Two-step crosshead of combined structure
SUBSTANCE: two-step crosshead includes an entry threshold 1, baffle steps 2, 10 and enclosing side walls 17. At the base of steps 2, 10 gabion mattresses 3, 11 with a thickness of 0.3-0.5 m are laid over the entire area. Cellular rectangular box constructions of reinforced concrete square-section beams are arranged on top of the gabion mattresses 3, 11. At the end of each step 2, 10, the height of the transverse beam is increased to 1.5 m and more for its operation as a baffle wall 7, 15. The baffle wall 7 is combined with a reinforced concrete drainage wall 8 at the end of the first step 2, and the baffle wall 15 is combined with a transverse beam 14 at the end of the second step 10. The box structure cells above the gabion mattresses 3, 11 of each step are loaded with macrofragmental stone material 9, 16 with a thickness of 0.5-1 m. At the same time, in the baffles of each step, the reinforced concrete beams of the box structure are rigidly connected to one another and to the drainage wall and are delimited with side enclosing walls 17 with expansion joints. The proposed two-step crosshead as a coupling structure can be most effectively used to stabilise eroded channel processes on mountain and foothill regulated areas of urbanized zones of small rivers and earth wasteways where the concentrated difference in the channel marks does not exceed 3…3.5 m.
EFFECT: effective excess energy dissipation of water flows and operation reliability of the entire structure.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: implement complex of investigations - route survey of bed region, geodetic-engineering, geological, morphological, hydrological and soil - environmental investigations. Historical natural coastline of the river is determined by dividing the bed into transverse cross-sections. Depth of bottom sediments is determined by means of samples. Samples are taken in each cross-section at regular distances. The planning map is made according to the obtained results. Comparing the hydrological and geodetic surveys, cross-sections are built, on which the slope of the coastal landscape and level of flooding is represented. The depth of bed cleaning is determined by formula:
EFFECT: improving the efficiency of protection of coastal zones.
SUBSTANCE: dam is constructed on the tributaries of the main rivers with possibility of formation of temporary flood reservoir in the zone of flood formation and is laid across the inflow bed in the form of trapezoidal prism. Dam is made of waterproof bags with loose filler. Bags are stacked along the inflow bed in layers, with alternation of layers with longitudinal 6 and transverse 7 locations of bags relative to bed. The lower layer is formed of longitudinally disposed bags. In its turn, the longitudinal rows of bags are stacked at a distance from each other.
EFFECT: possibility of construction of flood-control dam in river beds of any configuration and in any geological conditions.
5 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a block of one and more pipelines bent at the angle and connected to each other by sides. The block is fixed on the path of coastal flows. The pipeline is made in the form of a sector of round tubular cross section of spiral form with a multi-faceted helical surface along its internal and external perimeter with an inlet hole. The pipeline is made of sections, each mounted of two subsections. Subsections are made of strips bent towards one side along straight bending lines placed at the angle to edges of strips, and coiled into a ring with alternate formation of isosceles, equilateral and scalene triangles of various sizes along the strip length. Sides of triangles differ from each other by a linear value multiple to integer number Δ. At two sides of the largest equilateral triangle there are two identical scalene triangles arranged with their large sides, sides of which are less than the side of the largest equilateral triangle by the value Δ. To the middle side of one of scalene triangles there is a smaller equilateral triangle is fixed, sides of which are less than the side of the largest equilateral triangle by the value of 2Δ. To the second side of the smaller equilateral triangle there is an isosceles triangle fixed by its base, sides of which are less than its base by the value of Δ and the side of the largest isosceles triangle by the value of 3Δ. To the side of the isosceles triangle there is an isosceles triangle fixed, the base of which is less than its side by the value Δ and the side of the largest equilateral triangle by the value of 4Δ. At the opposite side to the middle side of the second scalene triangle there is an isosceles triangle fixed by its side, the base of which is less than its side by the value Δ and the side of the largest equilateral triangle by the value of 3Δ. To the base of the isosceles triangle there is an isosceles triangle fixed with its side, the base of which is less than its side by the value of Δ and the side of the largest equilateral triangle by the value 4Δ. At one side of the subsection there is a hole in the form of a square, the side of which is less than the side of the largest equilateral triangle by the value 3Δ, and at the other one there is a hole in the form of an isosceles trapezoid. The large base of the trapezoid is equal to the side of the largest equilateral triangle, and the smaller base is less than the larger base by the value of 3Δ. Sides of the trapezoid are less than the larger base by the value of 2Δ. Subsections are connected to each other by holes in the form of trapezoids to form sections with inlet and outlet holes in the form of squares. Sides of holes are equal to each other and arranged at the angle, the value of which determines the spiral shape of the pipeline. Sections of the pipeline are connected into a pipeline, by alternate rotation by 90° of each subsequent section relative to the previous one.
