Method of laying open face with eolian sand in shallow coal seam in western desert mining areas
SUBSTANCE: method is proposed for laying an open face with eolian sand in a shallow coal seam in western desert mining areas that is suitable for a coal-mining face that has improved self-stabilization of the roof and has the ability to form an open face of a certain size in the back. With a small amount of work, including drilling from the earth surface into a shallow-lying coal seam and good flow rates of aeolian sand, drilling is performed on an open face formed after extraction of the working face, and the open slope is directly laid with eolian sand step by step before underground periodic loading so that the laying of the open face with eolian sand is provided. Since the occurrence of the coal seam in the west is shallow and there is a thick overlapping loose layer, as well as a thin rock foundation, the amount of work required for drilling is small, the costs are low and the construction cycle is short. In addition, the problems of destruction of the overlapping rock and sedimentation of the earth surface can be effectively solved, while eliminating the danger of breakthrough of water and quicksand, which reduces the impact on the environment of the western mining areas.
EFFECT: new technical approach is designed for the initial development phase in the western desert areas of China's mining works, and has a high economic efficiency of production, provides a reduction in investments in equipment and low cost of laying.
6 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: slag includes acid electrolyte with solution density ρ=1.310 g/cm3, and slag of steel-smelting production is electric steel-smelting slag. The cement-free binder including slag of steel-smelting production, burnt rocks of mine dump and slag produced as a result of neutralisation of spent electrolytes of acid accumulators by lime, contains electric steel-smelting slag as slag of steel-smelting production, and slag contains electrolyte with solution density ρ=1.310 g/cm3 at the following ratio, wt %: burnt rocks 14, steel-smelting slag - electric steel-smelting 78, slag 8.
EFFECT: increased strength.
SUBSTANCE: filling mixture compound including a binding agent, an inert filler and water, where the binding agent and the inert filler are made from ore benefication wastes, with a fraction size of not more than 20 mm, one part of which is subject to dry activation by preliminary agitation leaching, separation of a liquid phase, drying and activation in a disintegrator, and the other part is mixed with a leaching solution; the obtained pulp is activated in the disintegrator; the liquid phase is separated; a deposit is dried and a dry mixture of the compound is prepared, wt %: a binding agent - the specified product of dry activation 42, inert filler - the specified deposit 58; after that, water is added in terms of 280-290 l per 1 m3 of dry mixture; rotation speed of a working element of the disintegrator is at least 200 Hz.
EFFECT: achievement of sufficient strength at reduction of content of metals and cost.
SUBSTANCE: stowing composition comprising portland cement, plastifying agent, fine-grained filler - sand and water, additionally comprises as a binder the milled tailings of wet magnetic separation of ferrous quartzites with an average particle size of 2.071 microns, as a plastifying agent - superplasticiser SP-1, and the sand with an average particle size of 62.26 microns with the following ratio of components, wt %; the said cement - 13.48; the said sand - 56.43; the said wastes - 2.70; superplasticiser SP-1 - 0.138; water - the rest.
EFFECT: decrease in cement consumption, and increase in the strength of the stowing composition, use of sand with a lower fineness modulus.
1 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining industry and may be used in development of thick edge ore bodies with unstable ores, for instance, kimberlite pipes, by the underground method. The method includes division of a deposit into panels and layers with their extraction in stopes in descending order and subsequent filling with hardening mixtures, parameters of layer stoping are increased along height and width to chamber dimensions, and along the length they are divided into sections, besides, chamber stopes and sections in the vertical-longitudinal section are given the shape of the isosceles trapezoid. Then their mining is carried out in stages so that during mining of each subsequent section the level of the haulage horizon is reduced by the height of the sectional haulage mine, for this purpose, initially, in the chamber-stop roof for all of its sections they arrange a common drilling-filling mine, and the sectional haulage mine, for each subsequent section, is mined under the filling massif of the earlier mined section, besides, after complete mining of the previous section its haulage mine in the reverse order is expanded to the width of the previously filled section, at the same time the direction of mining of chambers-stopes on each subsequent underlying layer is changed for the opposite one.
