Method of concrete dam construction in river canyon
SUBSTANCE: concrete dam is erected in two stages. On the first - a reinforced concrete platform is built above the river at a mark sufficient to pass the floods and the concrete of the upper part of the dam is laid on it. On the second one, concrete is placed in the lower part of the dam. The first stage begins before completion, and the second stage - after the work on the tunnelling of the spillway tunnels, backfilling of the upper and lower jumpers, the river diversion into the spillway tunnels and drainage of the pit. In order to use spillway tunnels with lower capacity and, thus, to reduce capital costs for dam construction, work on the diversion of the river into spillway tunnels, laying concrete in the lower part of the dam and subsequent overlapping of the catchment tunnels is carried out during the intermittent period.
EFFECT: reduction of the dam construction time, due to earlier work on laying concrete in its body.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: dam includes a concrete wall at the side of an upper reach arranged in parallel to the dam with an expansion joint between them, which expands from the dam foundation upwards. The concrete wall is made in the form of lining on a rock slope and in the base of the expansion joint, the cavity of which is filled with asphalt concrete.
EFFECT: higher tightness of coupling of a concrete dam at the side of an upper face with a rock base and in general reliability of dam operation under operation conditions.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: dam comprises dam sections with expanded joints, upper and lower heads forming a closed cavity with soil fill and air heating in it. The soil fill is made in the lower part of the cavity of expanded joints with adjacency of its comb to the upper head of the dam. The lower slope of soil fill does not reach the lower head of the dam. Between the lower slope of the soil fill and the bottom head of the dam there is a cavity, which, as the closed cavity with soil fill may be arranged with covers.
EFFECT: increased stability of a dam, improved stress train behaviour of a lower part of a dam and as a whole higher reliability of dam operation.
SUBSTANCE: method includes reduction of maximum safe level of water in front of dam, opposite to such earlier set level, and thermal treatment of the upper arc belt body and holding rocks with facilities in areas of the upper arc belt soles adjacency. Thermal treatment is carried out with intensity that provides for reduction of stretching stresses in concrete near upper (discharge) face of dam down to the safe value at the water levels in front of the dam close to reduced maximum safe level.
EFFECT: reduced stretching forces in concrete near upper face of dam and in rocks of base, irreversible movements of dam rib towards lower reach, compressible tensions in reinforced concrete facing of turbine water ducts, asymmetrical movements of dam rib and scope of works.
9 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to hydrotechnical construction of massive concrete dams in severe climatic conditions. Method includes laying of concrete in multilayer blocks into upstream pillar, preferably in cold period of the year in warm curb under covers and open single-layer blocks into downstream wedge of concrete dam preferably in warm season of the year. In order to provide favorable conditions of concrete hardening in downstream wedge in horizontal seam between single-layer blocks at the distance from 0.3 to 1.5 m from surface of downstream wedge, on which heat insulation coat is arranged, for the time of winter interruption in its concreting, a heat generating system made of heating wires is placed, such as PPZhG, PNSV or similar. Heat generating system is used to maintain temperature mode in upper part of downstream wedge erected tier concrete work within the limits specified by thermal calculations.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase economic efficiency of concrete works performance technology, to prevent appearance of deep temperature cracks in concrete of downstream wedge and to reduce time of winter break in its concreting.
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly gravity dams.
SUBSTANCE: dam comprises upper pillar and lower wedge formed of rolled low-cement concrete, water-tight structure made as diaphragm extending from dam base to dam head and arranged between upper pillar and lower wedge. Dam head is supported by upper pillar and lower wedge with solid connection creation. Dam head is made of ordinary reinforced concrete. Diaphragm is made of asphalt concrete. Dam base is made as panel on which upper pillar, diaphragm and lower wedge are supported to create solid connection. Central dam part defined along height thereof has tunnel located in lower wedge and anchor belt formed in upper pillar, which directly abut upon diaphragm from both sides thereof and connected one to another by anchors passing through the diaphragm. Panel, anchor belt and tunnel body are made of ordinary reinforced concrete. Upper pillar has vertical upper part. Lower part thereof is inclined towards lower wedge. Diaphragm thickness a obeys the following inequality: a>0.4-0.008·H, where H is dam height in meters. Upper pillar and lower wedge may be formed of macroporous concrete. Head may be light-weight and have frame structure.
EFFECT: increased dam reliability, decreased dam erection time, reduced labor inputs and costs.
5 cl, 4 dgw, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: static, dynamic or vibration sensing is carried out preliminary at the selected points to the depth from 1 m with respect to the top of the earth fill. At the same time the samples of compacted soil of undisturbed structure are selected in order to determine the moisture and density of skeleton of the specified soil from several drilled wells at points at a distance of not more than 1 metre in plan from sensing points. Laboratory researches of standard compaction with definition of compacting factor depending on the density of soil skeleton, are carried out on the selected samples of soils from the body of compacted fill. Construction of correlation dependence is performed between the specified values of compaction factor and values of the resistance to penetration of standard cone into the soil during sensing, taking into account determinations previously performed in the laboratory followed by evaluation of compaction quality of the earth fill.
