Device for fighting ravine erosion
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a cantilever-type drop (1) connected by the outlet section to the top of a polyethylene well (2). Wells (6, 7) are installed along the length of the flow movement, close between which damping cushions (10, 11) are arranged, filled with a non-capillary filter material with a lowering in the form of a drainage cushion (16). The top of the damping pillows (10, 11) is covered with a water-permeable geotextile web (12, 13). In the lower part of the wells (2, 6) at the bottom, polyethylene discharge pipes (8, 9) with perforations in the upper part are placed. On the vertical walls of the wells (2, 6, 7) a grate (17) rests, made in the form of the axial jet line at maximum flow parameters and overlapping sequentially the damping pillows (10, 11) as well. The vertical walls of the wells (2, 6, 7) have slotted openings (20, 21, 22) along the flow. The upper part of the wall (3) of the well (2) and the end of the drop (1) section are equipped with visors (4,5), respectively. The well (7) bottom is connected to the discharge polyethylene pipe (23) on one level with the ravine bottom. The discharge polyethylene pipe (23) is made tapering from the beginning of the wall (19) of the well (7) to its open outlet. On the ravine bottom, a protective cushion (24) is made from a gravel-stone material or from a water-permeable geotextile web.
EFFECT: increasing the device efficiency and durability, increasing the culvert capacity while reducing the clogging of the discharging end of the device.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: water flow energy dissipator includes water line 1, pressure pipelines 2 provided with swirling devices 3. Pipelines 2 are connected with outlet sections to closed housing 5 in the form of a chamber towards each other. Mixing chamber 6 of a square cross-section is located under housing 5. Baffle wall 7 of chamber 6 has concave pressure face 8 made so that it faces upwards and to the side of outlet sections of pipelines. At the mixing chamber outlet point, a discharge channel is covered with plate 16 connected to partition wall 11. Baffle wall 7 of chamber 6 has inclined hole 9 attaching chamber 6 to discharge channel 10 and directed towards partition wall 11. Partition wall 11 is intended for changing the direction of the flow leaving outlet hole 15 of mixing chamber 6 to discharge channel 10, where jet flow from inclined hole 9 is connected to one common flow, which reduces bottom velocities after partition wall 11. Closed housing 5 is also provided with pipe 13 with gate valve 14 for pressure supply of air or atmosphere.
EFFECT: improving efficiency and reliability of dissipation of kinetic energy of the separated and again joint flow; high protection degree of a discharge channel against dynamic effects provided by air accumulations opening to the lower pool, which improves reliability of a water flow energy dissipator, reduces length of the closed section of the discharge channel and excludes the need of a well device for the lower pool of the channel.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: vertical longitudinal flow directing element 4 in the form of supporting pier with radome 7 in the lower part is installed in steep canal 1 with the revetment walls and bottom between the longitudinal walls 5 and 6. The length of the flow directing element 4 is larger than the length of vertical walls 5 and 6. The radome 7 is oriented along the axis of transit canal and divides it into two canals with equal input cross-sections. The end portion of the radome has convex shape. Lateral walls of the canal are made with annular stilling pools 12, 13. Flat vertical gate 8 and 9, which is the regulating device for annular chamber 12 and 13 designed in the form of knee-shaped turn to at least 180° relative to the initial portion, fixed to the wall of steep canal 1, is pivotally attached to the lower ends of the end longitudinal walls 5 and 6. The height of walls 5, 6 and 4 is equal to the height of canal 1 walls. Pivotally flat vertical gates 14 and 15 oriented along the transit canal at an angle of 25-35° to the walls of canal 1 are fixed additionally opposite the radome 7 from side of the convex outer form to the walls of steep canal 1.
EFFECT: water level pressure boosting is reduced in front of the separation walls, which improves the reliability of the device operation.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in the top of the gully 1 there is a console hinged drop structure in the form of a wide narrowing tray 2. Under the tray 2 in the width and profile of the top of the gully a nonwettable film 14 is laid. The receiving part of the tray 2 is placed between the drain-shaped shafts 3 and is fixed with concrete blocks 4 and anchor pins 5. In the rear narrowed part of the tray 2 a wide knee-shaped pipe 6 is mounted. The outlet of the pipe 6 is directed vertically downwards. In the cushion pool 7 there is an energy absorber 8 in the form of a self-centring hollow cylinder with the axis 9. The cylinder 8 is extended under wide-transverse elongated pipe 6 directing the flow. The protruding ends of the axis with the ropes 11 are connected with the protrusions of sidewalls 13 of the tray 2. The cross-section of the bottom of the tray 2 can be formed flat, inclined to the centre or stepwise.