EFFECT: increased intensity of deposit mining in case of unstable ores, due to provision of stability of ore walls of stope entries during the whole period of performance of stoping works and exclusion of breaks in a filling massif, and also improved conditions for ventilation of mines.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining industry and may be used in development of thick steeply-dipping valuable ore bodies by the open-underground method. The method includes development of a pit to design depth with arrangement of the board to the limit position, mining of bottom and near-edge-zone reserves of ore with application of underground mines, transportation of broken ore in underground mines. Development of near-edge-zone reserves of the ore is carried out after extraction of bottom ones with a chamber system of development under protection of a combined rock-filling massif at the side of the pit space, besides, the rock-filling massif is formed as bottom up in layers, alternating filling of the waste rock and filling of the hardening filling mixture of the formed space between the dump and the board of the pit on each layer.
EFFECT: reduced losses and dilution in mining of near-edge-zone reserves of ore from overlying rocks.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining industry and may be used in development of mineral fields with filling of the mined space. The composition of the filling mass includes portland cement, a filler and water, besides, it additionally comprises a surfactant of a superplasticiser SP-1, and the filler is represented by stale wastes of dressing of wet magnetic separation of ferruginous quartzites and converter sludge at the following ratio of components, wt %: portland cement - 8.0; specified sludge - 12.70; specified wastes - 56.64; superplasticiser SP-1 - 0.08; water - balance.
EFFECT: exclusion of natural fillers, increased mobility of filling mass and increased volumes of recycled anthropogenic wastes for considerable improvement of environment in the region.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining industry, namely, to undermining of ore bodies with filling of the mined space with hardening mixes. The method to determine extent of undermining of hardening fill under mechanical damage of ore massif includes formation of a hole in the ore massif and fixation of a stiff rod in it for fixed depth, supply of hardening filling mix into the mined space, damage of the ore massif with a part of the contact layer of the hardening fill massif. When mining the ore massif, they damage the rod in the ore massif and in the contact layer of the hardening fill massif, and the extent of undermining of hardening fill is determined according to the difference in the following formula: Δ=L-L1-L2, where Δ - extent of undermining of the hardening fill massif; L - total length of blind cavity, arranged inside the rod; L1 - length of rod deepening in the hole of the ore massif; L2 - length of blind cavity that is left after damage of the ore massif.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to determine extent of undermining of hardening fill massif.
SUBSTANCE: invention proposes a preparation method of a porous hardening mixture for stowing of the mined-out underground space, which involves joint crushing and grinding of a mineral filler and a binding agent in a cone-type inertia crusher, mechanical activation of the obtained mixture, addition of water to the mixture and its supply to the stowed space. Besides, mechanical activation of the mixture is performed till water is added to it at the value of crushing force of (4÷8)·105 N. And before the mixture is supplied to the stowed space, foam is added to the stowing mixture.
EFFECT: reduction of a binding agent consumption at sufficient strength of a stowing mixture.
SUBSTANCE: method includes tunnelling of a complex of stripping, preparatory and cutting underground mines, ore breaking and delivery, mine pressure maintenance, transportation, lifting of ore to a horizon of a ore-collecting hopper. Stopes are mined with the help of chamber systems with subsequent filling of the mined space. Tunnelling of a row of mines and process chambers is carried out outside the ore massif in foot wall rocks. Two separate mobile grinding modules are installed in process chambers, which are connected to each other by systems of transportation of a solid stowing mix components, including broken rock. The first module of coarse grinding is placed in preparatory or cut mines, and the second one - fine grinding directly above the filled space and combined with a module for mixing of the solid stowing mix, at the same time unloading from the module of fine grinding is carried out via a receiving tray and a well into the filled space. Grinding of rocks in the fine grinding module is provided to the content of - 0.074 class not below 32%.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve efficiency of mining.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: composition of a mixture for filling of mined space includes wastes of enrichment processes, lime, sodium lignosulfonate and water. The specified wastes are current tails of floatation dressing of polymetal ores with moisture of less than 30% at the following content of components, kg/m3: current tails of floatation enrichment of polymetal ores with moisture of less than 30% 1800 - 2010, lime 80 - 120, sodium lignosulfonate 1.2 - 1.5 and water - balance to 1 m3. The method to manufacture the composition of the mixture for filling of the mined space includes drying of current tails of floatation enrichment of polymetal ores to moisture content of less than 30%. Sodium lignosulfonate is previously dissolved in water, and then mixed with dried tails and lime.