EFFECT: treatment of areas of water of bays and gulfs by direction of flows in their stagnant waters and increasing water circulation.
SUBSTANCE: accessory comprises a block of one and more pipelines bent at the angle and connected to each other by sides. The block is fixed on the path of coastal flows. The pipeline is made with formation of multi-pass helical surfaces of triangular shape at its external and internal perimeter and unidirectional multi-pass helical lines. The pipeline is made of sections. Each section is made in the form of a circular sector mounted from a strip bent alternately to different sides along the straight lines in the form of bending lines. Bending lines are placed on the strip at equal distances from each other and are placed at the angle to edges of the strip to form quadrangles of different size with two parallel sides arranged on the strip alternately and parallel to each other. The strip is coiled into a ring with multi-faceted surface. Sections are connected to each other by free sides of specified quadrangles in the form of a hollow pipeline of triangular shape with throughput section. The throughput section is bent at the angle from 30° to 180° and more to form along its perimeter an external and an internal surfaces of multi-pass helical surfaces of triangular shape and unidirectional helical lines.
EFFECT: treatment of areas of water of bays and gulfs by direction of flows in their stagnant waters and increasing water circulation.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: protective facilities are installed. Previously the coastal area of the river is investigated, and unfavourable sections of the investigated areas are found. Then at the distance of not more than 2, 4 and 6 m from the water level line they install vertical calibrated surveying rods with a division price of not more than 1 cm. The readings of the soil level on the surveying rod are taken as the start of count of the washed soil level. Then during the year after heavy precipitation they measure height of washed soil at the base of surveying rods, and determine the average height hav of the washed soil on each of three surveying rods. Then they determine the average value of the height of washed soil at all surveying rods, and if the value of hav is more than 3 cm, they predict intensive development of the water body eutrophication process. Protective facilities in the form of engineering structures, for instance, gabion structures, are installed. If hav is less than 3 cm, they predict development of the process of water body eutrophication, and biological recultivation is performed, for instance, sow grass with a root system creating a turf layer.
EFFECT: reduction of water body areas subject to eutrophication.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a unit of one or more bent pipelines with a wave shape of the passage section, interconnected by lateral sides. The unit is fixed in the flow path of coastal currents. Each pipeline with the wave shape of the passage section is curved at an angle from 30° to 180° and more with a pitch of screw lines along the outer perimeter, changing by a diameter of the pipeline, and with a wave screw surface along the inner perimeter in the form of waveform pockets. The pipeline is mounted of sections with a multi-start wave screw surface of a double curvature. The surface of sections is provided with screw grooves inside and outside the pipeline at an angle to its axis as the waveform pockets with centres of the curvature, located outside and inside the cross section of the pipeline. The pipeline is mounted of sections, each of which is designed as a circular sector. The circular sector is made of a strip wound in a ring with the formation of quadrangles different in sizes with two parallel sides. In this case, the sections are interconnected by free sides of the quadrangles in the form of a hollow pipeline with the formation of the waveform screw surfaces along the outer and inner surfaces as the waveform pockets along the outer and inner surfaces, which can be different by the shape and sizes along the perimeter of the pipeline, directed to one side at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the pipeline with the wave shape of the passage section. The distance between the fold lines is equal to the sum of the perimeter lengths of geometric figures of the pockets of the inner and outer surfaces.
EFFECT: purification of aquatic areas of bays and gulfs by means of a flow in their stagnant water and an increase of water circulation.
SUBSTANCE: method is to create an artificial barrier which helps to reduce the hydraulic cross section of the river. River ice cover softens when exposed to sunlight. A simultaneous destruction of a large area of the ice cover of the river occurs, and an artificial barrier in the form of ice jams made of small ice floes is formed.
EFFECT: floodwater level control on problem areas of the river.
SUBSTANCE: in river bed in left-bank and right-bank point bars near bridges they arrange partitioning control structures in the form of piled rows of metal pipes, or rails, or concrete piles inclined along the flow.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of river bed cleaning.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: each prefabricated obstacle structure includes multiple obstacle blocks. Obstacle blocks may include a hollow box-type structural element, a fastening frame from a channel and multiple connection devices, jointly operating to divert water when installed in the riverbed. Multiple connection devices stretch via the hollow box-type structural element for retention of obstacle blocks in the required position. Configuration of prefabricated obstacle structures may be changed, if required, for instance, by increasing wave amplitude, water flow speed, depth measurement, etc. The invention also discloses the method to produce obstacles with alternating configuration, operations of which are disclosed in the invention claims. The method for performance of the prefabricated structure of the obstacle for water passing in the riverbed, consists in the fact that multiple fastening rails are provided from a channel as installed in the riverbed, the first obstacle block is created, containing the above elements, and the first obstacle is fixed in the river bed with the help of the first connection device and multiple fastening rails from a channel, installed in the river bed, compressing at the same time the first hollow box-type structural element. The second obstacle block is created, as stated above. The second obstacle block is fixed to the first obstacle block by the second connection device, compressing at the same time the second hollow box-type structural element. Tension in multiple connection devices and bearing capacity of the hollow box-type structural element resist the pressure force applied by water.
