Method for neutralizing hypochlorite calcium pulp
SUBSTANCE: method involves thermal decomposition of calcium hypochlorite with stirring with hot steam in the presence of a nichrome catalyst treated in a pickling tank with a solution of hydrochloric acid. In the spent hydrochloric acid solution formed during the processing of the nichrome catalyst after its use in the process of thermal decomposition of calcium hypochlorite, the content of active chlorine is determined. When the spent hydrochloric acid solution is stirred, a solution of sodium thiosulfate is gradually added. The amount of sodium thiosulfate solution in the spent hydrochloric acid solution is maintained at 5-15 times excess from the stoichiometrically necessary one. The neutralized solution is drained into sewage.
EFFECT: reducing toxic substances and active chlorine in wastewater.
5 cl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: claimed is method and deammonifying installation for purification of ammonium-containing sewage waters. Deammonifying installation for purification of ammonium-containing sewage waters contains aeration tank and hydrocyclone for separation of sludge from aeration tank into relatively heavy fraction, which includes bacteria, performing anaerobic ammonium oxidation, and relatively light fraction. Hydrocyclone contain input, connected with aeration tank, for return of separated relatively heavy fraction into aeration tank and upper output, connected with aeration tank, for discharge of separated relatively light fraction from hydrocyclone. Hydrocyclone contains cylindrical segment and conic segment. Surface of internal walls of conic segment is rough on certain parts. Rough surface of internal walls of conic segment has higher degree of roughness than surface of internal walls of cylindrical segment. Method of purification of ammonium-containing sewage waters is realised in deammonifying installation.
EFFECT: simplification of ammonium and nitrite conversion into elementary nitrogen.
33 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ecology and environmental protection. For cleaning filtering system is erected and used on soil slope surfaces. Filtering system is composed of the slope soil top layer processed with aqueous solution of polyelectrolyte complex. The latter comprises the mix of hydrolysed polyarcylonitrile and polyethylene polyamine at the ratio of 1:3.5-1:4.5, wt %. Processed soil sorption capacity saturated, said soil is removed and disposed or recovered.
EFFECT: simplified cleaning, higher erosion resistance of run-off surfaces.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical industry. Mixed coagulant from mineral raw material is obtained by dissolution of boehmite-kaolinite bauxide in autoclave with hydrochloric acid with concentration 220 g/l with ratio S:L=1:6 for 1-3 hours in interval of temperatures 150-180°C.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase coagulation ability of mixed coagulant - hydrooxichloride of aluminium and iron with concentration by Al2O3 2,32-6,87 and by Fe2O3 0,94-1,02 wt %, in water purification: by turbidity and colour.
2 dwg, 6 tbl
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: vacuum deaerator contains a branch pipe for supply of chemically purified deaerated water to the distributing header, the first jet plate fitted with a finned overflow edge and a punched steam discharge sheet, the second jet plate having a finned overflow edge and a punched steam discharge sheet. Fins of overflow edges of the first and second jet plates are made rectangular at an angle 30-60° to vertical line with inclination towards drain from overflow edges of flows of the deaerated water, the cross-flow plate with cross-flow and overflow edges, three punched pipelines for supply of heating water to the cross-flow plate, the bubbling sheet with overflow edge, the punched pipeline for supply of heating water under the bubbling sheet, at least, two pipelines for discharge of non-evaporated heating water to the inlet of the bubbling sheet, the partition blocking discharge of non-evaporated heating water into the flow of deaerated water drained from the bubbling sheet, passing through the bubbling sheet at least two L-shaped boxes of heating vapour cross-flow, installed evenly along the deaerator housing in the space between the overflow edge of the bubbling sheet and the punched pipeline for supply of heating water under the bubbling sheet, at least one branch pipe for discharge of vented steam and one branch pipe for discharge of deaerated water.
EFFECT: increase of overall performance of the vacuum deaerator.
