Method for reducing mobility of upper layer of river or channel water flow

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method for reducing the mobility of the upper layer of the water flow of a river or a channel is that a device consisting of a barrier with positive buoyancy, equipped with fastening fixtures, which is permanently fixed in the upper layer of the water flow by means of anchors and stretches, fixed on the shore and on floating crafts, bridging a part of the river or channel watercourse across.

EFFECT: reducing the flow rate of the upper layer of a river or channel water flow in a certain area to solve various technical or environmental problems.

1 cl

 



 

Same patents:

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the shore facilities, ensuring the use of wave energy with its subsequent conversion, for example into electric energy. Ramp wave energy storage unit comprises a storage pool that has fences against the wave forming water area. Part of the fence from the wave forming water area is designed in the form of optimal height of water storage barrier, which has the upper edge integrated with ramp, bevelled to the pool. The ramp is submerged into the wave forming water area by the bottom part and has horizontally placed channels from the front side with respect to the water area, providing the opportunity to take water from waves in case of wave setup on the ramp. Horizontally disposed channels have tubular outlets, through which water flows into the storage pool. Ramp wave energy storage unit provides the water flow into the storage pool not only in stormy weather, but also at moderate wave setups and back drafts at coasts of seas, lakes and other wave forming water areas.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to ensure protection of onshore facilities and at the same time to accumulate the wave energy.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices for the performance of works in hydraulic engineering construction and can be used for erection of bridge pile foundations, platforms, transhipping complexes and berthing facilities in water areas. A technological complex for the erection of a hydraulic engineering work (HEW) comprises a working platform 1, a set of tools for its erection. The HEW includes the pile piers 2 with a grillage 3 mounted on them, made of slabs. The service platform 1 is designed in the form of a longitudinal horizontal building slipway, equipped with equipment and assembly elements for the installation of HEW. The set of tools for the erection of the HEW includes a lifting device, a device for mounting the pile supports of the HEW foundation with the section buildup of the HEW grillage openings and a module of final assembly works. The lifting device is designed as a crane for heavy loads 5. The device for mounting the pile supports includes an aligning frame 6, aligned by the crane 5 to the horizon on a design axis by length and width of the span, with an external conductor 7 mounted on it. One end of the aligning frame 6 is installed on a transverse metal girder 8 of the HEW span already mounted, and the second external end is installed on two pairs of support columns 9 and 10 provided with hydraulic actuators. The first pair of the support columns 9 is installed on the ground of bottom vertically, and the columns of the second pair 10 are installed at an angle of 15-20° to the vertical columns 9. The conductor 7 is provided with apertures 11 designed in the form of sleeves to arrange the pile piers 2 in the design position by means of the crane 5 with subsequent their immersion with precast shell to the desired depth into the ground of the bottom and by fixing with retainers disposed in the apertures of the conductor 7. At the upper ends of the pile piers 2 there is a transverse metal girder 8, mounted by the crane 5 and fixed by a weld joint. Metal orthotropic plates 4 are installed and fixed by weld joints on the transverse girders 8 of the HEW sections already mounted and remounted. At the ends of the transverse metal girder 8 of the HEW span already mounted, a pair of temporary support jacks for supporting the additional support pairs of columns 13 and fixed by a weld joint, is provided. The additional support pairs of columns 13 are designed integrally with the conductor frame 6 and arranged in pairs on its bottom side along the longitudinal beams 12 with a step in accordance with formula: l = L / (n + 1), where l - distance between the pairs of additional support columns, L - length of the conductor frame, n - number of pairs of additional support columns.

EFFECT: expansion of arsenal of hardware and trouble-free operation when changing the length of spans, reduction of construction terms and reduction of the work complexity.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of coast protection against tsunami. The method to protect the coast against tsunami consists in the fact that sea surface in front of the protected coast is coated with a film having the property of meniscal buoyancy. A hydrophobic anti-wetted coating is applied onto the surface of the film with the edge wetting angle of more than 120°. The device of coast protection against tsunami comprises a film having a property of meniscal buoyancy, which by sections is rolled into a roll on a spool. One short side of the film is fixed to the spool fixed on the fixed axis installed on supports, strongly attached to the bottom of the sea, and the other short side of the film is fixed to a hollow rod having buoyancy.

