Hydrophobic filter for collecting oil products from surface of water and method of its obtaining
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of water purification from oil and oil hydrocarbon contamination. A hydrophobic filter for the collection of petroleum products from the surface of water, consisting of a cassette in which separate highly interconnected highly hydrophobic blocks are interconnected, made of high-temperature oxide materials with a density of 0.4-0.6 g/cm3, The outer surfaces of highly porous hydrophobic blocks and the inner surfaces of the pores of which are covered with a continuous carbon film. A method for producing a hydrophobic filter for collecting petroleum products from the water surface, including drying the highly porous hydrophobic blocks in an oven at a temperature of 300-400°C to a constant weight of the blocks, after which they are impregnated with the carbonaceous liquid until the outer surface of the highly porous hydrophobic blocks and the inner surface of the pores are completely covered, then pyrolysis is carried out in an inert gas atmosphere at a temperature of 700-900°C to complete graphitization of the surface coating of highly porous hydrophobic blocks.
EFFECT: increasing the efficiency of removing oil and oil products, simplifying the manufacturing process.
9 cl, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: oil skimmer vessel is proposed, comprising a hull with propulsive machinery and having a tank inside the hull, a system of garbage collection, oil separation and pumping, as well as an inlet threshold arranged upstream the tank. Besides, the vessel comprises the second tank with the second threshold, arranged in series downstream the first tank, as well as two water channels, by means of which the lower part of appropriate tanks is connected to a propulsor located on the vessel deck, besides, the first threshold is lower than the second one.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of oil and garbage collection.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: device includes a rope and an enclosure in the form of floating sections of a guard boom, which are connected to each other Ends of extreme sections and the rope are fixed on opposite river banks. The rope is fixed above river surface and sliding rings are freely put on it. Ends of the enclosure and connection points of the sections are connected to the corresponding rings by means of carriers of the corresponding length. An installation method of the device consists in installation of the enclosure at an angle to river flow direction. First, the rope with rings put on it is drawn above the river surface. The enclosure is towed along the rope to the opposite bank and sections are connected in series to the corresponding rings by means of the carriers.
EFFECT: reliability, durability and efficiency of installation of an enclosure to prevent oil spreading.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: this invention relates to protective device intended for prevention of fluid leaks into ambient water. Proposed device comprises dome-like fluid impermeable membrane. Besides, it incorporates individual-control floating devices attached to membrane for its positioning and stabilisation. To extract fluid, membrane is provide with discharge hose. The latter comprises also said individual-control floating means for positioning and stabilisation of discharge hose. Note here that said individual-control floating means are underwater apparatuses.
EFFECT: higher accuracy and ease of positioning.
7 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device is mounted on a floating craft provided with a winch, a boom and a system of ropes. Longitudinal tie-rods are fixed by means of hinges on one side on the frame of the device, and a rectangle-shaped framework is installed on their other side. The framework with a large-cell mesh with a concave surface is installed with a possibility of changing the position relative to the water body surface. In the upper part of the framework there fixed is a mesh with cells of smaller dimensions, and in the lower part there fixed is a knife throughout the framework width. The boom with a roller on the end is fixed in the middle part of the frame with a possibility of changing an inclination angle. A rope attaching the mesh framework to the two-drum winch is hitched over the roller. The drums are connected to each other with a safety clutch. The direction of synchronous rotation of the drums is provided with a reverser. On one drum the rope is located in an upward direction, and on the other - vice versa.
EFFECT: improving the cleaning efficiency of water bodies from blue-green algae.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: surface of a film of oil or oil products is treated with a reagent which contains a natural polymer and the reaction product is collected. The reagent used is polysaccharide microgel with mass of 20000-200000 Da and particle size of 50-600 nm in an aqueous solution with concentration of not less than 0.2 g/l. According to the first version of the method, before and after spraying the reagent, the periphery of the film of oil or oil products is treated with a biodegradable surfactant in the form of an aqueous solution with concentration of not less than 0.1 g/l. According to the second version of the method, the reagent is first mixed with a biodegradable surfactant in the form of an aqueous solution with concentration of not less than 0.1 g/l. Mixing is carried out until the ratio of the polysaccharide microgel to the biodegradable surfactant is 12:1-2:1.
EFFECT: high efficiency of the process of collecting oil or oil products from a water surface, low specific consumption of reagents and low residual content of said reagents in water.
2 cl, 6 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: self-propelled oil-skimmer represents a marine installation - a catamaran with restricted area of sailing. It comprises bodies with hydrojet engines, a vacuum reservoir for collection of a thin layer of film oil product with water, and also an accessory for collection of wastes. Each body of the catamaran is equipped with a structurally coupled settling tank, polypropylene filters, a receiver with vacuum pumps, and tanks for reception of oil products and water. A reservoir for collection of a thin layer of film oil product with water is made in the form of a floating structure placed between the bodies, the collecting chute of which is connected to a collecting pipe arranged along the floating structure. The latter via at least one device of automatic regulation of liquid flow rate, equipped with a throttling gate valve, is connected to settling tanks. Each of settling tanks is equipped with at least one thin synthetic net, which may cover horizontal motion of the liquid along the entire section of the settling tank.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of water treatment with simultaneous increase of operational reliability.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: contaminated surface is treated with a sorbent. The sorbent saturated with oil is collected and transported to be utilised. Finished products from ash and foam concrete of autoclave hardening are used as a sorbent.
