Automatic action device for flushing drainage of low-head earth dams
SUBSTANCE: device 5 comprises a horizontal water intake column 1 located in a zone of periodically overloading the levels of the head race 2. The filtration column 1 consists of a sleeve 3 and a filter filling 4. The filtration column 1 through the inlet pipe and the filtering perforated geotextile material with a mesh provides filling the pressure chamber 9 located inside the accumulation tank equipped with an inspection well 10 during the rise of the head race 2 level. In the pressure chamber 9 bottom, there is an opening with a valve 12 connected by a hinged-lever mechanism consisting of levers 13 and 14, with a float 15, through a rod 16. The lever 14 is fixed on an axle. The float 15 is located in the accumulation tank 18. The float 15 is connected via the rod 16 to the lever of an adjustable lock fixed thereto, made of an upper section and a lower section, connected together by a swivel and two hinges. A lever with a stop is fixed to the bottom section of the lock. The adjustable lock is fixed to the pipe head with a clamp. A gravity water conduit 29 is connected to the inspection well 10 of the drainage system 32 to be flushed. The discharged water passes through the gravity water conduit 29 in the intersection zone of the anti-filtration dam element 30 and the anti-filtration diaphragms 31 to the inspection well of the drainage 32 to be flushed.
EFFECT: regulation efficiency of the operation of drainage structures, increasing reliability and service life.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydrotechnical construction, namely to soil dams built in areas with high seismicity. The invention is aimed at the reduction of cost of the structure and increase of the damping ability of the seismoisolating dam layer. The aseismic soil dam built in narrow cross sections includes the main soil part of the dam body and the seismoisolating layer with dynamic characteristics significantly differing from those of the soil of the main part of the dam body. The seismoisolating layer is located along the whole contact of the dam with the base and boards of the cross section (canyon). The seismoisolating layer is formed by the installation into this layer of inclusions in the form of similar utilised metal-cord tyres from cars, which cavities are filled with gumbrine. The tyres are arranged parallel to the base and boards of the cross section (canyon) with an equal step chequerwiseboth in the same row, and between rows, the quantity of which is no less than two.
EFFECT: design features of the offered design of the seismoisolating layer allow weakening more effectively seismic waves at the expense of an increased damping and diffraction ability.
SUBSTANCE: earthquake resistant subsurface dam being constructed in broad sites, comprises the upper main part of the dam body and seismic isolation layer of the dam body located between the upper main part of the dam body and base, dynamic characteristics of which are significantly different from those of subsurface of the main part of the dam body. Seismic isolation layer is formed by installing inclusions in the form of one-type recycled metal-cord tire casings of heavy vehicles in this layer. The cavities of these tire casings are filled with gumbrine. The tire casings are arranged horizontally at regular intervals in staggered order and in the horizontal plane. In the vertical plane the tire casings also arrange at regular interval in staggered order with number of rows not less than two. Design features of the proposed structure of seismic isolation layer permits to attenuate seismic waves more effectively due to the increased damping capacity and diffraction.
EFFECT: cheaper construction and improvement of damping capacity of seismic isolation layer of subsurface dam.
SUBSTANCE: static, dynamic or vibration sensing is carried out preliminary at the selected points to the depth from 1 m with respect to the top of the earth fill. At the same time the samples of compacted soil of undisturbed structure are selected in order to determine the moisture and density of skeleton of the specified soil from several drilled wells at points at a distance of not more than 1 metre in plan from sensing points. Laboratory researches of standard compaction with definition of compacting factor depending on the density of soil skeleton, are carried out on the selected samples of soils from the body of compacted fill. Construction of correlation dependence is performed between the specified values of compaction factor and values of the resistance to penetration of standard cone into the soil during sensing, taking into account determinations previously performed in the laboratory followed by evaluation of compaction quality of the earth fill.
EFFECT: improving the accuracy of definition and identifying the areas of non-compacted soil for its subsequent local postcompaction.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering, in particular to the construction of high-head dams made of local building materials with unearth impervious elements. Earth dam contains the thickened concrete diaphragm 1 as impervious element. Diaphragm 1 is separated form the concrete pad 10 by the perimeter seam 11 and longitudinal inspection galleries 5 are made in it at intervals by height. Horizontal joints-cuts 9 closed for inspection galleries 5, which prevent the disclosure of joints toward the downstream pool, are made on the upper edge of concrete diaphragm 1. Part of concrete diaphragm 1, located above its foundation part, is made of particularly hard concrete mixes pressed by layers. Screen 7 of asphalt concrete or rolled concrete enriched with cement mortar is also made on the upper edge of diaphragm 1. Concrete diaphragm 1 is cut into separate sections by vertical functional-sedimentary joints 8.