EFFECT: group of inventions provides for protection of a sea coast against tsunami waves.

13 cl, 7 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: device includes one or more wave absorbing bodies (1, 1a), installed under water in a relatively shallow section of a coastal zone. Side surfaces of wave absorbing cylindrical bodies are partially distant in longitudinal direction and form inlet side surfaces (2) of a C-shaped section. Inlet side surfaces (2) face in the direction of wave propagation and are inclined relative to it. Wave absorbing body (1, 1a) is made in the form of a longer wave absorbing body or a shorter wave absorbing body. The longer wave absorbing body (1) is provided with rectangular unloading openings (4) at the corresponding intervals. Shorter wave absorbing bodies (1a) are located in a straight line with gap (5), and their adjacent open ends face to each other in close proximity.

EFFECT: effective wave absorption and accretion of sand beaches.

4 cl, 7 dwg

Wave shaper // 2536059

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises stands, a base of stands, a body, a control unit, a combustion chamber, a discharge chamber, two exhaust pipes, two shock absorption stops with curves in the front, a mobile plate with two ledges. Stands are rigidly connected to the specified units, the base of the stands and the surface of the bottom. The body is rigidly connected to the combustion chamber. The hydraulic outlet of the control unit is connected with the hydraulic inlet of the combustion chamber. Two cone-shaped refractory stops with shock-absorption stops inside are arranged in the end of the combustion chamber and behind the movable plate with two ledges. Ledges of the plate have a place inside appropriate stops. The discharge chamber is arranged in front of the combustion chamber and has inside a mobile plate with two ledges. The discharge chamber is rigidly connected to the combustion chamber, two exhaust pipes, two shock absorption stops arranged at the end of the chamber. The discharge chamber is located below the water surface and at the angle to it.

EFFECT: increased value of shaped waves.

1 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention is aimed for use in provision of ecological safety of public and territories in emergencies of natural and anthropogenic nature, as an engineering barrier, and also as a composite part of engineering equipment during construction and operation of oil terminals, oil storage tanks, during arrangement of landfills for temporary and permanent storage of solid wastes and other potentially dangerous objects. A prefabricated flexible barrier is proposed, comprising collapsible multi-section gabion modules of necessary length, rigidly connected to each other with the help of locks mounted into any configuration, tightness of which is provided by soft aprons on end sections of modules, on top the gabion modules are trimmed with fabric or polymer coating, and as a filler between the adjacent gabion modules they use natural sorbent - glauconite or its mixture with another suitable natural sorbent, the structure is installed on the previously filled layer of sorbent and along the external perimeter is lined with absorbing mats. The structure is additionally equipped with mounted diagnostic and measurement equipment, the suitable natural sorbent is schungite, bentonite, clay, zeolyte, perlite, vermiculite or their mixture.

EFFECT: reduced labour costs and time for installation of a barrier, reduced material intensity, exclusion of filtration of oil, oil products, poisonous and toxic substances via a barrier.

3 cl, 2 dwg

Pier // 2535726

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: pier is a linear gravitational hydraulic structure located on the coast of the Arctic seas, mainly in lower reaches of navigable rivers. The pier is designed in the form of an ice platform 1 of a rectangular section, placed on the sea bottom. The pier is equipped with wind-capture electric power plants 10 of a tower type located on the shore, liquid cooling and air cooling systems in the form of pass channels 2. The pier is additionally equipped with a thermo-fluid insulating screen 7, placed on the platform surface 1, and a solid floor covering 8 in the form of flat elements of a rectangular shape in plan, arranged at an angle of 45°C to the longitudinal axis of the platform. The platform 1 is designed with slopes at side edges, located at the level of calved ice. The liquid cooling system is designed of interconnected atmospheric cold storage batteries 3, 4 of cooling pipelines 5, 6 and consumers of a coolant 9. The cooling pipelines are arranged along the slopes and under the thermo-fluid insulating screen 7.

EFFECT: increased strength, stability, reliability and durability of the ice structure.

6 dwg

Wave damper // 2528447

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: in a bay formed by two parallel dams there are two stands 2, 4 installed. A base 6 of stands 2, 4 is rigidly connected to the bottom 7 and to the stands 2, 4. Stands 2, 4 are rigidly connected to a rod 5 placed inside the bushing 3. The bushing 3 is rigidly connected to a unit from two blades 1 arranged on a single plane.

