Tailing for storage of waste mining enterprises
FIELD: mining engineering.
SUBSTANCE: tailing pile contains sections separated from each other. The bottom of the sections is shielded by a strong film of polymer material on which a layer of limestone 300-400 mm with grain dimension 3-10 mm is placed. On the layer of limestone, drainage pipes with a diameter of 200-300 mm, which is resistant to acidic attack. The tailing dump is filled with wet storage, and the storage of sands in a dry state.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve the ecological safety of tailings storage by removing dissolved toxic substances from the sand column through the drainage wells into a layer of limestone located at the bottom of the tailing pond and in a settling pond.
5 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves installation of waterproof cross fencing in winter in the pre-selected place on the bed of mountain river. Dam, forming the upper pool in front of it, is constructed above the fencing down-stream, from which short-term water discharges are executed at negative air temperatures. Each of the discharges is interleaved by pause in time until the freeze of the discharged water and water on the surface of the upper pool, forming two ice-catchment basins, lying on the ground of the river bed. One of the basins is located above the fence, and the other - above the dam. Cycle of basin formation is repeated for several years until the thickness of the ice in basins reaches the value greater than 80 m. Ice-catchment basins in the southern latitudes of the Earth are formed at the altitude greater than 2500 m above the sea level.
EFFECT: irrigation of lands on piedmont territories throughout the spring-summer period.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: system includes one or more sections 1 consisting of two internal water-filled envelopes 2, external protective envelope 3, which are tight on two lateral sides. The system includes diaphragms 10 and anchors 9 at the bottom of the sections and a water drain of nappe-shaped profile 5 with flexible outlet tray 7. A parabolic shape of tray 7 is supported with longitudinal water-filled envelopes 8. Sections 1 are connected to each other by means of flexible braces 4. An erection method of the system of mobile protective dams involves selection of a route, a layout and filling of section 1. Two internal water-filled envelopes 2 are filled by means of envelope filling device 6. Then, external protective envelope 3 is filled. Anchors 9 come forward under action of pressure inside the external protective envelope by means of diaphragm 10. Then, by means of flexible brace 4 there installed to the end face of section 1 in the route direction is the next section 1 of the water drain of nappe-shaped profile 5, and flexible outlet tray 7 with longitudinal water-filled envelopes 8 is attached. After that, depending on distance of the protected territory, one or more sections 1 are attached.
EFFECT: safety at rise of the level in natural or artificial water courses, at breakthrough of hydraulic structures, discharge of excess water course to natural wells, thus not subjecting populated localities to flooding.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes fixation of a dam at the side of a discharge face to a bed rock by anchor rods formed as bundles, lower parts of which are strengthened with cement or another hardening mortar in wells. Anchor rods, for instance, steel reinforcement bars with the diameter of 15-20 mm, are placed by lower parts into wells that are filled with still non-hardened cement mortar and are drilled for arrangement of an anti-filtration curtain in the bed rock, for the depth of which the strong anchoring of these rods is provided, and simultaneously passive involvement of the bed rock volume strengthened by cementing into static operation of the dam-bed system. Afterwards the base part of the concrete dam is concreted, in which also after hardening of concrete, the upper parts of anchored rods are rigidly fixed spontaneously, providing for passive anchoring of the concrete dam to the bed rock at the same time.
EFFECT: increased stability of a concrete dam on a bed rock.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: floating building of a wave-activated power plant comprises a floating box caisson. The box caisson is installed on the bottom of the water area. The caisson comprises an internal chamber partially filled with water. The chamber is connected with the water area by two opposite holes and is pneumatically connected to the power plant. Holes are arranged below the elevation of the lowest level of water in the water area and form a through channel in the chamber. The size of the cross section of the through channel provides for the possibility of its connection with the floating building of the tidal power plant for passage of water flow rate required for operation of a hydraulic power equipment of the tidal power plant. The device operation is based on conversion of energy of the air flow arising as a result of oscillation of a water column in the chamber, into electric energy. Additionally it becomes possible to send water and biomass via the floating building of the wave-activated power plant.
