged into the holes drilled near raise axis. Initiation of said charges by means of short-delay blasting is carried out after formation of contour slit during falling of the separated rock block. The holes charged along the raise contour are alternated with non-chargeable ones.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce the volume of holes drilling for development and provide reliability of raise formation over entire predetermined height per one blast.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes drilling of the single down wells with placement there of explosive charges, consecutive detonation of single down wells and formation of a compensation crack along the contact ore - rock with formation of a concave exposure surface in solid ore, rows of concave wells in the ore cavity are arranged in congruent manner to a concave exposure of the compensation crack at the distance equal to the least resistance line, the last row is arranged along the line of the contact ore - rock, rings of wells are drilled with insufficient drilling 1 m to the contact ore - filling, finally the rows of rings of wells are drilled at the boundary with the compensation crack, in the wells the explosive charges are placed with insufficient charge, rows of rings of wells are blasted with delayed action to the surface of exposure of the compensation crack, and finally a row of rings of wells at the contact ore - rock is blasted.
EFFECT: invention allows to improve safety and efficiency of conducting explosive works.
3 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method comprises operations on creation of ice wall along the mining limits will include, marking on the face plane of cut shotholes, and also rows of outer, the pre-boundary and boundary shotholes located along circles. The centre of radius of circles is located in the centre of the plane of the mine face. The cylindrical shotholes and the shots with profile cuts are drilled, the cut, outer and pre-boundary row shotholes are charged with explosives with their subsequent detonation. The shotholes with profile cuts are drilled out in the pre-boundary row, the centres of shotholes of the pre-boundary row are placed on the radius, common with the centres of shotholes of the pre-boundary row. The distance between these centres is selected no more than 2.5-3.0 values of diameter of shotholes of the boundary row.
EFFECT: invention allows to improve security of the ice wall.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining and can be used in coal and ore pits in excavation at drilling-and-blasting. Proposed method comprises drilling wells, close in pairs, in spacings between three larger-diameter compensation wells. Note here that triangular lengthwise compensation cut-outs - strain compensators are made in said wells, close in pairs directed towards compensation wells.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of blasting jobs and making of relief openings.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the mining industry, and in particular to methods of breaking up by explosives ore from solid mass with a layered texture and a developed system of fracturing. The method comprises drilling parallel rows of vertical wells at an angle χ to the line of the inner edge of the ledge, loading the wells with high explosive charges (HE), the mounting of downhole and surface blasting networks and row short-delay blasting of HE charges to form in each row of a plane detonation wave of compression. The angle χ is determined from the formula:
EFFECT: invention enables to improve the efficiency of strength degradation of intergranular bonds of ore due to the development of microcracks of separation, oriented along both layers of ore, and the planes of major fracturing of the solid mass, and the technical and economic indicators of the subsequent redistribution of ore.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the mining industry and can be used in open development of mineral deposits. The method comprises opening the deposit and recovery of mineral deposits with ledges with formation of the inclined surfaces of slopes and pit edges, drilling wells, loading of wells with explosives, breaking of the rock mass with blasting of explosives in units, distributed on the pit ledges, loading and transportation of the rock mass to the sites of its storage or further processing. The location sites and size of rock blocks are determined, hovering on the slopes of the ledges. From the earth's surface or upstream sites of ledges the workers and drilling equipment is descended on the lifelines to the upper surface of the hovering rock block. In the hovering rock block the wells are drilled with the distance between the wells not exceeding the maximum distance equal to the twice depth of distribution in the rock mass in the vicinity of the well of area of the rock destruction that occurs when blasting explosives in the well. The wells are drilled parallel to the surface of the slope of the ledge, and the distance between the wells and the surface of the slope of the ledge is taken as equal to the depth of distribution in the rock mass in the vicinity of the well of area of the rock destruction that occurs when blasting explosives in the well.
EFFECT: improving the safety of open mining operations.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining, particularly, to ore breaking. Proposed method comprises drilling the wells, defining the location for live primer for charge direct and inverse initiation by calculations, formatting of elongated explosive charge, fitting the live primer in explosive charge to divide it into two parts, filling the well top with explosive and stemming material and blasting of the well. Explosive charge length is measured and live primer location in charge is defined from the well bottom with due allowance for preset live primer length and volume of explosive in 1 metre of the well by claimed formulae.