EFFECT: increase of strength of impervious element of the dam and possibility of carrying out the required repair is provided.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering and can be used in the construction of rock-fill dams on rivers in hard-to-reach areas with limited resources of natural building materials suitable for the construction of watertight element. Diaphragm of rock-fill dam on the rocky foundation 1 is made in the central area by filling the longitudinal cavity with water-resistant material. This cavity is formed between the prefabricated panels 5 installed back-to-back one upon the other. Process longitudinal cavity is formed by placing the prefabricated panels 5, supported by a vertically mounted metal tubular studs or metal studs 3 with longitudinal grooves, for example I-beams, channel beams, rails, interconnected by rods 4 into the single frame, providing the overall stability of the diaphragm during the construction period. Metal tubular studs 3 are made with holes for injecting the tiered impermeable and plastic material 6 of the diaphragm, filled firstly with rock macrofragmental material.
EFFECT: safety of rock-fill dam, arranged between the steep rocky banks in the narrow alignment, with characteristically high flood levels in the river is improved, construction periods are reduced.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for use in hydraulic engineering, in particular, to create dams of tailing dumps in areas with significant anthropogenic load on water facilities. The method includes preparation of the base for the dam and laying of soil material into the dam bank. Soil material is represented by anthropogenic bottom deposits of contaminated water facilities having permissible filtration capacity and sufficient strength according to hydroeconomic calculations. Anthropogenic bottom deposits are previously prepared by dehydration in containers from geotextile material to moisture of 40-50% and compaction under by gravity on a specially prepared site. Afterwards containers with dehydrated residue are delivered to the place of construction by dump trucks and are laid by mobile cranes in layers. The promising direction is usage of this device in areas of far north, since in these areas usually there are no sufficient soil materials suitable for creation of antifiltration elements. Local materials used to fill the dam bank are in permafrost condition and their usage causes significant difficulties. Utilisation of heterogeneous bottom deposits is provided, environmental compatibility and fail-safety of dam operation increase, erected structures are more stable.
EFFECT: reduced filtration losses, timing of construction, minimised complexity and labour intensiveness of works.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering. Device comprises a frame 1, antenna units 6, arranged along the perimeter of frame 1, and motion sensor 5. Device hung on propulsion unit 7 with hydraulic drive 8, which moves along the dam crest, with processing unit 4, integrated in it. Hydraulic drive 8 allows setting the frame 1, consisting of two parts, joined by means of hinges 2, to operating position to move it along the upstream slope. It is possible to detect defects and damages both of the protective coating along the upper slope, and soil condition, constituting the body of dam, located underneath, for formation of demultiplexing and subsidence at early stage of their formation.
EFFECT: quality of the performance of operational monitoring is improved, and the presence of propulsion unit with hydraulic drive permits to speed up significantly the performance of investigation of low-pressure earth dams.
SUBSTANCE: earth dam comprises a body, a base with an upper layer of ice-saturated soil, drainage slots and tubular drains. Drainage slots are made for the depth of the upper layer of ice-saturated soil of the base upstream the upper and lower slope of the body. A tubular drain is laid onto the bottom of the last slot.
EFFECT: efficient drainage of a thawing frozen base of a dam in process of construction of an earth dam in permafrost area.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises the following processes: erection of retaining prism, construction of dismantling dredge piping, receiving and alluviation of hydraulic fluid, formation of sediment pond, lighting, accumulation and storage of process water in it, discharge, intake and return of technically pure water in water recycling system. The sediment pond for storage of recycled water reserve and the final lighting of the hydraulic fluid from the central zone of the hydraulic fill is formed behind the contours of the hydraulic fill.
EFFECT: increase in intake capacity and stability of the hydraulic fill.
SUBSTANCE: stone dam contains impervious element in the form of soil-cement-concrete screen covered with film. The screen is recessed under the upstream face of the dam. It is designed as an inclined plate, leaned via the inclined sliding seal on the concrete prism. Near the bottom border of the soil-cement-concrete screen there are galleries. They are located every 20-40 m of height and serve to control the status of the screen and for its repair. Reinforced concrete gallery for cementation of rock base is arranged on the contact of concrete prism with rocky foundation.