FIELD: testing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of pressure test of electro-hydraulic-mechanical systems and can be used for degassing the working fluid in technical devices using in their constructive solutions the flowing hydraulic tanks of open type. The method comprises degassing the working fluid on the grid in the flowing hydraulic tanks, imparting the grid of low-frequency transverse vibration, and at the inlet of the grid by bubbling the gas liquid layer is created with a high-frequency pulsating low-intensity pressure. The flowing hydraulic tank of open type (1) comprises a lid (2), partitions (3, 4), a grid (5), the pipes of discharge (6) and intake (15) of the working fluid, a drain (7), intermediate (18), intake (14) cavities and involves the installation of a grid (5) on the elastic supports (8). Below the grid (5) on the side of the flow outlet into the cavity (18) a pneumatic dynamic vibrator (9) is mounted with the modulated phase of gas oscillation, the outlet nozzle (10) of which is mounted on the grid (5).
EFFECT: invention provides increased efficiency of degassing fluid, the degassing process intensification, which enables to improve and expand the indices of quality of electro-hydraulic-mechanical systems and their components.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a polymer obtained via condensation polymerisation. The polymer is obtained from at least two monomers: acrylic monomer and alkylamine. Said polymer is modified such that it contains a dithiocarbamate salt group capable of cleaning one or more compositions containing one or more metals. The polymer has molecular weight of 500-200000.
EFFECT: obtaining polymers for various media as means of purification from metals, including waste water systems.
13 cl, 5 ex, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: inventions relate to production of desalinated water and can be used for obtaining drinking water from sea and salt waters. Extraction of water from saline solution is carried out with application of selective solvent, containing carboxylic acid, which has carbon chain from 6 to 13 carbon atoms long. In order to realise the method saline solution emulsion in selective solvent is prepared, selective solvent is heated before and after contact with saline solution to obtain first phase, which includes selective solvent and water from saline solution, dissolved in selective solvent, and second phase, including highly-concentrated remaining part of saline solution. After that, first phase is separated from second phase, first phase, including selective solvent and dissolved water, is extracted from highly-concentrated remaining part of saline solution or highly-concentrated remaining part is extracted from saline solution from first phase. First phase is cooled after extraction to precipitate water from selective solvent and precipitated water is removed from selective solvent.
EFFECT: invention provides obtaining almost pure fresh water.
19 cl, 15 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for desalting of sea, hard and/or contaminated water by direct osmosis desalting. To this end, contaminated feed solution with water at first osmosis pressure is forced through semi-permeable diaphragm to discharge side that has the flow of carrier solution with second osmosis pressure on discharge side of semi-permeable diaphragm. Diluted discharge solution is heated to agglomerate discharged diluted substance to two-phase flow containing liquid phase of agglomerated dissolved substance and liquid water phase. Then, agglomerated dissolved substance is separated to get enriched flow to be cooled to obtain cooled single-phase water-rich flow to be subjected to removal of residual dissolved substance to produce purified water.
EFFECT: higher quality and desalting and purification.
23 cl, 4 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method of purification of phenol-containing sewage waters of alkali-hydrolysis processing of rice husk includes preliminary desiliconisation of phenol-containing sewage waters by their processing with hydrochloric acid with precipitation of solid and separation from solution of silicon-containing product and electrochemical oxidation in presence of chloride ions in electrolytic cell with application of direct current. Process of electrochemical oxidation is carried out with concentration of chloride ions 0.10-0.11 mol/l in non-diaphragm electrolytic cell with application of ruthenium-titanium oxide anode and titanium cathode for 70-90 min with current density 100-150 mA/cm2 with constant mixing. Required concentration of chloride ions is provided by dilution with water of phenol-containing sewage waters after their desiliconisation.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase degree of purification of polydisperse concentrated phenol-containing sewage waters of alkali-hydrolysis processing of rice husk from phenol and other organic pollutants.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a flotation device, a frame, a hydraulic drive. On the frame the longitudinal rods are pivotally mounted, and on their cantilever portion the linkage for attachment of the drum is mounted with the ability of movement in a vertical plane. The drum is mounted with the ability of replacement of the drum holder, at that the drum is rotated by the hydraulic motor through the belt drive in the direction opposite of the flotation device movement.
EFFECT: improvement of quality of the implementation of the technological process of cleaning the water reservoirs from blue-green algae and reduction of energy intensity.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in chemical industry. Method of joint obtaining calcium chloride and carbon dioxide includes interaction of calcium-containing raw material, including calcium carbonate, with 20-36% hydrochloric acid, supplied in doses. Formed solution of calcium chloride CaCl2 is passed through calcium carbonate CaCO3 and/orlimestone flour, with formed carbon dioxide being passed through CaCO3 or limestone flour and CaCl2. Calcium-containing raw material is subjected to interaction with 20-36% hydrochloric acid first at temperature 20-40°C with the following increase of temperature to 55-70°C. Molar ratio CaCO3 : HCl constitutes 1 : (1.8-2.2). Molar ratio of CaCO3 or limestone flour and CaCl2 constitutes 1 : (1-3).