EFFECT: prevention of gully erosion and effective dissipation of energy of falling water.
3 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: absorber comprises conduit 1, vertical tube head wall 2, float 3 with adjustable length rods 4 and ring gate 6, stilling basin 8 with labyrinth L-shaped baffles 19, 20, 21, end portion of which is formed by quiescent tank 18. Tube head wall 2 is formed as a cone expanding upward with orifices 7. Dissipator 5 is installed in tube head wall 2. Head wall 2 is provided with circular stop 16 at the outlet end and circular constrainer 17 on the inner surface of ring gate 6. Gate 6 is formed as a thin-walled hollow cylinder with the projections 9 and rods 4. Gate 6 is secured on supports 10 with a possibility to move relative to head wall 2. Tank 18 has skimming weir 22 with horizontal shelf 23. Float 29 connected by rod 27 with valve 24 is installed in tank 18. Outlet pipe 25 is provided with regulating valve 31.
EFFECT: improvement of efficiency and uniform distribution of discharge intensity across the width of the absorber and reduction of bottom flow velocity.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: dissipating device comprises a stilling basin 2, located between the supply pressure conduit 1 and discharging channel 19. In stilling basin 2 there is chamber 3 designed of two broken inclined cantilever walls 4 and 5 fastened to the side walls of the basin 2. Slots 12, 13 are left between the basin bottom 2 and lower ends of the walls 4 and 5. Additional nozzle 6 is located inside the chamber 2. Additional nozzle 6 is made of two guide plates 7, 8 coaxially to pyramidal threshold 9, mounted on the bottom of chamber 2. Slots 10, 11 are made in the upper part in plane of their symmetry relative to each other between the walls 4, 5 and plates 7, 8. Basin 2 is provided with vertical overflow wall 16. The lower end of the wall 16 is provided with grid connected with basin in the form of perforated pipes 17.
EFFECT: reliability and efficiency of device operation are increased, dynamic effect on the wall is reduced and uniformity of distribution of specific flow rates across the width of the basin is improved.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering, namely, to channels used in water-engineering systems and irrigation systems as open spillway structures. The method includes erection of a channel of polygonal profile with two pairs of symmetrical slopes and a triangular base. Reinforced concrete anchor beams 1 are laid into a single longitudinal row along the top of the triangular base. At the left and right to these beams they fix gabion mats 2, laid across the riverbed along the line of bottom slopes m2. Gabion mats 2 are made of light fascines and perforated pipes laid in layers into a metal net. Along the line of side slopes m1 in tight rows they lay flexible mats 3, made from light fascines, wrapped into a geonet of tubular shape. Gabion 2 and flexible 3 mats are tied to each other with the help of a metal wire and in some points are attached to slopes of the channel with the help of reinforcement rods 4. The method may be most efficiently used in low-head dam and dam-free water-engineering systems, and also a manifold irrigation network in piedmont and mountain hard-to-access areas.
EFFECT: channel of polygonal profile, erected by the proposed method, turns into a reliable spillway or coupling structure of open type, designed for safe passage or discharge of maximum possible water flows.