EFFECT: increase of reliability of impervious element, ability of dam work in the conditions of extreme low temperatures, dam repair without draining the storage reservoir.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to techniques of drainage of agricultural land of nonchernozem belt with closed drainage and the techniques of use of these lands. The method comprises loosening the drained soils to a depth of at least 60 m. In order to ensure the required by the plants of soil humidity conditions, preventing the possible damage to the pipes of closed drainage and providing industrial applicability of deep loosening, the deep loosening is carried out to a depth of hl, determined in each case from the condition of compliance with the following requirements: (hr)min ≤ hl ≤ (hr)max;(1), hl ≤ (hr)min - D - ΣΔhi , (2), where ΣΔhi = Δh1 + Δh2 + Δh3 + Δh4; (3), 60 ≤ hl ≤ ht , (4) where (hr)min and (hr)max are the minimum and maximum depth of penetration into the trench backfill of the closed drainage of the root system of cultivated culture, respectively, cm; (hd)min is the minimum depth of placement of closed drainage pipes of the project at the site where deep loosening is planned to be carried out, cm; D is the outer diameter of the closed drainage pipes at the site (cm); ΣΔhi is the sum of corrections (cm), including: the correction which depends on the accuracy of the topographic altitude survey of soil surface of the drained site, Δh1; the corrections taking into account the technogenic erosion of the soil surface during carrying out crop-engineering and land planning Δh2 and during ploughing Δh3; correction taking into account the depth of the gauge made by the tractor on the soil surface during deep loosening, Δh4; ht is the maximum possible depth of loosening soil due of the technology level and characterising the industrial feasibility of the inventive method; at that in each point of the drainage trench the thickness of the powdering layer of the drainage pipe over the bottom of the trench mp > hd - hl, where hd is the depth of placement of the closed drainage pipe. Prior to loosening the soil on the drained part the value of the set depth of deep loosening is set on the mechanism of the ripper when setting up, preparing it for work.
EFFECT: positive result is to obtain by a landholder of closed drainage durable and reliable in operation, providing design humidity conditions of soil during its operation for at least a normative term of service.
SUBSTANCE: drainage system comprises drains 1, an inlet collector 2, and an outlet collector 3, between which the storage tank 4 with a siphon 5 is placed. The descending branch 6 of the siphon 5 is brought to the drain well 7 on the level of the outlet collector 3. The float 8 with the plate 9, suspended on a holding traction 10 of the float drive with a valve 11 is arranged, respectively, at the level of the siphon neck 5. The float 8 is placed on the corresponding critical depth of groundwater for the soil and climatic and hydrological conditions of the area, in which the drainage system is located. In the wall 12 of the tank 4, a hole 13 is made for the intake pipe 14, through which the tank 4 is connected to the draining storage water intakes 15. The storage water intakes 15 are connected to the openings 16 of sections of the inlet collector 2 at the location of the drains 1. When mounting the filter storage water intakes 15 the filling of waterproof materials 17 is used, such as sand, gravel, slag or synthetic wastes of light industry.
EFFECT: invention enables to automate fully the process of maintaining the level of groundwater at the level corresponding to the critical, ensures the supply of a certain amount of water from the groundwater in the root layer of soil, which increases moisture reserves for crops and enables decrease partly the irrigation rates, which provides saving water resources, the necessary regime of moistening and aeration of soil is ensured by creating an optimal level of groundwater in the different phases of plant vegetation.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: construction method of adits containing a water-receiving element in the form of a solid unit of n number (n>2) of vertical longitudinal toe filters involves trench excavation by means of an excavating and drainage machine, laying into it of a drain pipe covered with protective filter material, and refilling of the trench by means of a padding device moving synchronously with the drainage machine and provided with a bunker for filter material with a drain chute. Laying of the drain pipe covered with protective filter material and refilling of the trench is performed simultaneously. The drain pipe covered with protective filter material is padded throughout the trench width to the depth of 15 cm above its crown from a duct to which filter material is supplied from the bunker via the drain chute. The duct represents a rectangular parallelepiped having width equal to trench width, and height that is somewhat bigger than trench depth. Duct bottom is located near the trench bottom at the distance of padding layer thickness of the drain pipe relative to the trench bottom. The duct is rigidly attached with front wall 7 to housing 8 of the excavating and drainage machine. On rear 9 wall of the duct there installed on the outer side are (n-1) vertical partition walls 10 parallel to each other and to walls 1 of the trench with a possibility of changing the distance between them according to thickness of the filters. Height of each of partition walls 10 is equal to the duct height. The filter material bunker is divided into sections by means of partition walls with a possibility of changing the distance between them and their number so that the number of bunker sections is more by one than the number of vertical longitudinal toe filters of the adit. Each bunker section is provided with its own drain chute, from which each adjacent vertical longitudinal filter is filled with heterogeneous filter material.
