Intensifying heat exchange surface for extension of dynamic meniscus
FIELD: heating system.
SUBSTANCE: on longitudinal ribs of intensifying micro-ribbed heat exchange surfaces perform many longitudinal microgrooves, asymmetrically located relative to the plane of longitudinal ribs and having different widths. The width of the micro-groove is the smaller, the closer it is to the apex of the rib.
EFFECT: increasing the efficiency of evaporation by creating a micro-ribbed surface with a large area of three-phase contact lines.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to intensification methods of liquid heat exchange with a smooth surface and can be used at manufacture of smooth surface cooling systems, namely at manufacture of cooling systems of microelectronic equipment. Multiple hydrophobic areas with diameter d, which are located in a staggered order at distance L from each other, are formed on a smooth surface being cooled. Diameter d of each hydrophobic area and distance L of hydrophobic areas from each other are determined based on properties of the liquid and the surface being cooled.
EFFECT: intensification of heat exchange at boiling on a smooth surface being cooled with minimum costs for treatment of the surface being cooled and providing uniform heat exchange.
3 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat engineering, and namely to material, the emitting/absorbing capacity of which is close to that of an absolutely black body. Metamaterial represents periodically alternating strips of conducting material (metal) and dielectric; with that, width of dielectric strips is larger than length of emission maximum wave at the specified temperature; conducting material cross section has the shape of rectangles with a flat end face projecting onto the emitting surface, or triangles with a vertex directed towards the emitting surface and leaving it; in both cases the curvature radius between adjacent planes of the conducting material shall be less than length of emission maximum wave at the specified temperature; at the triangle cross section of the conducting material the height of triangles is larger than length of emission maximum wave at the specified temperature.
EFFECT: creation of material, the emitting/absorbing capacity of which is close to an absolutely black body.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: in a device comprising equipment with a source of heat operating in a maximum heat mode, a cold part corresponding to the equipment, and an element to transfer heat from equipment to the cold part, the specified equipment and the cold part are divided mainly with a gas gap, besides, the specified element comprises at least one thermal pipe stretching via the specified gap and contacting by its one end with the equipment, and with the other end - with the cold plate, besides, the specified element is arranged as capable of limiting heat sent to the cold part under thermal values exceeding the determined threshold value that is below the maximum value of the specified mode.
EFFECT: elimination of equipment overheat.
9 cl, 18 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device includes some equipment containing heat energy source, some part which is relatively cold in relation to the above equipment, and some heat-conducting element capable of providing the transfer of heat energy from the above equipment to the above cold part. At that, the above element is made so that under certain temperature conditions exceeding the specified temperature conditions the above equipment and the above cold part turn to be thermally isolated from each other.
EFFECT: protection of equipment against overheating.
20 cl, 15 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a cavity to measure pressure, the first flowing channel, adaptor with variable pressure and pressure-dependent flow switching unit, at that the first flowing channel is connected functionally to the cavity for pressure measurement and adaptor with variable pressure, at that pressure-dependent flow switching unit adjoins the adaptor with variable pressure. According to embodiment at change in one fluid characteristic fluid delivery to the cavity is changed in order to measure pressure. In one embodiment change lies in increased intensity of flow delivery to the cavity in order to change pressure. In another embodiment change lies in decreased intensity of flow delivery to the cavity in order to change pressure. Fluid flow regulator comprises the device for fluid streaming; the second flowing channel; the third flowing channel; and the fourth flowing channel.
EFFECT: fluid flow regulation between several zones.
45 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to transport engineering. The medium control structure contains the main flue for controlled medium flow passage, device for selective feeding the make-up medium into the main flue in two directions and devices for selection of feeding direction located outside the main flue. Medium control method includes phase of selective feeding in two directions one make-up medium into flue for controlled medium flow transfer. One of variables of the mentioned medium thermodynamic condition is changed. The flue contains the mentioned medium control structure.
EFFECT: decreased impact of controlled medium on the mentioned devices.