SUBSTANCE: energy dissipator comprises a horizontal section of a water conduit 1 and a circular dissipation chamber 3. The chamber 3 is equipped with a vibratory screen 9, placed coaxially to the hole of a vertical inlet nozzle 2, installed in the end of the water conduit 1. The vibratory screen 9 is made of spherical shape with convexity upwards with a circular support in the form of a disc 10, interacting as capable of vertical movement with ledges-limiters 7 and 8 in the upper position, and in the lower - with ledges-limiters 5 and 6, fixed on the flat bottom 4 of the chamber 3. The vibratory screen 9 has stands 11 and 12, equipped with springs 13, 14 and made in the form of guide adjustment bolts with fixed nuts 15, 16. In the centre of the flat bottom 4 of the chamber 3 there is a vertical outlet nozzle 17, which is placed in a discharge header 26 with a drain pipeline 27.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of operation under condition of variable water level in a dissipation chamber.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: dissipating device comprises a flow conduit 1 with shoulder 2 in the annular chamber 3, conjugated with the additional square chamber 4. Dissipating chamber 3 is provided with longitudinal walls 5, attached on the bottom by the additional rectangular dissipating chamber 4 in the form of two vertical water escape separating walls parallel to its walls, and at the outlet section of annular chamber - convergently at an angle to one another. The upper end of walls 5 of confuser has wall 16 radially incurved, mounted with gap to opposite free gap between the sidewalls of chamber 3. The lower end of vertical baffles 5 to the side of tailrace channel 15 is located in front of the flushing gallery 8 with transition curvilinear walls 9, located over the side walls of gallery 8 and interfaced with output threshold 12 of gallery 8. The output threshold 12 is located above the chamber 4 bottom and designed with horizontal shelf 14 and coupled with bottom of tailrace channel 15. The bottom of gallery 8 is coupled with pipeline 10 with plain gate 11 through the opening. Due to collision of jets in chambers 3 and 4 at sites: drop, curvilineal walls curved radially, overflow through the walls, as well as generation of water flow occurs in gallery in front of output threshold 12, energy dissipation is provided, reduction of bottom velocities at outlet and smooth entry into the tailrace channel are achieved. Performance of flushing gallery with threshold with horizontal shelf permits to create helical motion in it, friction between the flow layers and eliminate siltation of gallery at the same time.
EFFECT: improving work efficiency under conditions of variable water flows, increase of the device reliability.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering. A water discharge channel includes two composite parts with symmetrical pairs of slopes, an upper one with slope gradient m1 and a bottom one with slope gradients m2, and a triangular base. On a vertex of a triangular base there laid in one longitudinal row are reinforced-concrete anchor beams 1, on the left and on the right to which gabion mattresses 2 laid across the bed along the line of bottom slopes m2 are attached. Gabion mattresses are made of light fascines and perforated tubes laid into mesh wire layer by layer. Flexible mattresses 3 made of light fascines wrapped into a geogrid of tubular shape are laid along the line of side slopes m1 in tight rows. Gabion 2 and flexible 3 mattresses are connected to each other by means of mesh wire and attached in some places to slopes of the channel by means of reinforcement bars 4. The channel of the polygonal profile of the proposed structure is converted to a reliable water discharge or conjugation structure intended for safe passage or discharge of maximum possible water consumptions. It can be used effectively as much as possible as a part of low-pressure dam and dam-free hydraulic assemblies, as well as the main irrigating network in piedmont and mountainous difficult-to-access sections.
EFFECT: improving efficiency and reliability of channel operation.
FIELD: construction, road engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering. The method includes preparation and levelling of the base on the dam crest, manufacturing of reinforced concrete elements, their assembly and connection. Discharge overflow structures from prefabricated reinforced concrete elements are made using self-sealing concrete mixtures, of optimal size, for instance, along the height and length to 5.0 metres, thickness of up to 0.5 metres and weight of up to 30 tons. They connect the reinforced concrete elements to each other by speed method with the help of coupling joints 5 directly on the dam crest. The mounted reinforced concrete sections make a single water drainage front - thin-walled reinforced concrete labyrinth water drain with wall thickness of at least 15 cm.
EFFECT: higher quality and operating characteristics of reinforced concrete elements of a thin-walled labyrinth water drain with simultaneous reduction of construction time.
