Method for developing mine workings and conducting stoping operations
FIELD: mining engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method of developing mine workings and conducting stopping operations includes drilling of cut and periphery wells (holes). The operations are carried out in two stages. At the first stage, the cut wells (holes) of depth equal to 1…1.2 of the periphery wells depth (holes) are drilled according to a preset blasting scheme. Then transverse hydraulic fracturing is carried out in rock mass through the cut well (hole), cutting off the blasted block from the main rock mass. Longitudinal hydraulic fracturing is carried out through periphery wells (holes), dividing basic rock mass into blasted blocks with size preset by the blasting scheme. Prior to commencing hydraulic fracturing operations in the cut well (hole), cutting of transversal initiating slit is carried out. Longitudinal initiating slits are cut in periphery wells (holes). At the second stage, after the hydraulic fracturing, explosive charge is set in the drilled wells (holes) according to a structure allowing to blast with reduced impact. The blocks formed by hydraulic fracturing are separated from main rock mass or mechanical impact on the blocks is applied, providing opening of transversal and longitudinal cracks of hydraulic fracturing and breaking possible bridges therebetween. The blocks blasted in the result of explosion or mechanical impact are transported along the workings to surface.
EFFECT: reduced volume of drilling work, reduced amount of explosive used.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: bottomhole wad of blasthole charge comprises a cylindrical solid body on the side surface of which in the plane, perpendicular to wad, circular grooves are made. The bottomhole wad is made from carbon fibre-reinforced plastic. The solid body of wad is made in the form of uniform monolithic structure from the material containing 74.8 weight fractions of small coal - small coal, slime, hardened by the cold hardening formaldehyde resin SFZh-3032 amounting 20.6 weight fractions and a hardener amounting 4.6 weight fractions of water solution of technical petrolsulphonic acid. The invention allows to increase efficiency of drilling-and-blasting works in coal mines due to reduction of labour input of processes of fabrication of wads and respectively their prime cost.
EFFECT: invention allows to improve quality of produced coal due to decrease of his impoverishment, the simplified bottomhole wad is suitable for charging of blastholes in automatic mode by respective robots.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises the reception of acoustic signal, its amplification, a filtration, registration and comparison. The tone of sounding of acoustic signal during its loading is compared with reference sound tones from a database, then the compliance of sounding tone with a well information is analysed, the obtained data are registered and using them the explosive supply system is controlled. The device comprises a pneumatic loader with a loading hose, a receiver designed as a microphone, a signal processing system connected to the command device. The signal processing system is fitted with series connected broadband amplifier, a sound filter, a memory and analysing device with the unit of database of reference sounding tones and the demountable information media, an actuation device, an analyser of sounding tones with a setting device and the demountable information media. The command device is fitted with an executive mechanism, a spool with electromagnetic valves and a locking device installed directly on a pneumatic loader at the compressed air inlet or at the explosive outlet from the pneumatic loader to the loading hose. The executive mechanism is connected to the locking device through the spool by means of compressed air supply hoses.
EFFECT: method and the device allow to simplify a design, improve accuracy of measurement and reliability of operation.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes tripping in a hole of a flexible polymeric waterproof sleeve for supply of explosive with the closed lower end and initiating device, the subsequent filling of the polymeric waterproof sleeve with explosive materials. In advance a combined polymeric sleeve with the closed lower end is fabricated, the internal surface of which is made of waterproof material, and external - of water-permeable robust fire-resistant material. The combined sleeve is filled with water and during its filling with water it is lowered into the well then it is filled with explosive materials.
EFFECT: method allows to protect explosives, initiation devices and a wave guide from burning out when conducting explosive works on hot masses.
SUBSTANCE: suspension well safety bridge consists of a supporting structure and a suspended part fixed on the supporting structure. The suspended part is made in the form of a composite cylinder made of two semi-cylinders connected with a temporary link, on the inner surfaces of each of which in its upper part facing to a well head there attached is a half cylinder of a smaller diameter perpendicular to the cylinder generatrix. A wedge is inserted between two semi-cylinders of the composite cylinder, and a disc is attached to its base, the diameter of which is compatible with well diameter. Height of the wedge to the disc is bigger than height of the composite cylinder, and width of the wedge together with two halves of the cylinder of smaller diameter and semi-cylinders of the composite cylinder is bigger or equal to 1.1-1.2 of the well diameter.