EFFECT: efficient protection against impact of waves under storm conditions.

2 dwg

Damper of sea waves // 2527030

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering and is designed to protect coastal line, as well as objects of port and transport infrastructure from damage. The damper of sea waves comprises a receiving plate 1, a protective grid 2, a hopper 3, a pipeline 4, a nozzle 5 and a guiding plate 6. The receiving plate 1 is made as capable of lifting wind waves up. The wind wave rolls into the receiving plate 1, rises up and having lost its speed, via the grid 2 arrives to the hopper 3. Along the pipeline 4 via the nozzle 5 under pressure the water moves towards a new wave weakening its energy. The plate 6 serves to direct return water from the plate 1 at the required angle to a new rolling-in wave and protects the base of the device from erosion.

EFFECT: increased reliability of device operation under conditions of impact of wind waves.

2 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method for protection against wave action of a single hydraulic structure consists in the fact that arriving waves of the hydraulic structure are separated on both sides around the structure by creating horizontal near-surface streams diverging to both sides across the direction of waves, which are formed by a flat symmetrical floating-up gas-liquid flow that is created in water environment under arriving waves. Symmetry plane is located in a diametrical plane of the structure and perpendicular to wave movement. Flow rate of gas, mainly air is chosen so that horizontal velocity of near-surface streams of a gas-liquid flow is at least 0.2 of velocity of arriving waves. A zone where a gas-liquid flow is formed is located in the above symmetry plane at the distance before the hydraulic structure of not closer than (0.3-0.5) of the width and not farther than (1.5-2.0) of the length of the hydraulic structure. Length means the structure size along diametrical plane in the wave direction, and width means the size along the wave front. Gas-liquid flow is created at the depth of not less than 0.6 of amplitude of an arriving wave by supplying the air under pressure to water environment so that bubbles are formed. A device for the method's implementation includes a discharge device on both sides around the hydraulic structure of arriving waves based on the use of a gaseous substance, mainly air. The above device is made in the form of a deaerator of water environment with bubble air inclusions, which consists of perforated tube 1 located along the diametrical plane of the structure along the movement direction of arriving waves and increased air pressure source 3 connected to it via main line 2. Length of tube 1 is (1-1.5) of length of the hydraulic structure, and location of the tube end that is the closest to the above structure is (0.3-0.5) of width of the structure. The tube is located so that it is submerged under water to the depth equal to at least 0.6 of an amplitude of an arriving wave starting from still water surface.

EFFECT: providing effective protection of a single hydraulic structure against power action of waves arriving at it.

6 cl, 4 dwg

Attenuating element // 2556714

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: attenuating element comprising an upper part, a narrow part and a support part. The specified parts create a concrete block. The area of cross section of the upper part is at least 10% less than in the support part. The support part is a polyhedron, and the narrow part has at least the cross section that is less than the upper part. Narrow parts of adjacent attenuating elements create a continuous channel, which is connected via upper parts. Attenuating elements contain two parts of the attenuating element that are installed tightly to each other and create together the attenuating element, and are divided substantially along the flat surface. Thus a hydraulic engineering structure, a sound suppression wall, etc., may be created.

EFFECT: attenuating elements may be produced in a very simple method by their division along the vertical line and making each vertical part from concrete in a casting mould.

28 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: implement complex of investigations - route survey of bed region, geodetic-engineering, geological, morphological, hydrological and soil - environmental investigations. Historical natural coastline of the river is determined by dividing the bed into transverse cross-sections. Depth of bottom sediments is determined by means of samples. Samples are taken in each cross-section at regular distances. The planning map is made according to the obtained results. Comparing the hydrological and geodetic surveys, cross-sections are built, on which the slope of the coastal landscape and level of flooding is represented. The depth of bed cleaning is determined by formula: hc=2Δh(1+Δhbn), where hc - depth of the bed cleaning by the fairway; bn - width of the restored, natural bed; Δh - level of flooding; i - slope of the coastal landscape to the water's edge. The depth on transverse profiles is specified. The river bottom is formed, taking into account the natural coastline. Dredge is used as the mechanism for removal and transportation of bottom sediments.

EFFECT: improving the efficiency of protection of coastal zones.

