Device for determining poisson factors and transverse deformations of fragments of crushed rock array and evaluating their compressibility in array
FIELD: mining engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a frame of sidewalls, beams and stand connected to a closed circuit, a beam installed in the center of the frame, and loading mechanisms. The loading mechanisms are made in the form of vertical and horizontal hydraulic jacks with dynamometers installed leaning against the beam mounted in the frame center and the frame stand, respectively, it is also provided with a plate which is installed horizontally on the surface of the array of crushed rocks and connected by strings with instrumentation for registering vertical deformation of the array, a carriage mounted on the plate configured for horizontal movement, inside which a compression ring with a stamp is fixed. A second horizontal plate, a second carriage on ball bearings, a hydraulic jack and a dynamometer are arranged in series on the stamp of the compression ring and connected to the central beam of the frame, wherein the stamp is connected to instrumentation for registration of its movements.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and reliability for determination of Poisson factors and transverse deformation of fragments of crushed rock array and compressibility of rock in the array.
FIELD: mining operations.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining operations and can be used to determine the stresses in the rock mass. The method in which the samples are recovered from the mass in the direction coinciding with the direction of the maximum main stress present in it. They are exposed to volumetric heating from 20 to 570°C, then they are left for cooling to a temperature of 140-150°C, the activity of acoustic emission is recorded simultaneously. The ratio of the amplitudes enveloping the acoustic emission activity is determined, occurring during cooling and heating, according to which the reaching by the stress at the test sites of the mass of the load level is determined, equal to or greater than 0.9 times the compressive strength of the rock, representing the transition of the latter to the stage of pre-destruction.
EFFECT: determining the fact of exceeding by the value of the maximum main stress of the critical level equal to or greater than 0,9 times the compressive strength σcom that indicates the transition of the rock to the stage of pre-destruction.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining and is intended to determine direction of maximum stress in structural elements of the development systems relatively to the drilled test wells. Method includes installation in the vertical well of the rod acoustic line, on which rigidly the contacting with well walls ring is installed, and registration of the acoustic emission (AE) at the acoustic line end projecting from the well. In mass in same horizontal plane with the test well and parallel to it additionally at least three wells are drilled, in each well the acoustic line with ring similar to the located in the first well are installed. All rings are made out of lamellar composite material with anisotropic structure in the ring plane, and orientation angle of the ring layers in each next well is increased by 15° relatively to the previous. As per AE signals registered at each acoustic line the corresponding relationships of total count vs. Time are determined, the acoustic line with total count of AE drop with time is determined. According to the direction of layers in the ring in this acoustic line the direction of maximum stress occurred in the mass in plane of the orthogonal axis of the measuring well is determined.
EFFECT: assurance of the possibility of determination of the maximum stress acting orthogonally to the measuring well.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining, mainly to coal industry. Method is suggested to determine gas content of the coal mass in zone of its destruction, including the shift-based working hours of the coal production cut face, course treatment by the longitudinal straps, measurement of intensity of gas evolution from the treated course per the production shift, and determination of the index of intensity rise of the gas evolution to the face space of the longwall face during the coal destruction. At that the intensity of gas evolution from the course is measured during removal of the first and second coal straps after the repair shift, at that the gas content of the coal mass in the zone of its destruction is determined as per the provided mathematical expression.
EFFECT: suggested method ensures determination of the reliable value of the gas content of the coal mass in zone of its destruction due to the direct measurements of the intensity of gas evolution from the course in the face space.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method and device for production increasing at the field containing rock that includes at least one mineral of valuable material opened by tock grinding, and at least one other mineral, at that mineral of the valuable material has higher density the at least one other mineral. At that the method is characterised by the following stages: drilling using the drill rig for rock extraction. At that the drill fines are produced, aerosol is generated, it contains drill fines and gas flow, aerosol is transferred from the drill rig to at least one air separator; flow classification is performed, at that at least two fractions are created, they include particles of the appropriate equal-falling drill fines; and properties of at least one fraction are determined, this fraction is used as measure determining optimal degree of the rock grinding.
EFFECT: increased field production.