EFFECT: reducing sorbent consumption, increasing its retaining ability and a possibility of its being used at negative ambient temperatures.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention suggests an oil and oil sludge sweeper, which is comprised of a metal body shaped as a deck, hollow boards and a container formed between them, a bottom with openings inside it, a bevelled bow, a tray with protecting lateral walls and a marine engine. A waste heat boiler (WHB) for the collected oil sludge is installed on the sweeper; WHB consists of a body being a combustion and oil sludge mixing chamber, which is mounted at the base frame installed on the deck and an afterburner chamber with a water-heating coil mounted in it; in the rear part of the afterburner chamber there is an air duct feeding air to the afterburner chamber in order to ensure the preliminary heating of air before its delivery to the afterburner and ejector chamber; besides in the afterburner chamber there is a preheating coil with water used as a heat carrier for oil sludge heating.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of oil and oil sludge collection from the water surface with simultaneous disposal of oil and oil sludge.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is referred to environment protection and may be used for localisation and collection of film of oil and oil products at water surface. Stationary floating booms and oil-collecting devices are installed downstream the river flow with connection of tanks for collection and temporary storage of oil products. Oil film is bypassed by a loop of floating booms by means of at least two vessels thus creating a pocket for its catchment. Oil layer at water surface is thickened when horizontal plane in the oil film shape is changed and the total length of floating boom outline is maintained permanent. Oil film is tugged by vessels downstream the river flow up to the place close to the stationary floating booms.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of water surface treatment at rivers with high flow speed and localisation of large volumes of oil products without use of additional special-purpose devices.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the environment protection and is designed to collect and remove spilled oil and petroleum products from the surface of open water reservoirs, as well as in waste treatment facilities. The device comprises a housing mounted on an oil recovery vessel of the "catamaran" type, a container with a magnetic adsorbent and an oil collection drum with a magnetic system. The housing is opened for input and output of treated water. The bottom of the housing is made in the form of a tape moving in the direction to the oil collection drum. The container with the magnetic adsorbent is mounted in the front part of the open housing above the water surface and is provided with a drum feeder with an adjustable flow rate of the adsorbent into the petroleum product layer. The oil collection drum is made with the rotation direction counter the direction of the tape and mounted with the ability of linear contact with its lower part of its surface. The device for removal of adhered petroleum products from the surface of the oil collection drum is designed as a scraper transforming into a chute with a rotating screw mounted inside the chute.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of accumulation of oil and petroleum products from the surface of water environments is provided.
SUBSTANCE: invention deals with elaboration of a photopolymerised composition for obtaining a polymer material, which possesses the three-dimensional nanoporous structure with hydrophobic surface of pores, a single-stage method of its obtaining and the porous polymer material with selective sorbing properties and a single-stage formation based on it water-separating filtering elements with the specified geometry and required mechanical strength, applied in devices for purification of organic substances, mainly hydrocarbon fuels, oils, oil products, from emulsified water and mechanical admixtures. The photopolymerised composition contains oligoetheracrylate, a light-sensitive component, as such used is 1,1,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptanes-2,3-dione (camphorquinone) or ortho-quinone or their mixture, a reducing agent, for instance, amine, a functionalising monomer of vinyl series, solidified in accordance with the radical mechanism, less reactionable in comparison with oligoetheracrylate and a forming hydrophobic polymer, and a non-capable of polymerisation component, dissolving composition monomers and compatible in a restricted way with the final polymer. The method of the single-stage obtaining of the polymer nanoporous material with the functionalised surface of pores, as well as methods of the single-stage obtaining of products, water-separating filtering elements with the specified geometry and increased mechanical strength, is elaborated on the basis of the composition.
EFFECT: nanoporous polymer water-separating filtering elements with the specified geometry and increased mechanical strength have been for the first time obtained by the single-stage photopolymerisation method; selectively sorbing properties of filtering elements have been experimentally proved at the example of purification of benzene from water.
15 cl, 1 tbl, 8 dwg, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to means of removing oil residues and fatty stains from devices and equipment as well as human skin, and pertains to a napkin. The napkin has a base made of polypropylene material and is in form of a flat parallelepiped which is saturated with hexadecane or heptadecane with saturation coefficient of 2-5.
EFFECT: invention provides efficient removal of oil residues and fatty stains, mechanical strength and a considerable useful life.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: oil-based magnetic fluid is produced by mixing of 24 g of ferric iron sulphate with 12 g of ferrous iron sulphate with no mechanical impurities. Said mix of said salts is mixed with gas-liquor to pH 7.5-8.5. Then, obtained mix is mixed with 15 g of oil as carrier fluid and heated at 70°C using permanent magnet magnetic field at all process steps.
EFFECT: expanded range of cleaning means.