EFFECT: simplified and cheaper filling mixture with preserved operating properties.
3 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction and can be used for construction of an earth bed and a facility of reinforced road bases on roads of categories I-V in road climatic zones II-V, as well as pavements on roads of categories IV-V as material for construction of earth bed fills and reinforcement of soil bases of construction and other sites. Road-building material containing drilling sludge with density of 1.3 to 1.8 kg/dm3 and with humidity of 30%, cement as the main binding material in the amount of 5-15% of the weight of the mixture, wastes of thermal utilisation of oil sludges (ash slag) with density of 1.2 to 1.6 kg/dm3 in the amount of 30-40% of the mixture weight, mineral filler and a sorbent - complexing agent, where organic fibrous (peat) sorbent is used as the sorbent - complexing agent in the amount of 2-4% of the mixture weight; Portland cement is used as cement; additionally, it contains liquid glass or organohydride-siloxanes, and sand is used as filler, with that, content of sand as a part of material is 5, or 10, or 30 wt %. The invention is developed in subclaims of formula of invention.
EFFECT: reduction of cement consumption; improvement of environmental situation due to utilisation of wastes of drilling and an ash and slag mixture.
4 cl, 4 ex, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device to seal areas of metal-concrete adjacency comprises a plate steel part of protective sealed doors, hatches or flanges of tubular inputs of engineering utilities with holes for injectors. Holes are evenly arranged along the steel part. The device comprises a source of DC current with a rheostat or an autotransformer and an electromagnet. The electromagnet is installed on the steel part, with a coil in the form of a winding from current-conducting wire with insulation and ends of this wire, closed to poles of the source of DC current. The coil of the electromagnet is arranged on a crossbeam of the U-shaped magnetic conductor. The lower part of each stand of the magnetic conductor fully complies with the shape, volume and geometric dimensions of the inner space of the hole for the injector. The height of the lower part of magnetic conductor stands is equal to thickness of the steel part. The distance between centres of cross sections of the electromagnet magnetic conductor stands is equal to double distance between centres of holes for injectors.
EFFECT: device makes it possible to increase quality of sealing, to reduce power inputs and consumption of materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of ecology and environmental management, in particular to methods of waterproofing heap leach pads and waste deposits, in particular to the creation of screens of tailing dumps, sludge tanks, solid domestic waste landfills and bulk arrays preventing environmental pollution by toxic components and dusting as a result of infiltration and erosion processes. In the method of the preservation and isolation of anthropogenic deposits, which consists in preparing a waterproofing mixture containing polyethylene wastes, laying it on the surface of the storage area, application to the chilled surface of a drainage layer of a coarse material, preliminarily in screening the bulks on the surface of the array body the slope is created of 2-5° from the centre to the edges, after the creation of the said slope 0.2-0.4 m pugged clay and sealing are applied on the surface of the layer, laying of the waterproofing mixture to the prepared surface is carried out extrusively at a temperature of 180-200°C in bands with the width of 2-2.5 m with mutual 0.15-0.2 m overlapping, the said drainage layer is applied with the thickness of 0.1-0.15 m, and the waterproofing mixture as polyethylene wastes contains the polyethylene wastes of high and low pressure, and additionally - polyisobutylene and carbon black, with the following ratio of components, wt %: polyethylene wastes of high pressure 74-76, polyethylene wastes of low pressure 14-16, polyisobutylene 6-7, carbon black 3-4.