23 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method and the device for determination of local size of mineral grain for a valuable material mineral in rock of a field or deposit, and rock includes at least one another mineral, and the valuable material mineral is of higher density, than at least one another mineral. The method is characterised by the following stages: execution of the process of rock drilling using the drilling rig, with forming of cuttings, formation of aerosol which comprises cuttings and gas flow, transfer of aerosol from the drilling rig to at least one air separator, execution of sizing in a flow and at least two fractions comprising particles corresponding to equal-settling of cuttings, and determination of property of at least one of fractions which is used as a measure for the local size of mineral grain for valuable material mineral in rock.
EFFECT: determination of local grain size of valuable material mineral in rock of a field or deposit.
20 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: test equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to test equipment, namely to engineering surveys, and can be used to determine a strain-and-stress state of rocks, and namely to determine a stage of development of deformation processes in mass of material (in rock mass, soils under an engineering facility, etc.). Essence of the invention: specimens of material with a brittle skeletal frame are taken. Loading of specimens is performed and physical and mechanical characteristics of material are recorded, and a stress-deformation curve is built up, as per which parameters characterising a precursor of material destruction are determined. At compression of specimens, coefficients
EFFECT: possibility of characterising a stage of material state prior to destruction, which is a precursor of material destruction, by reducing the time of measurement due to reduction of the number of test specimens.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention proposes two versions of a method - for a bottom-hole zone and a section remote from the bottom-hole zone. In both versions, measurements of amplitudes of pulses of electromagnetic interference signals (EMI) are made. Before EMI signals are recorded, a gauging station is formed to make measurements of values of amplitudes of EMI signal pulses, for which there used is a lead ball with a fastener at the height of 1.5 m, which is fixed in its roof rock, from soil of the working, thus arranging them along the vertical axis of this plane; after that, the specified device is arranged in front of the above fastener. Values of amplitudes of EMI signal pulses are measured; maximum values are chosen - Nmax (Version 1) and N'max (Version 2), which are compared to critical value Ncr of amplitude of EMI pulses along well horizon. If Nmax>Ncr or N'max≤Ncr, then, distance of the considered section is assessed as dangerous. Scaling of low-browed roof breaks and lumps of rock is performed with a tool. Operations are performed until Nmax≤Ncr or N'max≤Ncr is obtained.
EFFECT: improving accuracy of measurements by means of a single order of selection of measurement points, fixation of the number of counts and regular orientation of the chosen device.
6 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: measurement of relative variation of radiation temperature of the surface of the working face of the bed is made remotely at the distance of 1.0-1.5 m in 3-5 m throughout the long face length; with that, at each measurement point an average value obtained at least in 30 measurement cycles is considered, and a boundary of the protected zone is accepted as distance from a contact line of the bed to the worked-out space to a fixation point of stabilisation of a radiation temperature value. As per the method for determining boundaries of protected zones in long faces of coal beds, remote measurement of relative variation of radiation temperature (infrared radiation intensity) of the surface of the working face of the bed is performed. The first measurement is made at a point at the distance of 3-5 m from a stable hole or a strike entry; the following measurement points are located at equal distance in 3-5 m throughout the long face length. At least 5 point measurements are made at each measurement point. After completion of each measurement cycle for each point in a cycle there calculated are average values. As per average values of at least 30 measurement cycles there built is a chart of relative variation of radiation temperature of the bed working face surface throughout the long face length, and a point of its stabilisation is fixed, which represents a boundary of the protected zone.
EFFECT: increasing safe execution of mining operations.
SUBSTANCE: method of forecast of location of lower boundary of explosive gas zone in working face is proposed, comprising the driving of bypass in working area, implementation of well into the top of layer, and measurement of methane concentration along its length by the moving gas metering probe. At that the well into the top of layer is carried out from the junction of lava with adjoining air release working in the direction of the worked-out area of the current working area to placement of immediate mine roof to the length equal to its pitch of placement, at an angle of unloading of roof rocks from moving boundary of the stope. The measurement of methane concentration is made along the length of the well with the forward and reverse movement of gas measuring probe in preassigned intervals of length of the well, and the lower boundary of explosive gas zone is set from the top of layer along the lower concentration limit of explosibility of gas-air mixture.