EFFECT: invention allows improving crushing efficiency of mine rocks.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises removal of covering access rock at blast loosening by charges with air cushion in the charge lower end, mechanical loosening and push loading of rock, its piling and loading by excavator into carriers. Blast holes for access rock are drilled in mineral formation to the depth of air cushion at the charge bottom end. Single blasting is performed in well-by-well manner by the system of nonelectric initiation. Every second or third blast well is drilled in mineral formation of decreased hardness.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of destruction, power saving at mineral loosening.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises drilling parallel rows of wells or holes, placing in them of explosive charges in a staggered manner, distributed with filled gaps. The gap length is equal to the length of the charge. Simultaneous camouflage blasting of explosive charges with the central initiation. Filling the voids left after the explosion with the concrete solution. For forming the bridging array the radius of the explosive charge is defined, the length of the explosive charge. In the upper part at the contact the aquiferous stratum - an array form the locking charge. The gaps are filled with bridging material which is formed with the following composition: in aggressive non-pressure environments - bitumen or tar; in non-corrosive pressure environments - cement; in aggressive pressure environments - bitumen or tar, the radius of the resulting bridged area of crumpling from the charge is additionally determined, the radius of the formed bridged area in the gaps between charges, the distance between drilled wells or holes in the row, the length of the locking charge and radius of the bridged area of cracks.
EFFECT: method enables to improve the efficiency and safety of work.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: blasting operations.
SUBSTANCE: fill stemming of blast holes with elements of stone material comprises the lower fill part of inert bulk materials over the air gap and the upper combined part. The upper combined part of the stemming is divided into two sections: the lower section with length of up to three diameters of the well, filled with elements of stone material with size of 0.2-0.6 diameter of the well, interstratified with the inert bulk material with the size less than 5 mm, and the upper, filled to the top of the well with the same inert bulk material.
EFFECT: invention enables to improve the efficiency of locking the detonation products in the charging cavity by the combined shortened stemming and to reduce costs for its formation.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining, particularly, to ore breaking. Proposed method comprises drilling the wells, defining the location for live primer for charge direct and inverse initiation by calculations, formatting of elongated explosive charge, fitting the live primer in explosive charge to divide it into two parts, filling the well top with explosive and stemming material and blasting of the well. Explosive charge length is measured and live primer location in charge is defined from the well bottom with due allowance for preset live primer length and volume of explosive in 1 metre of the well by claimed formulae.
EFFECT: higher blast power and efficiency, decreased volume of drill works and specific consumption of explosives.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: blasting operations.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining, to drilling and blasting operations in mine rocks and can be used in different fields applying blasting operations in mine rock masses, and namely at open development of useful minerals. A suspension well stem is made from a piece of material that is bound with two ropes on the outer side; one end of the first rope is bound with a stiff knot, thus forming the first internal volume, inside which a support is arranged. A transverse support size is by 30-50% less than the well diameter. The other end of the first rope is passed inside through the centre of the material piece and attached to a crossbar at the well head. The second rope is bound with a free knot above the stiff knot, with possibility of its movement along the first rope, thus forming the second internal volume, the transverse diameter of which is by 15-20% larger than the well diameter and one third of which is filled with loose inert material; ends of the material piece are left free.
EFFECT: invention allows reducing specific explosive flow, improving crushing quality of mine rock due to long-term arrangement of detonation products in a charging cavity till complete destruction of mine rock, simplifying the structure and improving structure actuation reliability.
SUBSTANCE: method involves development and temporary workings, drilling of bore pits in the face of the mining slab, charging and explosion of bore pits, removal of crushed rock mass, hydraulic cleaning of the developed slab; bore pits are located in lower row at the distance of 2-3 diameters of the bore pit; every second one is charged with distributed charge; bore pits of each next row are oriented along one line in the ore deposit rise direction. Reduction of losses of crushed ore fine parts is achieved due to creation of chutes on bottom layer of ore deposit; at hydraulic cleaning of the extracted slab, movement of hydraulic mixture consisting of water and ore fine parts is performed along smooth surface of chutes.