13 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes transfer of polluting viscous liquid mediums, such as dense solid-liquid suspensions of lignocellulose biomass and its components, which are under high pressure, with application of massive of telescopic valves.
EFFECT: minimisation of pollution with liquid media.
27 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: turbulence promoter is intended for use in closed pipeline system upstream of control assemblies for removal of dirt. Proposed device consists of three parts, i.e. first flange part, second conical part and third conical part. Conical nozzles in through hole of the first flow medium part has three or more smaller channels through which second part of flow medium passes towards turbulence promoter outlet. Second conical part has three or more smaller channels at conical side of inlet cone. Repeated ingress of said second part into medium first part creates swirl and turbulence to accelerate higher flow velocities.
EFFECT: minimised human interference in problem solving in the cases when no dirt pockets exist.
6 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises measuring pressure difference at actual length of pipeline without anti-turbulence additive in pumped fluid, adding said additive of different concentration till pipeline length filling, measuring pressure difference after every filling and calculating additive efficiency for every concentration by the following formula: φ(Ci)=(ΔP0-ΔPCi)/(ΔP0-ΔP”гст”). Note here that flow rate of pumped fluid is kept equal to that without additive by measures not affecting resistance head in tested pipeline length during adding said additive and measuring pressure difference.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of determination.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises introducing additive into pipe at several spaced apart points, said spacing not exceeding the length of additive efficient effect.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of anti-turbulence additive.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: from the beginning moment of the additive introduction to the tested linear section of pipeline, flow rate of pumped liquid is kept constant and pressure difference measurement is performed continuously on ends of the tested linear section. Time interval is measured from the beginning moment t0 of the additive introduction to the beginning moment t1 of pressure difference reduction on ends of linear section of the pipeline. After that, time interval is measured from the beginning moment t0 of the additive introduction to the beginning moment t2 of interruption of pressure difference reduction on ends of linear section of the pipeline. Distance Lak of initial boundary of effective operation of the additive from the place of its injection is determined as per the following equation: Lak=V (t1-t0), where V - pipeline liquid velocity. Distance L2 of final boundary of the additive effective operation from the place of its injection is determined as per the following equation: L2=V (t2-t0).
EFFECT: providing the possibility of determining the boundaries of the effective operation section of turbulent viscosity reducing additive.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydrodynamics and a method of exciting acoustic vibrations in a fluid medium and an apparatus for realising the method. The method involves forming a stream of the fluid medium and feeding said stream into a treatment zone having reflectors and flexible obstacles in form of mechanical resonators, generating parametric resonance vibrations at each point of the fluid medium, simultaneously increasing the amplitude of vibrations of each flexible obstacle in resonance conditions with parametric resonance vibrations, exciting harmonic acoustic vibrations in the fluid medium with formation of a cavitation zone and removing the treated fluid medium from the treatment zone. Vibrations are excited by moving the fluid medium relative the flexible obstacles which are fitted with cavitators which are mounted on mechanical resonators or are made in form of ends of resonators which cambered towards the incident flow, wherein the fluid medium flows around the obstacles in developed cavitation flow conditions with formation of a pulsating cavitation zone (cavern) whose surface serves as a source of acoustic vibrations, and resonance conditions of a defined overtone are created by placing flexible obstacles relative reflectors and each other at a distance which depends on acoustic properties of the fluid medium. The apparatus according to one of the versions has a housing made from at least two flat or curved plates which act as reflectors; mechanical resonators are made with ends which are cambered towards the incident flow or are fitted with cavitators, wherein the distance from the reflection points lying on the reflectors to mechanical resonators and the distance between the mechanical resonators is a multiple of λ/4, where λ is the wavelength of the fluid medium which corresponds to the frequency of acoustic vibrations in a defined medium.
EFFECT: invention increases efficiency of exciting and generating vibrations of a fluid medium, widens the cavitation zone and also enables to obtain abrasive media which are stable over time, such media including dispersions, suspensions and emulsions, suitable for prolonged storage without deterioration of properties obtained from treatment owing to use of a fluid medium as an acoustic vibration radiator.