EFFECT: system of obstacles has been invented with alternating configuration for a river bed in a river park.
14 cl, 31 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining and can be used in dredging of valley and floodplain detritus. This method comprises construction of stream diversion channel, service pool for dredge and system of water treatment plants. Stream diversion channel is composed by natural bed in drag bank made at working the deposit in lengthwise direction with earth prism filling to inner slope of dredge bank. Extraction of mineral during stream diversion channel is carried out by asymmetric manoeuvring of dredge to ensure maximum cross-section area of dredge bank. Water level in service pool and water treatment plats is kept level with stream diversion channel water horizon.
EFFECT: higher environmental safety, decreased scope of works.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering, particularly for cleaning river, channel beds and other structures of sediments.
SUBSTANCE: method for bed cleaning by sequential transversal bulldozers movement involves coarse planning river bed with the use of bulldozer with flat blade; cleaning river bed by moving bulldozers having comb-like blades with different gaps between knives thereof and forming afflux dams along river banks, wherein river bed cleaning is initially carried out by bulldozers having greater gaps between knives of comb-like blades and then by bulldozers having lesser ones. Dam bodies are formed by sequential moving bulldozers with comb-like blades so that upstream dam face comprises coarse fractions, dam top and downstream face thereof has fine fractions. After that silt free from coarse fractions are moved by bulldozers with flat blades to river bed axis to provide following carry-over thereof by high flood.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and economy.
FIELD: hydraulic engineering, particularly to prevent river or channel bottom erosion.
SUBSTANCE: method involves dividing river bed by overfalling weirs into several parts along river length, wherein the parts have design slopes of id=(21.16*(d2/3)*(h1/3))/(C2*R), here C is Shesi's coefficient, C=(1/n)+((0.45*lgR)/n), R is hydraulic radius, R=ω/λ, d - maximum diameter of 60% particles by weight in ground, h-flow depth with design supply flow rate, ω is effective flow cross-section, λ is wetted perimeter length, n is roughness coefficient, n=0.025. Overfalling weirs are formed by moving and sedimentation of bottom alluvion ground with taking into consideration of ground composition. Distance between overfalling weirs is determined from the following formulae: lw=H/(i-id), wherein number of overfalling weirs N=i/iw, where i is specific hydraulic slope which is actually equal to river bottom slope, H is overfalling weir height, l is total river length.
EFFECT: reduced cost and increased efficiency.
FIELD: hydraulic engineering, particularly in fish industry, for cleaning fish-breeding pools in fish rearing stations.
SUBSTANCE: method of deepening pool bottom and removing silt and algae with the use of special device connected to tractor, wherein the special device is scraper provided with two blades involves installing anchor in pool center in the deepest pool area, wherein the anchor is provided with pulley installed on vertical pin so that pulley may rotate in all directions about the pin; passing cable around the pulley to create closed loop and connecting the loop to tractor winch; connecting scrapper to one loop branch so that scraper blades may move in one direction to perform work and in another direction to perform idle motion; changing scraper direction after each 2-3 working travels thereof. Scraper direction is changed by moving tractor along arch having radius equal to loop length to the right or to the left along with continuing bottom deepening operation.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of water pool cleansing, reduced cost of fish growing and increased environmental safety.
FIELD: hydraulic equipment, particularly to clean channels of silt.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting down unnecessary trees, bushes and weed vegetation along irrigation channel berms and slopes; removing the cut down trees, bushes and weed vegetation; treating stubs of the trees and bushes and stubble remaining after weed vegetation removing. The stubs and stubble treatment is performed after hydraulic cut down trees, bushes and weed vegetation washing down to channel bottom. The stubs and stubble are trimmed for maximal possible height, the grinded fraction, silt, mineral and other waste is washed down to channel bottom. Water level in the channel is raised for height equal to 1/4-1/3 of channel depth and then decreased. Coarse fractions are removed from blocking grid surface. Fine fractions are trapped by meshed networks.
EFFECT: reduced power and labor inputs for channel cleaning and increased channel throughput.