EFFECT: improving the accuracy of definition and identifying the areas of non-compacted soil for its subsequent local postcompaction.
SUBSTANCE: method consists in filling of a shell with evaporated sea salt, shaping the shell as the construction block. When an air impermeable shell is used, underpressure is developed inside it.
EFFECT: possibility to create elements of structures for construction with usage of cheap and available materials.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes fixation of a dam at the side of a discharge face to a bed rock by anchor rods formed as bundles, lower parts of which are strengthened with cement or another hardening mortar in wells. Anchor rods, for instance, steel reinforcement bars with the diameter of 15-20 mm, are placed by lower parts into wells that are filled with still non-hardened cement mortar and are drilled for arrangement of an anti-filtration curtain in the bed rock, for the depth of which the strong anchoring of these rods is provided, and simultaneously passive involvement of the bed rock volume strengthened by cementing into static operation of the dam-bed system. Afterwards the base part of the concrete dam is concreted, in which also after hardening of concrete, the upper parts of anchored rods are rigidly fixed spontaneously, providing for passive anchoring of the concrete dam to the bed rock at the same time.
EFFECT: increased stability of a concrete dam on a bed rock.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes production of civil and assembly works for erection of float-on elements in a dry dock, filling of the dry dock with water and release of float-on elements from the dock via a floating dam. Besides, at least two float-on elements are combined until they float with the help of temporary links into a single system that represents a stable multi-body vessel.
EFFECT: increased manufacturability of making float-on elements of hydraulic engineering structures, their material intensity is reduced, and stability of float-on elements is ensured with lower subsidence, and also requirements are reduced to characteristics of dry building docks.
8 cl, 6 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: first damages are sealed in hydraulic engineering under water surface by isolation of a damaged section in a hydraulic engineering structure from water access. Sealing is carried out using a sealing cement and sand mortar. The mortar is loaded into elastic water impermeable reservoirs, isolating from access of water and air. Reservoirs are laid from a barge with a grab to the damaged section of the hydraulic engineering structure. Further reservoirs are compacted with the grab grip until complete filling of the damaged section.
EFFECT: reduced cost of works performance, reduced labour intensiveness and higher efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises pressure vessels installed into a soil massif and used as setting marks, equipped with sensitive elements for remote measurement of pressure and temperature, a piezometric chamber that rises above pressure vessels and is equipped with a remote level indicator and temperature sensors and a hydraulic line, which hydraulically communicates the piezometric chamber with pressure vessels. Extension in case of hydraulic line stretching does not result in considerable reduction of its cross section area. The end of the hydraulic line opposite to the piezometric chamber is taken out from the soil massif into the area available for liquid drain. The piezometric chamber is filled with liquid to the level exceeding the elevation of installation of pressure vessels by not more than the height h, equal to h=Δperm/Δ, where Δperm - permissible error of detection of height position of a setting mark, mm; Δ - main error of a sensitive element for remote pressure measurement, unit fractions. The method of device operation includes establishment of of vertical positions of pressure vessels laid into the body of the soil massif and used as setting marks. The height position of each pressure vessel is determined using the mathematical error. Hydraulic lines are periodically drained from liquid, and by means of measurement of atmospheric air pressure in pressure vessels, as well as excessive pressure of air pumped into the hydraulic line under pressure close to the rated one for sensitive elements, corrections are determined, which are necessary to produce correct results of measurements of liquid pressure in pressure vessels. After replacement of the liquid in the piezometric chamber and in the hydraulic line until its temperature balances, by measurement of liquid temperature with all sensitive elements for temperature measurement, corrections are determined, which are required to produce the correct results of liquid temperature measurements. After replacement of the liquid in the piezometric chamber and in the hydraulic line until its temperature balances, control detection of pressure vessels height position is carried out, and (or) corrections are determined to calculate the height position of pressure vessels in case of measurements performance under the variable liquid temperature in the piezometric chamber and hydraulic line, i.e. during device operation they periodically calibrate both sensitive elements for measurement of pressure and sensitive elements for measurement of liquid temperature, and the device as a whole.
EFFECT: possibility of uninterrupted automated control of soil massif condition.