EFFECT: providing a possibility of filter refilling of the trench of the adit; improving hydrological action of adits and ecological and economic efficiency of draining of low-water-permeable middle and heavy loamy and clay soils.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: device is located at drainage-watering collector and drainage network. Device contains a drain well 2 with installed drain tip 1, shutdown device, drive and chamber 10 connected by means of the additional chamber 28 with collector 27 cavity. The device is provided with installed self-regulating gear 3 of the regulator in well, and comprises head regulator made in form of the membrane 13 provided at bottom with mesh-type protecting limiter 22 of membrane 13 movement. The membrane 13 is secured at top to the casing 4. The above membrane cavity 12 is connected with atmosphere and with valve 14 and rod 16 by means of two-arm lever 17 with output valve 20 closing the hole 21 in the chamber 10 bottom. The rod 18 of the output valve 20 has piston 19 for water supply in the cavity of the collector 27. The output valve 20 is located in the additional chamber 28, in its side wall the calibrated hole 29 is made, it is connected with well 2. The chamber 10 bottom has inlet hole 23 with valve 24 connected with float 25 installed with possibility of the latter abutment to the limiting shoulders 26.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of the device, operation reliability and quality of the water regulation in the drain system.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises a device of drainage trench with a drainage pipe laid on its bottom with a protective-filtering material, the filtering elements in the form of prisms of soil of humus horizon, arranged in a trench to the arable layer, and the final backfilling the trench with soil of humus horizon. Each drainage trench is made with the depth of at least 1.1 m and the width of at least 50 cm across the direction of flow of surface waters at an angle of not more than 30 degrees to the horizontal. The drainage pipe with protective-filtering material is sprinkled with soil of humus horizon, cut off from the upper edges of the trench, not less than 15 cm above the pipe crown. The filtering elements are made in the form of a single block composed of the nth odd number (n≥3) of the vertical regular prisms parallel to the trench walls, in which the prism of soil of humus horizon alternates with the prism from the excavated soils. The width of the prism from the excavated soil is two times greater than the width of the prism of soil of humus horizon, and the width of the trench B and the width of each odd prism of soil of humus horizon b"n" are related to each other as b"n"=2B/(3n-1).
EFFECT: improvement of hydrological action of the closed regulatory network, increase in efficiency of the use of topsoil and the ecological and economic efficiency of drainage of average-loamy soils.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of enhancing the drying action of close collectors consists in supplementing them with deep loosening of soil, comprising periodic deep loosening at an angle to the direction of drainage pipes. Each subsequent periodic deep loosening is carried out in the direction opposite to the previous one. Continuous deep loosening of soil is carried out each time with the ripper with the V-shaped working body necessarily in two directions: the first direction - at an angle of 90° to the direction of the drainage pipe of the collector, the second direction - at an angle of 150° to the first one.
EFFECT: accelerated drainage of surface water and temporary water from the plough layer, obtaining by the landholder of the closed collector durable and reliable in operation, providing the design intensity of soil drying and its moisture regime required to grow plants, during the minimum standard service life of the drainage system.
SUBSTANCE: system includes supply drain lines 1, manifold 2, and storage well 3, in which siphon block 7 is mounted. The system is provided with self-regulating mechanism 4 of ground water level installed in well 3 and consisting of float chamber 6 rigidly fixed in the upper position above the ridge of siphon block 7 and connected by means of a rigid float drive through valve 8 with a blind section of pipe 13 on a descending branch of siphon block 7. The descending branch of siphon block 7 is connected to discharge pipe 14. Float chamber 6 is connected via hydraulic channel 12 to well 3. The lower part of well 3 is sealed, and above discharge pipe 14 it has outlet opening 15 with branch pipe 17, which is shut off with a level control by means of an additional float drive for control of gate 16. Float gate 16 has L-shaped lever 19 with flange 20, on which float 18 and horizontal plate 23 is fixed. Branch pipe 17 is connected to storage well 3 below the ridge of siphon block 7 by value Δh providing maximum design water filling of well 3 with further discharge to discharge pipe 14. Value Δh is calculated by the following formula: Δh=h1-h2. The self-regulating mechanism is connected to hydraulic channel 12 and well 3 as per a principle of communicating vessels. When the level of the ridge of siphon block 7 is achieved, a charging device is actuated and water discharge through siphon block 7 is performed in a pressure mode to the level of the inlet opening of its ascending branch. The level control in well 3 is actuated when maximum water level achieves the fixed restraining bracket 21, and opening of opening 15 with gate 16 is performed.