FIELD: hydraulic equipment, particularly means for stream regulation, for instance breaking up subaqueous rock, cleaning the beds of waterways, directing the water flow.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting saplings, bushes and weed vegetation in area along irrigation channel berms and slopes; removing the cut saplings, bushes and weed vegetation and treating stumps and stubble; washing off the cut saplings, bushes and weed vegetation with water to bed bottom before stumps and stubble treatment; milling stumps and stubble so that final stumps and stubble have heights of 4-6 cm; washing off grinded fraction, silt, mineral and other rubbish with water to bed bottom; elevating water level in channel to height equal to 1/4-1/3 of channel depth; lowering water level in channel; removing coarse fractions from protective grid surfaces; gathering fine fractions by cellular meshes.
EFFECT: increased channel throughput and pumping installation capacities.
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly stream regulation, cleaning the beds of waterways of alluvium.
SUBSTANCE: regulation device comprises elastic web transversal to stream direction. Upper edge of elastic web is connected to float. Lower edge thereof is spaced from waterway bottom and is provided with weights. Float is fastened to bearing cable by means of stays. Both ends of the bearing cable are attached to floating craft. The weights are also connected to floating craft through cables.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of bed cleaning of alluvium due to device movement during cleaning operation.
FIELD: stream regulation, for instance breaking up subaqueous rock, cleaning the beds of waterways, directing the water flow, particularly for hydraulic structure cleaning of thin silt layers.
SUBSTANCE: drug head comprises body with rake structure, sucking channels in rake structure radially connected with sucking pipe orifice and valves made as flexible strips mounted along body perimeter. Flexible strips of the valves are cut in several tapes along lengths thereof. The tapes have equal thickness and are arranged in the body. The tapes have orifices located over body edge in front of sucking channels. Additional valves made as similar overlapped flexible strips are located around body perimeter in flexible strip connection areas. Edges of main and additional valves are on single level and located below body edge and rake structure spike surfaces. Support rolls may be mounted on the body.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of silt removal from hydraulic structure surface due to increased output and extended field of device application.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly engineering work in connection with control or use of streams, rivers, coasts, or other marine sites.
SUBSTANCE: device has guiding members, load-bearing ties, fixing river bed devices and bank-based supports with tightening means. The guiding members are made as hydrodynamic profiles of flexible material and are fastened to bank-based supports by means of flexible load-bearing ties and fixed at river bottom with weights fastened to stern part.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of stream control in wide range of flow depths, provision of quick operation regime change, namely possibility of rapid washout regime change into inwash regime and improved operational characteristics of structure members due to possibility to use flexible materials for member production, which results in improved installation and usage conditions.
FIELD: hydraulic engineering, particularly stream regulation to prevent territory flooding during spring tide.
SUBSTANCE: method involves creating temporary storage ponds by installing tube-type heat-exchangers in transversal stations of river bed confluent with main river bed; hermetically connecting heat-exchangers with vent risers having different heights and communicated with atmosphere, wherein the vent risers are arranged in opposite river banks; providing active circulation of air having temperature below 0°C through heat-exchangers in season preceding spring tide; creating artificial ice dams due to water freezing at heat-exchanger sections; regulating ice dam thawing regime in spring period by heat-exchanger venting rate increase or decrease; accumulating water in temporary storage ponds in spring period to extend spring tide period and to smooth flood peak.
EFFECT: prevention of flooding of territories located in central and lower main river zones during spring tide periods, decreased ecological hazard due to elimination of territory alienation and decreased time of hydrological regime and fish living condition change.
FIELD: hydraulic structures and water industry, particularly for river stream usage to provide centralized industrial and drinking water-supply for reliable water intake from river characterized by bad stream conditions.
SUBSTANCE: method involves accumulating water in head river during high-water periods; discharge the accumulated water in main river in low-water periods in regime providing favorable water intake structure operations and amount of water to be supplied in accordance with necessary water consumption. Water accumulation is carried out by water freezing to create artificial ice mounds at main river inflows. To create artificial ice mounds heat-exchangers are installed in transversal sections of river bed at river bottom level. The heat-exchangers are made as air ducts air-tightly connected with vent risers having different heights and communicated with atmosphere. The vent risers are arranged on opposite river banks. Artificial ice mounds are created by pressure increase in inflow beds at heat-exchanger installation sections to provide water flow to low floodplain as temperature decreases below 0°C in autumn period, which results in water freezing. In spring as air temperature increased to positive temperature the ice mounds are thawed under control by heat-exchanger venting efficiency increase or decrease. In this period water additionally freezes onto ice mounds in day periods characterized by negative ambient temperature. Water stream in main river is controlled by ice mound thawing in volume necessary to provide favorable water intake structure operations and amount of water to be supplied in accordance with necessary water consumption.
EFFECT: increased ecological safety.