3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: structure in the form of a prism with a polygonal discharge and bottom slope is assembled from spacer tubes along the entire coast of the river. Spacer tubes are fixed by yokes around the transverse reinforcement to produce nodes. Waterproof material is laid under the frame of the structure on the prepared soil of the base. At the discharge side there is waterproof cloth laid on the polygonal slope and fixed to produce extended blanket. Length of the waterproof section L will be L≥CH, where L - length of extended underground contour, at which there are no filtration deformations; C - Bligh's coefficient - value reverse to gradient; H - existing head. The frame of the structure is fixed to the soil of the base by anchors. Diameters of spacer tubes are 30-100 mm. The structure has high resistance of the structure to shift, reduces filtration, increases length of filtration track and prevents possible filtration deformations.

EFFECT: increased durability and provides for possibility to use an anti-flood structure many times.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to coast-protecting structures. The method to protect river coasts at foothills consists in the fact that at first they horizontally lay reinforced concrete beams 4, to the ends of which at the side of the river they fix tetrahedrons 5, the skeleton of which is represented only by structure ribs. After that, gabions 1 are laid, besides, stone laid into gabion boxes protrudes from net cells by 3-4 cm. The gabion structure is protected from abrasive at high speeds of the flow and increased concentration of abrasive.

EFFECT: increased reliability of coast-protecting structures.

2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a protective system, in particular to the protective system intended for preservation and restoration of the shoreline. The protective system (1) comprises a gabion having opposite side walls (13, 15) interconnected at regular intervals along the length of the gabion by several separating walls (7, 9), and the gaps between neighbouring pairs of partition walls (7, 9) bound together with the side walls at least one separate compartment (7) of the gabion. At least one separate compartment of the gabion is bounded by respective opposite side walls or opposite parts of the side walls in the respective opposite side walls. The partition walls are hingedly connected to the side walls, and the separate compartment of the gabion extends from it outwardly with at least partial converging of panels of the open frame (21), forming in whole or in part the protruding compartment (5) of the gabion. The method of preservation or restoration the shoreline comprises the following steps, including creation of the above-mentioned protective system; at least partial filling at least one compartment with the filling material, preferably sand, stones and/or vegetation; at least partial filling the protruding compartment with oyster shells, and performing at least partial facing the shoreline with the protective system.

EFFECT: protective system is used for changing the direction of the wave energy, especially sea wave energy, to preserve the shoreline, as well as for restoration the shoreline.

36 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: proposed invention relates to hydraulic engineering construction and may be used as a coast protection structure to prevent erosion of sea shores. A modular coast protection structure comprises through breakwaters installed in a water reservoir in a staggered manner. Each breakwater has four stands in the form of right-angled triangles, tops of angles of which are rigidly connected to each other by three links to form a frame. The face of the frame formed by triangle hypotenuses is installed on the sea bottom. The face of the frame forming a reflecting surface makes the angle of 20 - 35° in respect to the bottom. On the reflecting surface, with an interval and in parallel to the links, there are rigidly fixed lower edges of guides. Each guide has a concave surface, the cross section of which is a semicircle. At the same time the inner cavity of the guides is directed towards an incoming wave, and the ribbed surface created by guides has openings between adjacent ribs.

EFFECT: invention provides for highly efficient suppression of wave energy and reduced wave load at protected shores.

2 cl, 5 dwg

Tsunami damper // 2524814

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: tsunami damper comprises a block of channels 1 in the form of, for instance, packages of large-diameter pipes, installed on the sea bottom. At the side of the sea compressing deflectors 2 adjoin the end of the channels 1 block, and the upper deflector is strengthened with stiffening ribs 3, and the lower one rests onto the bottom base, which was previously profiled and reinforced against erosion, and is equipped with anchor joints. A reversible deflector 4 adjoins the other end of the block, at the shore side, having a channelled form and reinforced with support structures 5 with anchor joints. Tsunami waves are damped by impacting them with a strong opposite hydraulic flow, generated on their way with the proposed device, which reduces their destruction energy to the minimum.

EFFECT: using such tsunami dampers will make it possible to preserve natural conditions for ecosystems of coastal area and its natural landscape.