EFFECT: implementation of the method enables to establish, in each specific case of mining coal bed, the location of the lower boundary of explosive gas zone in the working face in the most dangerous part of it, to make recommendations to eliminate accumulations of explosive gases, and to improve the safety of stoping on the gas factor.
SUBSTANCE: method of determining the length of bearing pressure zone from breakage face is proposed, comprising preparatory workings, mining of coalbed with breakage face, drilling the degasification well, sealing its mouth from the mine atmosphere, measuring the intensity of gas release from the well when it transition from the zone of natural permeability of the bed in the bearing pressure zone from the breakage face. At that, the well in the unrelieved mass of the bed is drilled to the border of the bearing pressure from the opposite working, and the well mouth is sealed to the depth of the bearing pressure zone from the working, from which it is drilled. And the length of the bearing pressure zone from the breakage face is determined according to the distance between the zones of start of loading the bed and start of its discharge from the rock pressure.
EFFECT: improvement of accuracy of determining the length of the bearing pressure zone from the breakage face.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes recording signals of electromagnetic radiation in time, measuring amplitudes thereof as well as durations from load start and building spectral-time matrix of spectral amplitude of said signals on basis of results, with growth of frequency and time. On said matrix frequency sub-ranges are marked with growth of frequencies, in each of which equal spectral amplitudes of signals are marked, area taken by these is contoured with closed line and its size is determined, then relation of dimensions of area of Sn n frequency sub-range (n=2, 3, 4,…) to area S1 of first frequency sub-range is determined. With growth of relations of these areas start of intensive crack forming process is detected. Critical relation, at which transfer from intensive cracks forming process to rock massif splitting process occurs, is relation Sn=(2-4)S1, on basis of which splitting of areas on said matrix is predicted in greater frequency sub-ranges, to characterize destruction of rock massif.
EFFECT: higher precision.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: stand has device for pumping liquid and detachable shell, wherein model of filtering environment is placed. Detachable shell is connected to liquid forcing plant and has replaceable impenetrable elements for adjusting value of contact area of outer surface of filtering environment to liquid, made in form of inserts and ring isolators.
EFFECT: higher precision.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes drilling wells and mounting electrodes with conductors therein, which are connected to recording equipment. Signal lines are formed by filling wells with hardening mass, which after hardening forms fragile electric-conductive rods, rigidly engaged with well walls. Change of electric resistance between electrodes is measured in time, moments of tears of signal lines are recorded and parameters of rock solids sheeting are determined. Fragile electric-conductive rods can be formed in such a way, that their specific resistance depended on pressure. As hardening mass a mixture of graphic powder, cement and water can be used. Between fragile electric-conductive rods and wells walls a layer of fragile dielectric material can be previously formed. Device for method realization includes signal line in form of fragile and electric-conductive rod. Inside the rod a wire is placed, on which electrodes are mounted being in contact with rod and connected by conductors to recording equipment. Specific electric resistance of rod can depend on pressure. On surface of rod a layer of fragile dielectric material can be applied.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes performing compression tests according to system "cylindrical hollow sample - backfill material" in rigid matrices with different values of relation of height of backfill material, filling space between walls of rigid cylindrical matrix and sample, to sample height, which has relation of height to diameter no less than 2. sample is set in matrices in such a way, that its axis passes through matrix axis. Unified hardness passport is built in coordinates "horizontal stress - vertical stress" of rock sample. Tests of rock samples for sliding are additionally performed during compression with loads above limit of lengthy hardness of rock with construction of sliding curves in coordinates "load level - vertical deformations speed logarithm", after that rock samples in matrix are enveloped in backfill material and same tests are performed again. Relative reaction of backfill massif is determined from mathematical expression. Alignment chart is built for dependence of relative reaction of backfill material from relation of its height to height of rock sample for various levels of system load. Alignment chart is used to determine relative reaction of backfill massif during its long interaction with rocks, enveloping a mine.
EFFECT: higher reliability, higher trustworthiness, higher quality of control over processes of deformation and destruction of massifs.