EFFECT: higher blast power and efficiency, decreased volume of drill works and specific consumption of explosives.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining particularly to openworking of rocks. Zoning is adjusted by registration of changes in thrust and lift engine performances to tie the latter via bucket spatial position in digging cycle for registration of bench bottom quality, granulometric composition and shape of cut rock bulk at transition from near well space to gotten well space. Characteristics of bench bottom working are allowed for by changes in performances of thrust engine at the level of bench bottom. Rock granulometric composition is defined by changes in performances of lift engines at filling and retention of filled bucket. Bulk compactness is defined by changes in performances of lift engine at scooping height registration at transition from gotten near well space to gotten well space.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of zoning and quality of blasting.
SUBSTANCE: rock destruction device (32) comprises a sealed elongated flexible tube (40), a cartridge (74) with energetic material located inside the tube (40), a valve device (50, 54, 56, 64, 66, 68) for providing filling the tube with the liquid and expanding, and the means (86) for detonating the energetic material during immersion of the cartridge in the liquid. The tube (40) has an inner channel (42) and the opposite sealed first end (44) and the second end (48). The cartridge (74) is mounted inside the channel (42), and the valve device (50, 54, 56, 64, 66, 68) comprises an inlet connection (64, 66, 68) for introducing the liquid into the channel to create a pressure in the channel and the expansion of the tube in at least the radial direction, and an outlet connection (50, 54, 56) for the exit of air from the channel (42). The inlet connection (64, 66, 68) comprises a valve (68) of filling of the single action providing the liquid passageway into the channel and eliminating its output from the channel. The outlet connection (50, 54, 56) comprises an air bleed valve.
EFFECT: safety and efficiency of the method of secondary rock breaking.
8 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises drilling of parallel rows of wells, charging them with explosives and their short-delay blasting. This short-delay blasting of radially arranged charges in membrane layers is performed as follows. First row of wells is blasted, the third one from the bench edge. Then, 1 row of wells is blasted with 25 ms delay while 2 rows of wells are last blasted with 50 ms delay. To locate the membrane layers, rock mass is photographed to define the radius of curvature of bench mining block slope by relationship with due allowance for acoustic stiffness of rocks. Weighted average layer-by-layer quantity of systematic fractures per the width of mining block coverage Wc is defined. Weighted average spacing between two adjacent systematic fractures is defined. Degree of crushing and line of resistance at bench bottom are defined. Sums of rock bed depths and strength factor (by Protodyakonov scale) are calculated. Rock strain rate, clamp factor, explosive potential energy and blast efficiency are defined.
EFFECT: maximum development of rock mass, decreased consumption of explosives, higher yield.
4 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method includes drilling of main and additional wells in a massif from enclosing rocks and solid inclusions. Selection of parameters for charges in the main wells is carried out on the basis of enclosing rocks, and selection of parameters for solid inclusions - based on the condition of equality of diameters of ZRD in enclosing rocks and solid inclusions. At the same time selection of parameters for the charge in additional wells is carried out by speed of detonation D01 and diameter d01 from the ratio with account of breaking tension limits
EFFECT: increased efficiency and even grinding of massifs of different strengh due to provision of equality of diameters of areas of controlled grinding in enclosing rocks and solid inclusions by taking into account of a combination of main properties of enclosing rocks, inclusions, diameter of a charge and a used PVV.
FIELD: oil-and-gas production.
SUBSTANCE: invention related to boring machines for direct running of upward boreholes of rocks with different strength. Boring machines for upwards boreholes running, includes driver unit with rock cutting tools, caterpillar trays with drive and unit for it thrust, installed with possibility to interact with floating lever mechanisms, connected to caterpillar trays and includes devices for caterpillar trays declination - adjustable rods with their length adjustment mechanisms. Boring machine equipped with reactive rods, connected with caterpillar trays thrust unit and one of the floating lever mechanism, located at side opposite to drive working unit. One of the floating lever mechanisms rods executed as the caterpillar trays declination device - adjustable rods, located at drive working unit side. Adjustable rods length adjustment mechanisms executed with adjustment fixing device. Drive working unit can be changeable: planet -dynamical or planet cutting tool.
EFFECT: boring machine controllability increase in because of its more direct motion along the well axis desired routing.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mineral resource industry and can be applied when developing ore and non-metal minefields for transporting mineral product under influence of proper weight. Method involves boring of a pilot well till design length is achieved by means of a forward travel reaming bit. After that, it is removed and on the free splined shaft there assembled is a reverse travel reaming bit which consists of telescopic cross-pieces and a centering guide. Then, the pilot well is enlarged with reverse travel till the required shape of "flattened cone" is obtained.
EFFECT: excluding rat-holing of the ascending workings, decreasing energy consumption when crushing mined rock, and creating safe working conditions.