SUBSTANCE: wide-cut multi-functional tillage unit comprises a frame (1) with a trailer (2). The frame (1) rests on two air castors (3) and comprises in the rear part a medium movable spragger (4), the rotation of which is carried out by the hydraulic cylinders (5). At the ends of the medium movable spragger (4) the joints in the form of crosspieces (6) are mounted with the lateral movable spraggers (7) fastened on them, with the working transport wheels (8). On the medium movable spragger (4) and on the lateral movable spraggers (7) the sections (41) of removable tillage working bodies are mounted. The sections (41) are mounted with overlapping on the front of neighbouring sections (41) by means of pairs of parallelogram mechanisms, the pairs of longitudinal bars (25) and the pairs of coupling collars and thus the sections (41) mounted on the edges of the lateral movable spraggers (7) are mounted behind them in the course of motion and overlap the wheels (8) in front. The sections (41) are mounted at an angle between the course of motion and with the perpendiculars to their axes. The sections (41) may be made in the form of screw rollers or disc hoes, or disc shallow ploughs. The ends of the lateral movable spraggers (7) are connected to the front part of the frame (1) by the extensions (10). The extensions (10) comprise front short (11) parts and rear long parts. The rear parts are connected with one ends to the slidably mounted on the frame (1) U-shaped drive lugs (22), and the other ends - movably on the ends of the lateral movable spraggers (7). The lower pairs of the planks of the pairs of the parallelogram mechanisms are equipped at the rear part with a system of openings with pin-retainers, and in the front upper part - the restrictive slots with restriction axes, in the front lower part there are brackets with the holes with the fingers mounted in them by pins. The springs are fixed with the second ends to the adjusting screws mounted in the brackets of the fixed longitudinal beams. On the second ends of pairs of planks of the pairs of the parallelogram mechanisms the pairs of movable longitudinal beams are mounted, one of which has one opening for mounting the removable sections (41), and on the second longitudinal beam there is a system of openings that enables to change the angle α from 10° to 35° with the interval of 3-5°.
EFFECT: provision of compacting the soil in the area of the seed location, tillage depth adjustment, and enhanced functional capabilities.
SUBSTANCE: method includes main treatment of soil transverse to slope, and seeding. In spring upon soil physical readiness grains are spreaded over its surface, rolled using smooth rolls, and overall spraying of soil surface is performed in amount 200-250 l/ha with the following composition, %wt: chalk - 5-6, ammonium nitrate - 3-4, organic glue - 2-3, water - rest.
EFFECT: reduced water erosion of soil by decreasing of number of treatments resulting in soil decompression, and increased moisture provision and crops.
SUBSTANCE: paraplough-aerator comprises a frame, a suction pipe with a safety spring, and a paraplough. The paraplough is rigidly attached to the suction pipe. The pipe at the lower part of the horizontal plane the spring with the stops is attached. The spring with the stops has the ability of stretching, compression and bending in the course of work and in deformation to saturate the soil with air by sucking air from the suction pipe.
EFFECT: device enables to increase water-permeability of soil, to saturate the soil with air, which thereby increases the crop yield.
SUBSTANCE: tool comprises a vertical rack, the mouldboards. The lower part of the rack is made pointed at the bottom and in front. The mouldboards are rigidly connected to the mounting assembly. The lower part of the rack is designed as an A-hoe with the mouldboards for furrow-formation. The rear part of the rack is attached to the paraplough with the brackets, formed as a disc blade. The disc blade consists of two truncated cones mounted opposing. The installation height of the brackets of the paraplough is adjustable. The vertical rack, adjustable in height, is mounted on the frame having two support wheels. The wheels are mounted on the cranked shaft axes hingedly on the frame. The cranked shaft axes are connected to the frame by hydraulic cylinders controlled by the hydraulic distribution valves, which are connected to the hydraulic system of the tractor. On the support wheels the ledges-switches are mounted of the hydraulic distribution valves, and on the cranked shaft axis - the levers-switches of oil supply to the hydraulic distribution valves. For aggregation the tool the hitch is provided.
EFFECT: such constructive implementation enables to increase the yield of crops by increasing the speed and volume of moisture or livestock waste and reduction of soil erosion.
SUBSTANCE: undercover soil ripper comprises milling chisel plough knife with a rack (2) and a hollow mole blade. Inside the mole blade on the shaft (6) the thrust bearings (7) are mounted. The shaft (6) is connected through the connecting insert (12) to the soil disrupter (15) in the form of a conical spring. The connecting insert (12) has left-handed threaded recesses. The housing of the hollow mole blade with the thread on both ends is cut horizontally lengthwise in half. The halves (3, 4) of the mole blade are welded to the milling chisel plough and covered by the expansion head (8) and a nut (9) with the sealing ring (10). The side slits of the mole blade housing are sealed with flat gaskets in the form of an I-beam. The spring of the disrupter in the front part is made in the form of a cylinder in the middle part in the form of a cone with the angle of expansion α=15…25°, in the rear part in the form of the rotation paraboloid y=xn, where n=0.5…0.7. The cross-section of the spring in the working part is made in the form of a wedge with an angle of inclination to the axis of the spring wire β=10…20°. The working face of the spring is coated with a layer of wear-resistant material.