EFFECT: improved environmental parameters of an object and increased efficiency.
6 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: emergency lock device comprises a vertical flat lock, guide vertical slots and a manoeuvring mechanism. The manoeuvring mechanism comprises a lifting part arranged in the form of a lifting crane, for instance, and a retaining part with a magnetic conductor, a coil, an anchor, and also a control system and a switching device for connection of voltage from an auxiliary source of supply to the retaining part. At the same time the control system of the retaining part comprises a sensor of emergency modes, and the magnetic conductor anchor is rigidly connected to the vertical lock. The control method consists in the fact that to open an emergency lock device, a magnetic conductor of the retaining part with the help of the lifting part is lowered from the extreme upper position into the extreme lower position, and the lifting part is disconnected. Then the supply voltage is sent to a coil of the retaining part, and simultaneously current of the retaining part coil is monitored. At the same time as current increases to the maximum value, the retaining part is lifted with the lock from the extreme lower position to the extreme upper position, namely: the emergency lock device is opened. At the same time supply voltage is sent continuously to the retaining part, providing for the open condition of the emergency lock device. For its emergency closure, a signal is generated to disconnect supply voltage from the retaining part, which results in immediate movement of the lock with the magnetic conductor anchor under gravity of the retaining part along guide vertical slots from the extreme upper position into the extreme lower position.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and reliability of device operation.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: gabion structure is made of coupled gabions, baskets of which are made of wire mesh and filled with stony material. On discharge surface of gabion structure there is web and gasket arranged. Web is made of polymer film, which creates antifiltering element, or from geotextile, which creates anti-suffosion element. Gasket is made of wire mesh and is installed between web and discharge surface of gabion structure. The following condition is fulfilled: ωcw<ωcb, where ωcw is inner area of gasket wire mesh cell; ωcb is inner area of gabion basket wire mesh cell. It is preferable to fulfill the following condition: 9ωcw≤ωcb. Wire mesh of gasket may be braided, or twisted, or woven. Structure, if made of polymer film, may contain additional gasket, made of geotextile and installed between polymer film and wire mesh of gasket.
EFFECT: improved reliability of structure, reduction of costs for its erection and expansion of its application field.
6 cl, 3 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: construction, hydrotechnics.
SUBSTANCE: invention is attributed to the field of hydraulic engineering, namely to dams construction, strengthening of river banks and banks of various water bodies, artificial embankments. The dam consists of base-restrictive contour and a body placed therein. Dam body consists of casings and inserts orderly located and contacting with each other. Dam body is equipped with prestressed elements passing through it, for example in the form of guy cables. Casings are made nonclosed, and dam is equipped with coupling elements wherein free ends of casings and inserts are installed with possibility of fixing.
EFFECT: lowered labor content for dam assembling and reduced time for dam construction.
SUBSTANCE: method of barrage erection includes layerwise laying, screeding and impaction of the barrage body from no-fine rigid little concrete mixture by pours along the axis of its upper and lower parts and the device between them of against filtration element - the diaphragm at bituminous base. The barrage body from no-fine rigid little concrete mixture is artificially cooled by passing of cooling water gravitation through the pores of this concrete body. For diaphragm arranging in the body of the erected barrage the middle zone is formed between the upper and the lower parts of the barrage, at that no-fine rigid little concrete mixture is laid, screeded and dabbed levelwise and layerwise: first levelwise in the middle zone between the upper and the lower part of the barrage of appropriate width to provide in this zone automobile traffic and of appropriate thickness to provide distribution of heated bitumen through all the depth of the level in the amount of 2-4 levels that form the layer of this middle zone by jumpes in the direction of the upper and lower part of the barrage. Following the laying of such a level no-fine rigid little concrete mixture is matures till it hardens, after that to the area of the arranged diaphragm by means of a bitumen distributor previously heated bitumen is delivered and is poured just on the surface of the no-fine concrete along the axis of the barrage all along the pour in volume providing its distribution through the pores of the concrete body by gravitation till the previously laid bitumen layer hardened in the pores of the barrage body. Following the closure of the middle zone formation from the laid levels on the general depth no-fine rigid little concrete mixture is laid, scredeed and dabbed in the upper and lower parts of the barrage of the layer with the same width.