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase process productivity, reduce release of harmful substances into atmosphere and sewage waters.
11 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl, 10 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of granular calcium chloride which can be used in the oil industry and public and road facilities. A nonionic surfactant in amount of 0.0005-0.001 wt % is added to liquid wastes in form of a suspension of filter liquid from ammonia and soda production. The suspension of filter liquid is heated to temperature of 80-95°C for 0.5-1 hours. Hydrochloric acid is added until attaining reaction mixture pH of 6.0-6.5. The reaction mixture is evaporated until achieving density of 1.4-1.45 g/cm3. The evaporated solution is cooled to temperature of 10-15°C, followed by separation of ammonium chloride crystals. Ammonium chloride crystals are separated by filtering and then taken for further reaction with lime to obtain a suspension of calcium chloride. The calcium chloride suspension is dehydrated and crystallised at temperature of 100-150°C to obtain the end product - granular calcium chloride.
EFFECT: invention increases efficiency of the process of evaporating liquid wastes from soda production and reduces scaling of heat-exchange equipment.
SUBSTANCE: aqueous solutions of metal chlorides are successively treated with an oxidant and a calcium chloride source and/or barium chloride source with molar ratio of oxidant and divalent iron ions in the range (0.95-1.90):1.0 and molar ratio of calcium chloride and/or barium chloride and sulphate ions in the range (0.9-1.1):1.0 with subsequent coprecipitation of a hydrate of iron (III) oxide and calcium sulphate and/or barium sulphate at pH of the reaction medium between 5.0 and 9.5 and separation of the liquid and solid phase of the suspension.
EFFECT: invention increases degree of purification of solutions, efficiency of the process and allows for carrying out the process in continuous mode.
14 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of granular calcium chloride, which can be used in communal and road facilities. The method of producing granular calcium chloride involves preparation of a concentrated solution of calcium chloride from evaporated clarified still waste liquid from ammonia-soda production and subsequent dehydration and crystallisation. Non-ionic surfactant is added to the clarified still waste liquid and then evaporated to concentration of calcium chloride of 35-45%, after which it is taken for dehydration and crystallisation in a boiling-spouting drier-granulator. The spouting bed in the drier-granulator is created by a stream of furnace gases, fed through a central inlet at a rate of 50-55 m/s at temperature 700-750°C, and the boiling bed is created by an air stream at temperature 20-60°C, which is fed at a rate of 3-5 m/s.
EFFECT: intensification of the drying process, recycling still waste liquid, obtaining granular calcium chloride.
6 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: inorganic chemistry, chemical technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for manufacturing calcium chloride that is used widely in chemical, petrochemical and chemical-pharmaceutical industries, in particular, in manufacturing cooling agents, reagent for drying gases and liquids, in producing barium chloride and latex coagulation. Method for producing calcium chloride involves interaction of calcium-containing raw with hydrochloric acid at temperature 20-50°C wherein hydrochloric acid in the concentration 20-37% is added to calcium-containing raw in the mole ratio CaCO3 : HCl = 1:2 followed by passing formed acid solution of CaCl2 through CaCO3 and formed carbon dioxide through CaCO3 and CaCl2 taken in the mole ratio = (1-4):1. Invention provides enhancing quality of the end product, utilization of exhaust gaseous hydrochloric acid, possibility for using natural limestone and calcium-containing waste.
EFFECT: improved preparing method.
5 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 11 ex
FIELD: nonferrous metallurgy and inorganic compounds technologies.
SUBSTANCE: invention is directed to processing of calcium chloride solutions produced by gas-treatment plants when carrying out reuse of titanium-magnesium production emission gases. Process according to invention comprises treating calcium chloride solution with reducer in the form of sodium hydrosulfide solution followed by concentrating solution and thermally treating it with flue gases in fluidized bed. Along with reducer, calcium oxide is added to solution in amount corresponding to 0.005-0.01 wt parts per 1 wt part of solution. Resulting mixture is heated, stirred, solid phase is removed and clarified solution is concentrated and thermally treated.