EFFECT: improving development efficiency of ore bodies and reducing losses of enriched ore fine parts at hydraulic cleaning of extracted slab.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the mining industry, in particular to rock destruction, and can be used in the mining and construction industries for the separation of the shaped blocks of rock from the mass. The method of non-explosive rock destruction comprises drilling holes, installing in them of the pipes preliminarily cut along the length, to form one or several slots which are oriented in directions of the desired separation of the rock block from the mass. Then the holes are filled with a composition expanding when hardening. As a result of hardening the composition increases in volume, which leads to the increase in pressure on the pipe walls. The maximum force vector will be directed toward the slot, which enables to separate the block of a given configuration from the mass. In the implementation of the method around the holes the stress field is formed, which is not concentric, but ellipsoidal.
EFFECT: invention enables to create the desired direction of the line of separation of rocks from the mass without increasing the frequency of drilling holes.
SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling in the plane of the supposed burst of bore pits, sealing of their mouth, creation in bore pits of burst static load by supplying to them of plastic substance under pressure. Bore pits are drilled till their axes cross, and tubes with one longitudinal slot, which are filled with plastic substance and which have outside diameter that is equal to diameter of bore pits, are arranged in them. Slot of each tube is directed towards the supposed burst. The device includes the first tube with a longitudinal slot, which is filled with plastic substance, at one end of which the first plug is installed, and on its other end there screwed is the first shell having a central hole with thread, where a screw with a handle is screwed. It is equipped with the second tube with a longitudinal slot, which is filled with plastic substance, at one end of which the second plug is installed, and on its other end there screwed is the second shell having a central hole. A rod with stepped thinning going out of the second tube through the central hole in the second shell is inserted in the second tube. The first and the second tubes are not attached to each other.
EFFECT: improving efficiency owing to creating a crack with specified boundaries within the zone restricted with bore pits.
5 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes development of reserves from a border of an extraction column, drilling from surface of wells into the extraction column and primary setting of the roof. Wells are drilled to the rated line of the roof arch in one row in parallel to a stoping face in the middle part of the limit span of the main roof slab. Eutectic-hard-freezing solutions are filled into wells for the height of 1.5-2 m, rated time is maintained, which is required for melting of ice in cracks of roof rocks and formation of germinal slots, afterwards the wells are filled to the surface with the same solutions, and a hydraulic rupture is carried out in a rock massif.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to ensure controlled primary setting of strong cracked rocks.
SUBSTANCE: device includes pipe, spacing ring with slot edged in outside circumferential direction and sealer installed on pipe end in series. End of pipe is provided with cone expansion. In the pipe there are forcer and sleeve installed connected to the pipe by threaded connection. Between forcer and sleeve a spring is located. The sleeve is provided with bar to rotate.
EFFECT: increasing operating efficiency.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining and is used for generating directional cavities by hydro-break of rock through borehole in order to sheet difficult- to-destroy roof, to degas coal bed, and to control deflected mode of rock massif in vicinity of mine opening. The facility consists of a hollow cylinder case, of a spacing component in form of a collet with cross fastening wedges on external surfaces of its blades and with a base facing the base of the case; further the facility consists of an elastic sealing bushing put on the collet. The case and the collet are made in form of cartridges and are engaged with their bases with a common central opening by means of a screw pair; the bushing with circular external lugs on ends passes through this opening; the first lug limits lengthwise travel of the bushing relative to the case, while the second lug does the same relative to the collet. Inside the bushing there is installed a plug destructed under pressure of working agent, while on free end of the case there is made thread for connection to a high pressure pipe string.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of facility due to lowered labour intensiveness at its installation and operation; and facilitating required force to hold down facility to bottomhole of borehole without additional equipment.