8 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes erection of flow-through dams with locks and connection canals. To lower water level upstream the dam of the Tsimlyanskiy water-engineering system, the "Eastern part of the Tsimlyanskoe storage pond is isolated from its "Western" Part by erection of a separation dam in the water area of the Tsimlyanskoe storage pond and a flow-through dam with locks in rock bases of the island "Kozhevenniy" in the bay near the mouth of the river Chir into the Tsimlyanskoe storage pond close to the existing fairway in the water area of the Tsimlyanskoe storage pond. From the "Eastern" part of the Tsimlyanskoe storage pond between the bay in the mouth of the river "Aksay-Kurmoyarskiy" and the "Dubovskoe" stoage pond, in the valley of the river Sal, the fairway "Aksay-Sal" is constructed. Also the "Volgodonskoe branch" is constructed from the fairway "Aksal-Sal", which is designed to supply water to cooling ponds of the Rostov nuclear power plants near the town of Volgodonsk and to city water intakes. Continuous water level is maintained in the riverbed at the elevation of +36 metres, supported with the retaining flow-through dam with locks, providing for transition of vessels from the water level in the "Aksay-Sal" canal equal to +36 metres, to the water level in the "Dubovskoe" storage pond. The "Dubovskoe storage pond is developed for supply of water to the "Semikarakorskaya" branch of the fairway from the "Dubovskoe" storage pond to the retaining flow-through dam with locks designed for transition of vessels from the "Semikarakorskaya" branch of the fairway into the Don river.
EFFECT: reduced loads at retaining structures of the Tsimlyanskiy water-engineering system and safe conditions for navigation.
SUBSTANCE: method includes filling of a dry mixture of siftings with cement, where tiles are tightly laid. Under the dry mixture of siftings with cement, a metal plastic tube with perforation connected to a steam boiler is laid onto a polyethylene film across the slope in a coiled manner. On the top the metal plastic tube is filled with a mixture from siftings with cement of 10÷20 cm layer. The produced carpet from the mixture of siftings with cement on top is coated with a decorative and wear-resistant material. As the wear-resistant material, tiles are used, which are manufactured by the industrial method. Steam is generated in a steam boiler, and via perforation is supplied into a mixture of siftings with cement, as a result of which setting takes place.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and reliability of protection of river mouth coasts and canals against erosion, and durability of service life of a coast protection structure, as a result of quick setting of a mixture of siftings with cement and protection against damage of reinforcement by plants.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to expand berthing facilities includes submerging piles, pile shells into soil, concreting a foundation grill onto them and installation of a crane beam, provides for performance of works in front of an expanded berth. In parallel to its cordon at a distance of a bridge crane track width with cantilevers, an additional narrow berth is built to reach large depths. A row of batter piles is deepened in addition to vertical support piles to perceive load from impact of a moored vessel. Crane beams are installed separately on an additional narrow berth and on a cordon of an expanded berth. At the same time a canal is created for passage of vessels with low draft between the additional narrow berth and the expanded berth under the middle part of the bridge crane with cantilevers.
EFFECT: using a group of inventions will make it possible to ensure higher efficiency of handling works from a vessel to a vessel in a water area or near a harbour berth, and also to expand berthing facilities to reach larger depths.
11 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves soil loading to container, its compaction, stripping of container and unloading of the finished product. Prior to soil loading to inner cavity of rigid container-shaper there submerged is flexible container from geotextile, the sides of which are pre-covered on outer side with geotextile strips that are located in the middle of each of outer sides of flexible container. Overall dimensions of container-shaper are specified depending on the shape and weight of geocontainer. Overall dimensions of flexible container are set so that they exceed overall dimensions of container-shaper; the height shall correspond to the appropriate height of container-shaper and be higher than it by the length that is enough for further connection and bending of upper free parts of flexible container so that inner space for arrangement of detachable metal cross-beam in it is formed. Prior to submersion the hinged sides of container-shaper are fixed in vertical position, flexible container is submerged into it and single forming inner cavity is formed. Upper parts of flexible container, which go beyond the limits of container-former, are folded together with straps to external sides of its hinged sides and fixed. Soil is filled to the single inner forming cavity till container-shaper is fully loaded. Soil compaction is performed layer by layer till solid soil in the form of volumetric soil geocontainer is formed. After that, from external sides of hinged sides of container-shaper there removed are folded free upper parts of flexible container and together with straps lifted, connected, folded, and two locking metal plates are applied to those parts on both sides and they are connected in rigid manner till inner space is formed. Ends of free part of flexible container are left so that they go from under locking metal plate. In the formed inner space there arranged is detachable metal cross-beam with two ring-shaped elements, one of which is countersunk. Hinged sides of container-shaper are opened, both ring-shaped elements of cross-beam are grasped and soil geocontainer is removed.
EFFECT: increasing efficiency of manufacturing technology of geocontainer of volumetric design with increased strength, improved reliability and reinforcing ability to resist waves and streams.
3 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: shipbuilding; marine structures and underwater systems for single-leg mooring and servicing of ships, mainly tankers.
SUBSTANCE: proposed ship is provided with aft guide member for pipe line made in form of bearing surface secured on load-bearing member, on transom and deck of aft extremity embracing it by bearing surface. Underwater system includes structure secured on sea bottom and made in form of hollow hull with bottom, cover and bulkheads. Hull is provided with guard secured on bottom and provided with screen made from under-bottom fins. This system is assembled by means of ship from which hull of underwater system is lowered to ground base at simultaneous lowering of hose-mooring line by aft guide member followed by connection of bitter end of hose-mooring line.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency, stability and reliability of system in the course of operation.
16 cl, 13 dwg