5 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining and rock sampling, particularly devices for testing in situ the hardness or other properties of minerals.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining quantity and size of natural microcracks in unit volume of rock sample in predetermined point thereof; applying standing electromagnetic wave field to the rock sample; determining heating temperature and defect structure, as well as quantity and size of formed microcracks in above point within above temperature range; making a plot of crack concentration as a function of crack size; determining crack confluence coefficient from above plot as ratio of two sizes of cracks with the highest concentration; calculating rock strength σ from mathematical equation, making plot σ=ƒ(T) and separating rock weakening process into several technological stages.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of rock weakening during mineral production and treatment; possibility to control microcrack development; increased accuracy of investigation.
2 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: mining industry, particularly for geometrization of fields developed by open-cast and underground excavation.
SUBSTANCE: method involves testing of property index to be investigated; measuring intervals between neighboring sampling points in representative sampling area; measuring fissuring index, namely azimuth and angle of crack plane inclination and distances between neighboring cracks; plotting graphs of azimuth and angle of crack plane inclination along sampling line; determining and plotting graphs of the second-order derivatives as a function of fissuring index distribution at zero, three and so on dilation intervals; determining distance between extremal or zero values of second-order derivatives and choosing the maximal dilation interval which is characterized by constant extremal or zero values of second-order derivative as a function of distribution of azimuth and angle of crack plane inclination at different sampling intervals. The lesser value of obtained maximal dilation intervals for azimuth and angle of crack plane inclination is assumed as optimal sampling interval length for all rock massif.
EFFECT: increased accuracy and reliability of obtained data.
FIELD: testing the nature of borehole walls, particularly to estimate rock permeability.
SUBSTANCE: method involves taking rock samples from underground bedding zone; immersing the samples into highly-viscous liquid loaded in sealed chamber, wherein above liquid is pumped in above chamber under pressure increasing in time to predetermined threshold pressure value to compress gas present in rock pores; stopping liquid pumping to relax thereof, wherein pumping and relaxation operations are carried out along with measuring chamber pressure; modeling above pressure changing processes with the use of processing system on the base of initial values taken as physical parameters of rock fragments; iteratively setting the values of above physical parameters by iteratively bringing the modeled pressure change to that measured in the chamber. The rock fragments may be obtained as drill fines lifted by drilling sludge or as drill fines obtained after prior flushing thereof. Pump, which supplies water at constant rate in buffer reservoir filled with highly-viscous oil may be used for above liquid pumping.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of physical parameter estimation.
5 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly to survey rock movement.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises crownblock, weight, reading strip and indicator made as loop and as latch secured to rope, which passes over two pulleys and forms above loop. The rope passes through orifices of the marks secured inside the well by barbed members. The indicator is provided with pantograph having thrust rolls secured to spring-loaded rod, which is hinged to the first arm end. Another spring-loaded rod end is hinged to bar fixedly secured to thrust collar. Movable bush provided with limiters is freely located inside the thrust collar. The movable bush, rod, bar and both rope coils are located in guiding bushes, which are parallel to vertical axis and secured in metal body of the mark.
EFFECT: increased reliability of horizontal and vertical rock movement survey.
FIELD: mining industry, can be utilized for improving precision and trustworthiness of determining of spatial orientation of direction of active tectonic forces in mountain massive at extensive depths.
SUBSTANCE: method includes simultaneous geophysical measurement of profile and curvature of well shaft by device including modules of inclination meter and profile meter. Additionally measured is value of angular displacement of well device around its axis by device rotation indicator utilized in inclination meter. With consideration of value of angular displacement of well device, in any point of record along depth, azimuth position of measuring levers of profile meter is determined, which matches azimuth orientation of action of tectonic component of mountain pressure.
EFFECT: increased precision of construction of geological model of cross-section.
FIELD: rock movement investigation, particularly to determine rock movement between tubing support and mine outline to be filled with concrete.
SUBSTANCE: registration mark comprises distance bar having the first end fastened to mine roof and registration mark head screwed on the second end of the distance bar. Free end of registration mark head is adapted to receive leveling rod or ruler. Distance bar is arranged inside metal tubular telescopic member having outer tube. Opposite outer tube ends are secured to reinforced concrete tubing in preassembled tunnel lining collar lock. Inner tube of telescopic member is arranged inside rubber pipe installed in outer tube. The registration mark head and distance bar are provided with slots for key receiving.
EFFECT: possibility to determine movement of rock reinforced with tubing collars without air-tightness breakage and reinforcement technology disturbance.