9 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas production.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in intermittent feed of displacement fluid via two working ducts in common outlet manifold furnished with hydraulic cylinder with two pistons coupled by rod. Two openings are made in hydraulic cylinder wall to communicate with appropriate working duct. One piston is fitted inside hydraulic cylinder between said openings while another piston is arranged in outlet manifold. Compression and expansion waves are created in said outlet manifold by reciprocation of said pistons. Distribution of fluid flows between two working ducts is effected by feeding flat jet onto flat wedge arranged at definite distance from slot nozzle facing the flow. This invention differs from known designs in that pressure difference between working ducts is used to generate pressure pulses in outlet manifold.
EFFECT: optimised conversion of pressure difference in working ducts in that in outlet manifold.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: movement method consists in formation of coaxial concentric layer at inner surface of the tube. Methyl alcohol in quantity of (17.4÷53) wt % is added to water so that alcoholic solution the density of which is equal to density of pumped oil or oil product is formed.
EFFECT: creation of stable annular layer of low-viscosity fluid owing to neutralisation of gravity force and Archimedes force, which appear at difference of densities of oil or oil product and low-viscosity fluid flowing in coaxial concentric layer at inner surface of the tube.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: cavitation device has passage provided with the cavitation insert, working chamber connected with the passage, and diffuser. The opening provided in the passage are made of nozzles which are mounted for providing a mixing step.
EFFECT: improved design.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: oil producing industry; oil refining industry; petrochemical and chemical industries; transportation of high-viscosity Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids via pipe lines.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes forming coaxial concentric layer of water at inner surface of pipe by adding water to oil and setting the oil and water flows in rotary motion effected by bladed mixers mounted after sections where velocities of flows change by magnitude or direction at angular velocity determined by the following formula:
where ω is angular velocity of bladed mixer rotation; g is free fall acceleration and R is radius of pipe line.
EFFECT: reduction of hydraulic resistance and power requirements due to forming rotary motion of flows behind sections where their velocities change in magnitude or direction.
FIELD: hydraulic systems used in different industries.
SUBSTANCE: according to proposed method, liquid to be piped and pipeline are chosen so that liquid surface tension coefficient and inner diameter of pipeline should be in the following ratio: σ/d≥10-18N/m2 where σ is liquid surface tension coefficient, N/m; d is inner diameter of pipeline, m. Laminar flow of liquid in pipeline is provided without destruction of liquid surface layer at gas-liquid interface using special device for organizing delivery of gas. Restrictor is used in pipeline which is chosen depending on inner diameter of pipeline and viscosity of liquid so that flow rate of gas passing through said device provides laminary flow of liquid transported to intake reservoir without destruction of surface layer at gas-liquid interface. Delivery unit is made in form of gas feeder from which gas is fed through restrictor into pipeline with liquid.
EFFECT: provision of liquid piping at minimum losses.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: in method of high-viscous liquids traveling in pipeline with wall layer from the fluid solution, at that in the capacity of liquid viscoplastic fluid is used and ratio of radius of wall layer of viscoplastic fluid solution and radius of pipeline is where r, R - accordingly radius of viscoplastic liquid wall layer and radius of pipeline, m; τ0 - limit shear stress of viscoplastic liquid solution, Pa; η - plastic viscosity of viscoplastic liquid solution, Pa s; μ - viscosity of pumped liquid, Pa s; Δp - pressure difference in pipeline, Pa; l - pipeline length, m.
EFFECT: reduction of hydraulic resistance and power inputs for hydraulic transport of highly viscous liquids.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method consists in effecting oil in process of transporting with multi-frequency acoustic signal containing at least two monochromatic constituents, amplitudes and frequencies of which will satisfy condition of resonance overlapping, or, according to the second version of effect, to multi-frequency acoustic wide band signal with continuous spectrum of frequencies.
EFFECT: there is facilitated decreasing hydraulic resistance to flow of liquid in pipe, which accelerates rate of flow of liquid in pipeline.