EFFECT: use of the invention will allow automating of a ground water level control process and maintaining correct soil humidity balance; automatic flushing of the well with pressure water flow.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method consists in creating a closed water area in the form of a storage pond 8 with the area of accumulation of sludge from liquid flows. The storage pond 8 is a water area with a levee 12, in which body the inlet water intake hole is made, and the opposite - a water receiver 9 of the water intake pipeline 22. According to the first embodiment of the method, at the bottom of the storage pond 8 the closed air-injecting devices 14, 15 are mounted to form a number of beams diverging from the device as horizontal perforated pipelines 16 in the direction of the base of the upper slope of the dam 12. The perforated pipelines 16 end with a dead end. The air-injecting devices 14, 15 are connected to the central supply pipeline 17, 18 connected to a source of compressed air. With the increase in the accumulation of sediment in the form of sludge in the zones of the storage pond 8 the air supply in portions into the air-injecting devices 14, 15 is resumed with brief connection of the compressor 19 on the command of the time relay 20 on the air duct in the intake pipeline of the closed air-injecting device. Breaking through the holes of the perforated pipeline 16, the compressed air loosens and roils the sludge, with simultaneous saturation of manure flow with it, and transports it to the discharge water intake pipeline 22. As the reduction in the sludge layer in the storage pond 8 the air supply into the air-injecting devices 14, 15 is stopped. According to the second embodiment of the method, in the storage pond a floating platform is placed, on which a compressor is located, connected to the pressure hose air duct. The nozzle of the pressure hose air duct is made in the form of a metal trunk with a perforation in its end part, attached to the rod with graduations in height and in the section of sludge residual accumulation, the end of which is inserted into the precipitate formation. The floating platform is attached on both sides of the dam using a rope and block system in the areas of erosion of the sediment of sludge precipitation.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of transport capacity of roiled manure flow coming from the livestock complex, and increased in functional capabilities of the storage pond with possible disposal of flows on irrigated fields of reclamation.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises treatment of soil with simultaneous formation of soil ridges. After summer deep tillage before planting herbs the levelling and compacting is carried out in a single pass with smooth water-filled rollers. Planting is carried out with a mixture of stand of grass growing naturally on sod-podzol sandy loam soils with band stripes. Overseeding of tall-stem cultivated crop of corn is carried out with simultaneous formation of the ridges between the bands, and inter-row processing is not carried out. The tall-stem cultivated crop of corn, which has not reached its complete ripeness, is left for winter. The harvesting is carried out on the second year in spring before the vegetation of grass with grinding and removal of the stems with leaves from the field for dry feed with the subsequent feed additive. In addition, overseeding grass between the band stripes is carried out into mechanically damaged ridges, and top dressing of grass is carried out, which is harvested during the complete vegetation season. The distance between the stripes is taken as 20-25 m, and the row spacing of corn is 70 cm.
EFFECT: creation of an optimal snow cover which protects plants from freezing, and the accumulation of moisture in the spring period for plant development.
SUBSTANCE: drainage system comprises a collector 1 connected with the drains 2 entering into it, vertical tubes 3 and a device for flushing of sediments. The device for flushing is made of perforated pipes 4 in the form of air outlets 7 arranged inside the drains 2 attached to the upper part of the pipes above the bottom. The perforated pipe 4 by the metal barrel 6, placed in the tube 3 is connected to the pressure hose 8, which inlet is connected to the discharge pipe 9 with the valve 10 of the receiver 11. The receiver 11 is connected to the compressor 12 generating the compressed air. The compressor 12 is connected to the timing relay. The invention increases the transporting capacity of disturbance sediments and other compounds in the drain cavity and accelerates their removal into the open channel 17.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of flushing and increased drainage term by air exposure to sediments.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly to consolidate slopes or inclinations to be eroded by ground waters.
SUBSTANCE: method for slope protection against landslide by diverting ground water with the use of drainage mine tunnel, through filters and upward dewatering wells involves excavating mine tunnel beginning from lower point of original ground under water-bearing horizons with tunnel elevation for water gravity flow, wherein mine tunnel extends parallel to direction of water flow from water-bearing horizons; excavating mine tunnel in different directions perpendicular to above flow direction; performing drilling vertical venting wells at tunnel ends beginning from original ground; drilling upward dewatering wells in water-bearing horizons; drilling vertical wells from original ground used as through filters crossing all water-bearing horizons; connecting thereof with cross-headings excavated from mine tunnel; installing valves at through filter ends; providing filtering members at place of intersection between upward dewatering wells and vertical wells with water-bearing horizons; forming water removal channel in mine tunnel and connecting thereof with original ground; drilling hydraulic observing wells beginning from original ground along line of through filters to control water level in water-bearing horizons.
EFFECT: increased reliability; possibility of diverting 85-90% of water contained in water-bearing horizons.