FIELD: mining engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining engineering, particularly to facilities of mechanisation of unmanned coal extraction, for instance in conditions of hydromine. Mechanical-hydraulic gear for implementation of upward borehole contains bearer frame, executive device in the form of two counter-rotating cutting crowns and driving hydraulic actuator, water is used in the capacity of energy carrier. Gear is outfitted by drilling-anchorage device, control system, allowing at least two reversible spool-type distributor with moving element, and oil-station jetting hydraulic circuit. Drilling-anchorage device is installed by longitudinal axis of bearer frame with orientation of its boring tool along-track direction of gear and connection of its anchor mechanism to jetting hydraulic circuit of oil-station. And to the control system there are introduced two hydrocontrolled sliding shutter with retractable rods, operating in antiphase, one of which is connected to water inlet hydraulic circuit to driving hydraulic actuators and cutting crowns of operating member, and other - into water inlet hydraulic circuit to rotator of boring tool of drilling-anchorage device. Furthermore, one distributor is fixed on bearer frame of gear and interlocked simultaneously to retractable rods of both sliding shutters and hydraulically- to feeding hydraulic actuator of drilling-anchorage device, and the second is fixed on rod of its hydraulic actuator with ability of introduction of its moving elements into contact alternately with its body or with bearer frame of gear and hydraulically connected to controlling cavities of sliding shutters and wedged hydraulic actuator of anchor mechanism of drilling-anchorage device.
EFFECT: there are reduced mass of gear and labour-intensiveness of its maintenance.
SUBSTANCE: development complex for rise headings consists of spacing plate with hydraulic roller-type jacks resting on preliminary installed cribwork, with rails assembled on plate, on which boring machine moves, and also of lowered down barrier with folding screen and of brackets facilitating fixation of swinging grid for operation safety; development complex is characterised with following: protecting part of complex is equipped with telescopic barrier from side of roof, in extended part of barrier there are openings for drilling bore holes, while from side of ground of development there are two skies for displacement of development complex upward along rise; also to reduce dynamic loads during drilling and blasting works there are assembled damping supports to interact with barrier by means of jacks; additionally, spacing plate is equipped with retractable heads and shock absorbers arranged along perimeter of working.
EFFECT: improved labour conditions of miners, increased reliability of support of rise headings and facilitated safety of mining operations.
FIELD: mining industry, particularly to erect vertical mine tunnels.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting rock at face; loading the cut rock and conveying thereof; mounting forcing-through plant connected to pump station and provided with support member, hydraulic jacks and pressing member; installing lining components in mounting chamber; forcing tunnel shield body and lining components. The tunnel shield body is forced simultaneously with forcing lining members upwards for height equal to lining member width with the use of hydraulic jacks provided in forcing-through plant. The hydraulic jacks are brought into action by executive tunnel shield tool movement relative tunnel shield body. The executive tool is permanently pressed to the face. The pressing member of the forcing-through plant consists of composite parts. Lining components are mounted in the composite forcing-through plant by lowering and lifting each component of the pressing member in turns. Vertical tunnel construction system comprises tunnel shield with executive tool of rotor type, ground transshipping mechanism, forcing-through plant with support member, hydraulic jacks and with pressing member to apply action on lining to be constructed. The system also includes ground distribution means and pumping station with control panel. The pumping station is connected to hydraulic jacks of the forcing-through plant. The system also has support member of the tunnel shield and hydraulic jack of executive tunnel shield tool. The support member is installed between the tunnel shield and the forcing-through plant. Hydraulic jack of the executive tool may cooperate with that of forcing-through plant. Ground transshipping mechanism is made as ground channel with hopper secured to the support tunnel shield member. Pressing member of forcing-through plant is composed of several parts, which may be serially displaced relative the lining.
EFFECT: provision of vertical shield movement and tubing support forcing in upward direction.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes the formation of ice wall around a shaft outline. Execution of drilling-and-blasting works by drilling the breaking and main blastholes with their subsequent loading by explosive charges and blast firing. Monitoring of stresses in freezing columns in the zones of contact of two rocks with differing physico-mechanical properties. At achievement of maximum allowable values of tension in freezing columns in zones of contact of two rocks with differing physico-mechanical properties in a face between the last row of breaking blastholes and the shaft outline trunk contour two rows of compensation non-charged blastholes are drilled which form pre-outline and outline row of blastholes and located chequerwise with reference to each other. These rows are located at the pre-set distances from the main blastholes and the shaft contour. The centre of each compensation blasthole of the pre-outline row is located between the neighbouring blastholes and at the same distance from them.
EFFECT: decrease of power losses during drilling-and-blasting works inside a shaft contour that allows to increase the speed of its driving.
3 cl, 2 dwg