EFFECT: formation of the coating that prevents the infiltration of atmospheric waters and productive solutions from the bodies of piles, dumps, sludge tanks and solid domestic waste landfills, increase in the strength of the said coating.
SUBSTANCE: method includes formation of a well, placement of a stretching tight shell in it and supply of sealing substance. The well is formed by driving a pipe with a plug at the end and a stretching tight shell on the outer surface into soil. The sealing substance is supplied into the specified shell via longitudinal slots made in the pipe. The device comprises a working organ and a facility of impact load application to it, comprising a pipe, where a rod is inserted as capable of longitudinal displacement in it and contact with the working element. The stretching tight shell is placed onto the pipe and fixed, and longitudinal slots are made underneath in the pipe. The working element is made in the form of a rod, forming a plug, with a cone-shaped tip at the end and inserted into the guide pipe as capable of limited longitudinal displacement in it. The rod comprises an accessory to prevent fallout from the pipe, and its cone-shaped tip protrudes from the pipe.
EFFECT: increased density of soil by introduction of a stretching tight shell into it, expansion of device capabilities for creation of a pile with a support in a base.
8 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to produce cracks in clayey waterlogged soils includes drilling of wells, formation of cracks by injection of cracking material into a well, and tamping of wellheads. At the same time burnt lime of grade 1 and 2 is used for cracking. Wells are filled with lime in layers with subsequent ramming and compaction of each layer.
EFFECT: increased effectiveness of formation of stable and resistant cracks in waterlogged clayey soils around a well in radial direction.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises well drilling, cracking by injection into the well of crack-forming material, plugging of hole mouth. Meanwhile the well cross-section is transformed from cylindrical into square, and then layer by layer the well is filled with quicklime with compaction and sealing of each layer. Into the formed cracks in a radial direction from angles of square cross-section well and by means of injector the strengthening solution is injected. The method allows to obtain stable cracks in a radial direction from angles of well square, that results in increase of strengthening volume. Due to wedging action of lime slaking and the stress concentrations the cleavage cracks are formed, the length of which amounts 2-3 lengths of the side of square well, and the width 5-15 mm. At the expense of increase of parameters of cracks in a radial direction from angles of square section well with the subsequent injection of strengthening solution the physico-mechanical properties of the ground are improved, as far as the infilling of all formed cracks results in ground strengthening, that improves bearing capacity of clay saturated soils. Besides the given method allows to work with small-sized and minimum quantity of machinery in any conditions of building.
EFFECT: increase of bearing capacity of clay water-saturated soils.
SUBSTANCE: when creating an anti-filtration screen of a hydraulic structure for storage of industrial wastes, for instance, a sludge reservoir, layers of the screen on the base of the sludge reservoir are formed using a suspension of industrial wastes, containing finely dispersed particles, with compaction of layers. The base of the sludge reservoir is made from clay or loam, compacted, the compacted layer is poured with a water suspension of finely dispersed dust of gas treatment from electrothermal production of silicon and/or siliceous ferroalloys with the solid to liquid ratio within 3÷10:1. The suspension is maintained until absorption into the layer of the sludge reservoir base. The clay or loam layer is laid on top and compacted. The water suspension is poured in the amount of 50-100 l/m2.
EFFECT: invention will make it possible to prevent contamination of soil layer adjacent to storages due to reduction of coefficient of filtration of insulating material, to recycle anthropogenic wastes in the form of a finely dispersed dust of gas treatment of electrically thermal production of silicon or siliceous ferroalloys.
2 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention increases tensile and compression strength of priming coats, as well as water-resistance thereof while reducing binder consumption to 0.003-0.012 wt %. The effect is achieved by using cation-active imidazoline and polyacrylic acid in the composition, which form an insoluble polyelectrolyte interpolymer complex during chemical reaction.