EFFECT: ensuring quick assembly and disassembly of the mole blade and intensive quality soil crumbling.
3 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device for measuring the soil surface profile and determining the direction of flow of atmospheric precipitations in the field comprises a frame (1) with height-adjustable supports (3) and a mechanic's level (12) mounted on it, a platform (10) movable in a vertical plane. The platform (10) is mounted on the supports (3) of the frame (1) with use of sleeves (2) and connected to the frame (1) of the screw mechanism. The screw mechanism consists of a screw (5) with a handle (6) with a turn counter (7) and the rotation angle of the handle (6), the central retainer nut (8) mounted on the frame (1), the lower nut (9) mounted rigidly on the movable platform (10). In the holes of the platform (10) at equal distances from each other in a two-dimensional grid nodes there are movable probes-rods (11). The probes-rods (11) are made of dielectric material and their upper ends are fixed to abutments-rings (17) made of electrically conductive material.
EFFECT: improvement of accuracy of measuring the soil surface profile and determining the direction of flow of atmospheric precipitations in the field.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: wear-resistant adding material is welded up along the working surface of a part with streamline shape, the said material is presented as identical strip sections 2-4 mm thick which are parallel to each other, arranged in staggered order at the right angle to the direction of the part's working surface movement. The length of the strip sections is 5-7 times more than their width, and the distance between them amounts to not more than the width of the welded up strip, and the distance between the adjacent strips is equal to the strip width. The longitudinal symmetry axis of the central welded up strip is placed in the same plane as the symmetry axis of the working surface is, in the movement direction of the latter.
EFFECT: invention allows for the decrease of wear rate of base metal in the zone of most intense friction of the part's working surface with streamline shape by means of increasing the degree of deformation and hoeing of the near-surface active soil layer in the movement direction.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular to restoring of the productivity of perennial grasses in the chestnut soil zone. The method comprises chisel ploughing of soil under perennial grasses to the depth of 40 cm. The spacing between the working elements is set in the gap providing first the continuous loosening the soil until appearance of untreated soil surface, equal to the width of capture of one working element.
EFFECT: method enables to enhance replenishment of perennial grasses by discontinuous chisel ploughing of soil.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to forestry, in particular agro-forest amelioration, and can be used for afforestation in arid, for example, chalk slopes having soil cover. The method comprises mapping the reafforesting area, digging trenches in rows across the slope with the depth greater than the soil layer, stacking the excavated soil into the trenches, and the rest of the soil near the trenches down the slope, planting of woody plants. Soil of the slopes and bottom of the dug trenches is compacted. In between the rows a part of the soil layer is cut and the trenches are filled with it to form a roll. The soil remaining in between rows is compacted. The woody plants are planted in spring in the formed roll. The soil in the trenches and the soil between the rows is compacted to a density providing maximum water-holding capacity. The soil in between the rows is compacted during the growing seasons before closing crowns in between the rows.
EFFECT: method provides improved survival ability and growth of woody plants by improving their moisture content, nutrient and light regimes.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises sowing of perennial grasses and embedding of the grown mass into the soil. At that sowing with simultaneous fertiliser application is carried out in every third aisle preserving the growing mass during 3 years. Sowing in neighbouring aisles is carried out respectively on the second and third years. Plowing with embedding of the grown mass in the aisle is carried out on the third year after sowing.
EFFECT: method enables to provide effective protection of soil from erosion by reduction of effluent and reduction of washout.
FIELD: environment protection.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mechanical removal of excessive contaminants from surface and reducing toxicity of contaminated soil; sowing green manure crops and perennial grasses; preliminarily removing taking soil samples from contaminated surface and separating native contaminant destructors therefrom; after mechanical removal of contaminant from soil surface, providing sequential treatment of plot soil with water-soluble humates and at least double treatment with native contaminant destructors; mellowing soil; applying lime with mineral fertilizers such as saltpeter, double superphosphate and calcium chloride. Green manure crops are sown after application of fertilizers. Method further involves grinding green manure crops, plowing into soil and covering with soil by means of covering roll.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, reliable ecologically clean restoration of soil after contamination thereof.