EFFECT: increase of reliability and efficiency of the work of against filtration element at bituminous base.
FIELD: hydraulic building, particularly structures or apparatus for, or methods of, protecting banks, coasts or harbors.
SUBSTANCE: dam comprises shell connected to base and adapted to be filled with water or another filling material. Tubular members and stiffening ribs formed as reinforcing members to be filled with filler material are arranged along shell perimeter. The reinforcing members are terminated in anchors made as suction cups and adapted to fasten the dam to river bed. Dam includes filling members, which provide design dam shape. Method involves laying shell to be filled with filling material in existent water stream with the use mechanical tools; filling reinforcing shell members with filling material; fastening the shell to base and slopes with the use of suction cups of reinforcing members and filling the shell via filling members.
EFFECT: increased flood control reliability and decreased dam erection time.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly barrages or weirs.
SUBSTANCE: barrier section is adapted to be installed on ground and creates barrier, which restrains flood water. Barrier section comprises wall hingedly connected to base by the first end and flexible or rigid clamp. Hinge connection provides wall rotation from substantially horizontal position into elevated position. Flexible or rigid clamp extends from the base to wall from section side contacting with water and prevents wall displacement from elevated position. Barrier section comprises sealing member, which is located between ground surface and section installed in elevated position. Before bringing barrier section in contact with water the barrier section is adapted to apply sealing pressure to sealing means, wherein the sealing pressure exceeds that exerted by section weight. Flood control barrier includes a number of above portable sections connected with each other by means of additional watertight sealing means in longitudinal barrier direction.
EFFECT: elimination or minimization of water leakage between barrier sections or between barrier and ground, reduced barrier storage size.
12 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: stratum is impact cyclically, at that each cycle of impact includes gas injection to the stratum with further gas extraction. The stratum is impacted during 10 cycles at least. In each cycle current formation pressure as well as gas extraction (or injection) volume is measured simultaneously in gas-
EFFECT: simplifying control of gas leak-tightness, improving reliability and safety of the underground storage facilities made in the water-bearing strata.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes alternating gas injection and extraction to/from the well and during their alternation one part of the reservoir bed is isolated while the other is penetrated. According to the invention at the well construction stage the production string with a cement-inflatable packer is run in to the well and cemented; at that the packer divides the borehole annulus in the reservoir bed area into two conditional parts. The production string is perforated in both parts above and below the cement-inflatable packer. Thereafter a tubing string with a tubing-casing packer equipped with a circulation valve is run in so that when the tubing string is set to the production string the above circulation valve is placed below the cement-inflatable packer and above the tubing-casing packer between the perforated sections of the production string. Then the space between the production and tubing strings are filled with immiscible portions of the packer fluid. During further operation of the well injection of gas to the reservoir bed is made through the tubing string and lower perforation interval with temporary isolation of the upper perforation interval by one of the packer fluid portions while gas extraction is made through the upper perforation interval and tubular annulus with temporary isolation of the lower perforation interval by the other portion of the packer fluid.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of the method.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the area of oil and gas industry and intended for operation of underground gas storage (UGS) operation. At UGS with arranged producers with storage collector opening cyclic injection of natural gas is made with creation of its buffer and active volume and extraction of the gas active volume. In process of the UGS operation carbon dioxide in injected to the lower part of the storage thus replacing natural gas in the buffer volume. At the end of natural gas extraction cycle the boundary line of carbon dioxide and natural gas reaches the lower openings in the perforation interval of the producers.