EFFECT: invention relates to a method of producing a stable structural composition based on a priming mixture of clay and sand as natural filler and can be used for industrial purposes for producing moulding agents, accelerated hardening of priming coats and endowing priming coats with hydrophobic properties.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, namely, to strengthening of soils. In the method of soil strengthening in the area to be strengthened, a compacting agent is supplied from a loading reservoir into soil with a mixing facility located in a device for supply of the compacting agent. The device for supply of the compacting agent is located in connection with a transfer facility, and a facility for mixing for a compacting agent located on the device for supply of the compacting agent, is moved by the transfer facility at choice to any point in the zone, which must be strengthened, in vertical direction (y), horizontal direction (x) and/or in perpendicular to substantially perpendicular direction to the plane stretching via the specified vertical direction and horizontal direction. A support bridge included into the transfer facility is located for passage via the area, which must be strengthened, and in connection with the support bridge the first transfer elements are located for movement of the facility for mixing of the compacting agent in vertical direction (y) and/or horizontal direction (x), and the transfer facility comprises the second transfer elements and the support bridge, and the device for supply of the compacting agent with the facility for mixing is moved by the second transfer elements in perpendicular to substantially perpendicular direction to the plane passing via the specified vertical direction (y) and horizontal direction (x), and providing both ends of the support bridge by the second transfer facilities to maintain the support bridge on the material of the support and/or the soil of the base, as a result of which the distance (A) between the second transfer facilities is adjusted for compliance with the width of the area to be strengthened, in longitudinal direction of the support bridge.
EFFECT: increased stabilisation of soil strengthening, reduced labour intensiveness and material intensity in production of works for soil strengthening.
9 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining operation.
SUBSTANCE: method of protection of karst occurrence comprises drilling wells in the area of karst formation and injection of reinforcing material. While injecting the reinforcing material in the form of a polymer-mineral composition in the rock mass of the area of karst formation two layers are created: the lower insulating-stabilising layer which prevents access of water to the karst at the depth of occurrence of karst rocks and stabilising the situation at the stage of karst formation, located within the boundaries of the sliding wedge, and the upper bearing layer serving as a bearing local layer and corresponding to the width of the lower layer. Drilling wells is carried out sequentially - first inclined well is drilled to the upper transition zone of the geological horizon exposed to karst formation, the polymer-mineral composition with the capacity from 2 to 10 meters is pumped, which forms a lower insulating-stabilising layer, then the inclined well is drilled to contact with the upper boundary of groundwater, and the polymer-mineral composition with the capacity from 2 to 5 meters is pumped, which forms the upper bearing layer. Then the control vertical well is drilled to contact with the upper bearing and the lower insulating-stabilising layer. The core-sample is raised from each layer to check the presence of the polymer-mineral composition. Between the bearing and the insulating-stabilising layers in the rock mass the channel of flow of groundwater from the water collection area to the discharge area is formed, preserving the natural hydrogeological mode in the rock water-bearing mass of the karst formation area.
EFFECT: increase in protective properties of rocks with karst occurrence, improvement of physical and chemical and bearing properties of the soil, increase in the strength properties of the soil, reduction of the possibility of landslides occurrence.
FIELD: road construction.
SUBSTANCE: device has towed device with platform, connected to moving gear, tank for reinforcing liquid, force pipes with bars with apertures in lower portion. Bars are made of conical shape with screw blades, mounted on a platform made in form of slides, and radiuses of bars effect overlap. In back portion of platform a screw is mounted. Tank for reinforcing liquid is placed in front portion of platform and by gear pump is connected to distributing comb, each force pipe, which through locking armature is connected to appropriate bar. Bars in amount no less than three are kinematically connected to each other, and to shaft for drawing power from moving gear, to screw and to gear pump for feeding reinforcing liquid.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.