SUBSTANCE: surface is treated with a dispersed polymer-containing composite material, followed by regeneration or recycling of the spent product. The polymer used is a linear polymer with an unlimited degree of swelling in an oil product - latex of natural rubber or butadiene-styrene rubber, deposited on inert filler. The inert filler used is material with high specific surface area - vermiculite or oxidised graphite, obtained by foaming the starting component immediately before depositing the polymer on it. The filler is treated with the polymer at low pressure ranging from 0.9 atm to 1·10-4 atm. Sorbent is obtained in the apparatus directly at oil or oil product spill site.
EFFECT: high efficiency of the method of cleaning surfaces by increasing sorption capacity of the sorbent, reduced cost of transporting the sorbent.
2 cl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: highly porous, natural silicate material with initial grain size between 4 and 10 mm is mixed with an organic matter-containing residual substance. The mixture is then calcined at temperature between 520 and 550°C and then ground to obtain a range of grain size from 4 to 0.125 mm. The highly porous natural silicate material and organic matter-containing residual substance are used in weight ratio between 75:25 and 95:5 in terms of dry mass before calcination. The method is simple and cheap.
EFFECT: obtained agent, which is capable of binding oil, has higher true porosity than the starting component, which is already a highly porous material.
6 cl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: biopreparation contains the following in wt %: normal paraffins C12-C18 1.0-1.5, ammonium oxalate 0.05-0.1, potassium chloride 0.1-0.5, aqueous culture liquid based on aerobic oil-oxidising bacteria - up to 100. Said bacteria are Mycobacterium phlei. Potassium chloride is added to the preparation, which suppresses the harmful effect of waste products of the bacteria on the bacteria themselves.
EFFECT: increasing working life of the preparation to up to 3 months.
1 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to drilling oil and gas wells. The method involves addition of additives per 100 pts. vol of spent drilling mud, in pts. vol: a reagent based on a mixture of high dioxane alcohols 0.5-1.5; coagulant solution - aqueous ammonium sulphate solution with concentration of 100-350 g/l, 0.5-5.0; a solution of a mixture of non-ionic and ionic surface active components in organic aluminium, a solution of a mixture of non-ionic and ionic surface active components in an organic solvent 0.3-1.5. The above mentioned additives are added to the spent drilling mud successively and after addition of each additive, the mixture is stirred for not less than 0.5 hours. Further, the mixture of spent drilling mud and additive is kept for not less than 6 hours, centrifuged and the separated oleophilic phase is taken for recycling. The invention is developed in subclaims.
EFFECT: increased degree of breakdown of spent invert emulsion drilling mud due to reduction of their aggregative stability and increase of volume of the separated oleophilic phase and increased efficiency of the method of recycling the said drilling mud due to possibility of separating quality oleophilic phase i.e. suitable for repeated use when preparing process liquids for various purposes.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: oil-and-gas production.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions related to material and method for collection of oil, lube, masut, fuel and hydrocarbons form water, soil, and other surfaces, also for cleaning of contaminated with oil and oil-products waters The material consists of swelling in oil and/or oil-products rubber and dispersing mineral filler with opened internal hydrophobic porosity.
EFFECT: efficiency increase and economically more profitable in terms of material consumption and method itself due to oil bonding speed increase and decrease of resin volume in the material.
3 cl, 2 ex, 4 tbl
FIELD: oil and gas production.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to composition and process for improving production of oil from oil formation and cleaning oil-polluted land and surfaces. Composition contains at least 85% of fatty acid alkyl ester, surfactant, and acid. According to a process for producing crude oil, effective amount of production formulation based on the indicated composition is injected to oil formation before production of crude oil from that formation. Described are also oil-water emulsion demulsification process and oil-polluted land and surfaces cleaning. Invention is further developed in dependent claims.
EFFECT: reduced amount of residual oil in formation and improved quality of cleaning with nontoxic composition.
13 cl, 20 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: organic chemistry, fat and oil industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention elates to a new derivative of sym.-triazine - 2-diphenylamino-4,6-bis-(nonyloxycarbonylmethylthio)-1,3,5-triazine that represents active supplement inhibiting oxidation processes in vegetable oils (antioxidant).
EFFECT: valuable properties of compound.
2 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: claimed is method and deammonifying installation for purification of ammonium-containing sewage waters. Deammonifying installation for purification of ammonium-containing sewage waters contains aeration tank and hydrocyclone for separation of sludge from aeration tank into relatively heavy fraction, which includes bacteria, performing anaerobic ammonium oxidation, and relatively light fraction. Hydrocyclone contain input, connected with aeration tank, for return of separated relatively heavy fraction into aeration tank and upper output, connected with aeration tank, for discharge of separated relatively light fraction from hydrocyclone. Hydrocyclone contains cylindrical segment and conic segment. Surface of internal walls of conic segment is rough on certain parts. Rough surface of internal walls of conic segment has higher degree of roughness than surface of internal walls of cylindrical segment. Method of purification of ammonium-containing sewage waters is realised in deammonifying installation.
EFFECT: simplification of ammonium and nitrite conversion into elementary nitrogen.
33 cl, 3 dwg