7 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining and can be implemented for separation of blocks from massifs, for extraction of valuable crystal raw material and building stone and for destruction of lumps. The device includes a hollow cylinder body with an end channel for working liquid supply, with apertures in walls, and working members on the exterior surface; the device further includes an elastic sleeve coaxial to the body, and a valve installed at the end of the body. The body is made out of elastic material; the apertures in the walls of the body are made in form of lengthwise slots wherein between the working members in form of rock cutters are installed on the surface of the body. The elastic sleeve is assembled inside the body; one end of the sleeve is connected to a working fluid supply channel, while another is connected to the valve. Tube out of elastic material is installed between the elastic sleeve and the body; the tube has lengthwise slots and is installed so, as to overlap the lengthwise slots of the body.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of device due to generation of directed fractures with even surfaces and in rock of any hardness.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining and relates to preparing coal massif to extraction. The method includes drilling bores into work zone of the coal bed, supplying carbon dioxide under pressure not lower, than threshold, into bores, pumping water under pressure lower, than hydro-break of the bed, till complete water-saturation of the work zone. Also compressed air of high pressure is supplied to increase pressure in a bore above hydro-break of coal bed in the work zone, with supplying compressed air of high pressure in a pulse mode separately, as well as simultaneously, at any combination and within a certain range of compressed air pressures with specified frequency, depending on physic-mechanical properties and structure of the coal bed. Also there is suggested a facility for implementation of this method.
EFFECT: upgraded efficiency of coal bed degassing.
5 cl, 14 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for separation of blocks from massifs, for mining valuable crystal raw materials and building stones, breaking oversizes. The device comprises a tube, an elastic sealer mounted on the tube end and a system for injection of fluid into the tube. A plug is provided at one end of the tube and the second end is made in the shape of a collet and longitudinal slots are provided along the tube. An elastic sealing washer and a metal bush are fitted successively on the tube. The sealer is made as a sealing ring fitted in the circular groove provided on the lateral surface of the plug. A hydraulic cylinder installed so that its plunger can enter the tube from the collet side is used as a system for injection of fluid into the tube. A stepwise tapering is provided at the end of the hydraulic cylinder at the side, where the plunger comes out of the tube; a circular groove for cohesion with the tube collet is provided on the external surface of tapering.
EFFECT: increase of efficiency of the device due to reduction of labour consumption during operation of the same and reduction of power required for formation of a crevasse.
5 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly to create cracks by hydraulic rock fracturing via well to break hardly-caving roof, to degas coal bed and to control deflected mode of rock massif near mine.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises hollow body with axial channel for working fluid supply, thread to connect the body to high-pressure pipe string and annular extension made on outer surface thereof. The annular extension is adapted to support one end of bush coaxial to the hollow body. The hollow body and bush may define space filled with hardening material, which expands as it passes to solid state. Washer-shaped lid is screwed on hollow body end from another end of the bush so that the lid rests upon the bush. The washer-shaped lid is provided with initiating slot connected with axial working liquid supply channel. Thread is made on hollow body end brought into contact with hardening material.
EFFECT: increased efficiency due to decreased labor inputs for device installation, reduced drilling work content, possibility of well sealing without the use of equipment for sealing bush crashing and pressing.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly to form cracks in wells to separate thereof from rock massif, for rock blocks mining and to break oversize stones.
SUBSTANCE: device in accordance with the first embodiment comprises cylindrical body with annular extension provided with percussion mechanism installed at cylindrical body end. Cylindrical body has sharpened free end and is made as bidentate wedge with dent angle α, having V-shaped cutting edge and two V-shaped vertical slots arranged from opposite sides of V-shaped cutting edge. Each above groove is defined by two planes arranged so that angle β<180° is created in-between. The planes form working edges of the bidentate wedge. Device in accordance with the second embodiment comprises cylindrical body with annular extension on free end thereof. The body is provided with percussion mechanism installed on cylindrical body end. The cylindrical body is provided with removable shell formed as two semi-cylinder coverings and may be axially displaced relative the semi-cylindrical coverings, which are provided with beams on outer sides thereof. The beams are located in upper covering parts.
EFFECT: increased operational efficiency due to creation of force directed to well wall and improved operational reliability due to simplified structure.
4 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has hollow cylindrical body with radial apertures and ring-shaped shelves at the ends and self-compacting collars. These are mounted on opposite ends of body and are adjacent by bases to its ring-shaped shelves. On the latter barrels are fitted with central apertures in bases. Through barrels and body a pipe is let with possible longitudinal displacement relatively to body, having radial apertures, ring-shaped shelf at one end and outer thread at other end. Pipe is pressurized on the side of ring-shaped shelf, its radial apertures are in zone of radial apertures of body, one barrel is stopped against ring-shaped shelf of pipe, and other barrel is connected to pipe by threaded connection.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.