EFFECT: reduced level of magnesium chloride in finished product due to conversion thereof into insoluble magnesium oxide.
4 cl, 2 ex
FIELD: inorganic compounds technologies.
SUBSTANCE: granulated calcium chloride is prepared in fluidized-bed vessel, wherein fluidized bed is created by flue gas flow at bed temperature 150-200°C, gas flow velocity in the bed 2.5-3.0 m/s, and hydraulic resistance in bed 500-700 kg/m2. Granules are sprayed with 46-50% calcium chloride solution, which was preliminarily concentrated by leaving gas heat and further concentrated by dissolving dust fractions.
EFFECT: achieved uniform granulometric composition, increased strength of granules, and reduced moisture content therein.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: petrochemical industry; methods of processing of the hydromineral raw materials with production of the granulated calcium chloride, lithium, bromine chloride (carbonate, hydroxide)and magnesium oxide.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of petrochemical industry, in particular, to the method of processing of the hydromineral raw materials with production of the granulated calcium chloride, lithium, bromine chloride (carbonate, hydroxide)and magnesium oxide. The method of production of granulated calcium chloride at the complex processing of the natural return brines includes settling of CaCl2·6Н2О with an admixture of magnesium chloride from the supersaturated return brines of calcium chloride type, granulation of the settling and production of magnesium oxide. The settling containing 90-93 % of CaCl2·6Н2О is separated, the mother brine enriched with lithium and bromine in 1.3-1.4 times, is used for consecutive production of the lithium concentrate in the form of the water solution of lithium chloride with the molar ratio of LiCl:CaCl2 equal to 12-17, and also bromines and magnesium oxide. The technical result of the invention is involvement in the industrial cycle of the new type of the raw material - the natural return brines of the calcium chloride type, that is the first time offered for production of calcium chloride.
EFFECT: the invention offers involvement in the industrial cycle of the new type of the raw material - the natural return brines of the calcium chloride type for production of calcium chloride.
6 cl, 6 ex, 2 tbl, 2 dwg
FIELD: production of calcium chloride from aqueous solutions by dehydration.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes dehydration of calcium chloride solutions in fluidized-bed apparatus by spraying the solution in layer through injectors at control of granulometric composition of dehydrated product by degree of spraying, separation of target fraction of product and treatment of finely-dispersed classes of product by starting solution and return of them to apparatus. Target fraction of product is subjected to treatment by solution of calcium chloride at temperature of 30-46°C taken in the amount sufficient for obtaining the product at preset content of crystallohydrate water in presence of recycled particles. Proposed method makes it possible to obtain dehydrated granulated product at content of crystallohydrate water up to 20%.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: inorganic compounds technologies.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fluidized-bed manufacture of granulated calcium chloride from solution. Process comprises providing concentrated calcium chloride solution dehydration and crystallization thereof to form granules in fluidized-bed furnace by way of feeding solution into furnace in countercurrent to furnace gas produced by combustion of natural gas with air in combustor. Granules are then cooled and emission gas dust is trapped and returned into the solution concentration stage. According to invention, concentrated solution, prior to be fed into fluidized-bed furnace, is preheated by furnace gas by circulation of solution in the tank-pump-heater system. Finished product, prior to be cooled, is divided into two portion. One portion is sent to calcium chloride concentration stage and resulting mixture is circulated in the tank-pump-heater system, whereas the other portion is used to cool finished product.
EFFECT: increased productivity of calcium chloride granulation process and installation.
12 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in chemical industry. In order to obtain concentrated solution of alkali metal hypochlorate chlorine and solution of alkali metal hydroxide are introduced into lower part of vertical reservoir. Hypochlorite solution is withdrawn in upper part of reservoir. One part of withdrawn solution is product concentrated hypochlorite solution, with the second part being returned into lower part of reservoir. Lower part of reservoir has section smaller than section of its upper part. Crystals of alkali metal chloride are discharged near lower end of lower part of reservoir. Recycle and introduction of reagents are selected in such a way that crystals of alkali metal chloride are in fact fluidised in lower part of reservoir.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to obtain concentrated solutions of alkali metal hypochlorite with low content of chlorates.
7 cl, 1 dwg, 4 ex