2 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method for protection against wave action of a single hydraulic structure consists in the fact that arriving waves of the hydraulic structure are separated on both sides around the structure by creating horizontal near-surface streams diverging to both sides across the direction of waves, which are formed by a flat symmetrical floating-up gas-liquid flow that is created in water environment under arriving waves. Symmetry plane is located in a diametrical plane of the structure and perpendicular to wave movement. Flow rate of gas, mainly air is chosen so that horizontal velocity of near-surface streams of a gas-liquid flow is at least 0.2 of velocity of arriving waves. A zone where a gas-liquid flow is formed is located in the above symmetry plane at the distance before the hydraulic structure of not closer than (0.3-0.5) of the width and not farther than (1.5-2.0) of the length of the hydraulic structure. Length means the structure size along diametrical plane in the wave direction, and width means the size along the wave front. Gas-liquid flow is created at the depth of not less than 0.6 of amplitude of an arriving wave by supplying the air under pressure to water environment so that bubbles are formed. A device for the method's implementation includes a discharge device on both sides around the hydraulic structure of arriving waves based on the use of a gaseous substance, mainly air. The above device is made in the form of a deaerator of water environment with bubble air inclusions, which consists of perforated tube 1 located along the diametrical plane of the structure along the movement direction of arriving waves and increased air pressure source 3 connected to it via main line 2. Length of tube 1 is (1-1.5) of length of the hydraulic structure, and location of the tube end that is the closest to the above structure is (0.3-0.5) of width of the structure. The tube is located so that it is submerged under water to the depth equal to at least 0.6 of an amplitude of an arriving wave starting from still water surface.

EFFECT: providing effective protection of a single hydraulic structure against power action of waves arriving at it.

6 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method consists in using a device to prevent erosion of a shore edge. The device comprises elements installed to form braces and arranged with a long side across the flow motion. Elements are netted webs made of flexible material having positive buoyancy. Netted webs are equipped with a float in the upper part and a weight in the lower part and are deepened into the shore edge with attachment to the bottom by means of pins, the length of which is selected to prevent tear-off of the lower edger of the netted web from the bottom with sharp increase of flow speed, variation of its direction or sharp increase of surface level. Netted webs are installed in rows. Side netted webs entering the row stretch from the central one to the opposite side. Rows of netted webs are arranged as different by height for availability of an upper edge on the surface of water and tracking of the profile of the lower edge bottom. The distance between rows is selected so that the distance between adjacent webs shall not be less than two heights of the netted web in this point. Due to flexibility of the netted web, loads are reduced at the structure and places of fixation.

EFFECT: prevented erosion of a shore edge and provides for the possibility of formation of a new shore line.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method includes using a pulp from a water source bed for dam erection. At the same time to erect a dam they use pulp-filled tubes from semipermeable material of prismatic section, which are laid along the river bed. A sludge pond is arranged behind the dam. Coastal landscapes are recovered by cleaning of the water bed from anthropogenic bottom sediments, river water content increases, which protects against impact of high water and helps to develop a feed base for fishery. The method makes it possible to perform works regardless of landscape features. Degraded flood-plain lands gain stability, and it becomes possible to change them into a class of the ones suitable for agricultural activity.

EFFECT: protection of coasts and recovery of coastal landscapes of rivers.

2 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly to consolidate slopes or inclinations to be eroded by ground waters.

SUBSTANCE: method for slope protection against landslide by diverting ground water with the use of drainage mine tunnel, through filters and upward dewatering wells involves excavating mine tunnel beginning from lower point of original ground under water-bearing horizons with tunnel elevation for water gravity flow, wherein mine tunnel extends parallel to direction of water flow from water-bearing horizons; excavating mine tunnel in different directions perpendicular to above flow direction; performing drilling vertical venting wells at tunnel ends beginning from original ground; drilling upward dewatering wells in water-bearing horizons; drilling vertical wells from original ground used as through filters crossing all water-bearing horizons; connecting thereof with cross-headings excavated from mine tunnel; installing valves at through filter ends; providing filtering members at place of intersection between upward dewatering wells and vertical wells with water-bearing horizons; forming water removal channel in mine tunnel and connecting thereof with original ground; drilling hydraulic observing wells beginning from original ground along line of through filters to control water level in water-bearing horizons.

EFFECT: increased reliability; possibility of diverting 85-90% of water contained in water-bearing horizons.

3 dwg

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