EFFECT: invention ensures increase in active volume of stored natural gas in the UGS and reduction of costs for formation of the buffer volume.
FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in permafrost regions with hydraulically isolated lenses of underground smelt water bearing sand collectors, cryopag (CP), for burial of drilling wastes (DW). Proposed method comprises drilling of one injection well in CP and at least one CP relieving well. Besides, it includes pressure pre-decrease in CP by forcing water-sand pulp via said CP relieving well. Decreased pressure stabilised in injection well, uniform mix of drilling wastes and at least 10 wt. % of crushed ice made from sea water or water pumped from CP with additional of the mix of fluid hydro geological indicator (HGI). Note here that drill wastes are continuously subjected to audio frequency vibrator effects nearby suspended tubing shoe. Injection is continued unless HGI traces appear in pulp forced from relieving well. Then, drilling waste injection into CP, their vibration and pumping of pulp from CP are terminated to eliminate RW. For burial of extra volume of drilling wastes, another RW is constructure to go on injecting of drilling wastes via the same IW with their vibration and application of another RW.
EFFECT: ecologically safe and efficient process.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: in compliance with this method, seam is subjected to cycling, every cycle including gas injection therein with subsequent gas withdrawal. Cycling includes at least 10 cycles. Current seam pressure
EFFECT: simplified control, higher safety and reliability.
FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises construction of wells with exposure of geological structure with pods and pool cap, injection of gas into said structure to force formation water downward from pool cap with prevention of gas escape from the boundaries of geological structure and gas extraction from underground storage (UGS) top section. Note here that availability of superhigh-seam-pressure formation water deposits with dissolved and/or dispersed gas is checked in region with geological structure intended for underground gas storage. Production wells are made with exposure of said deposit, water with dissolved and/or dispersed gas is extracted there through and bypassed into aforesaid geological structure. Gas extraction from UGS is carried out after extraction of dissolved and/or dispersed gas from water and their immiscibility. Water with dissolved and/or dispersed gas is bypassed from superhigh-seam-pressure geological structure is carried out as pressure in UGS decreases owing to gas extraction.
EFFECT: use of dispersed and dissolved gas in abyssal aquifers.
1 ex, 1 dwg
FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental protection against man-made contaminants, hothouse gases and power source synthesis. In compliance with proposed invention, this method comprises isolation of aquifer with, preferably, with cropout and feed area as, for example, a river, lake, sea with total active filtration conditions. At least one local trap is isolated in isolated bed. Selected aquifer and local trap are prepared for commercial use with definition of isolated aquifer water chemical composition and that of rocks by core sample. Carbon dioxide is injected to isolated aquifer via one injection well located on aquifer feed zone side to allow downstream of injected carbon dioxide in aquifer. Catalytic reaction of polycondensation synthesis of injected carbon dioxide and water to form hydrogen, oxygen and methane homologues.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of recovery for replenishment of hydrocarbons stores and development of new oil and gas deposits.
11 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed storage comprises reinforced concrete tank mounted on the bed of compacted soil and heat-isolation layer and having vertical sidewalls, said being surrounded by pliable layer at outer side surface and heat- and water-insulated from liquefied natural gas. Storage shaft is equipped with pipelines to fill said storage with said gas and its vapors and to discharge the latter therefrom. Said shaft extending from reinforced concrete tank to surface is equipped with tight hatches and staircase. Tank top is buried in the heat-insulation material layer. Note here that tank top features cross-section decreasing towards earth surface and is shaped to truncated cone and connected with said shaft by sealed flange joint. Aid tank top with flange joint are arranged at decreased spacing from frozen soil bottom surface.
EFFECT: simplified design.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: operating method of underground gas storages involves intermittent injection of gas by compressors, which is supplied from a main gas line through production and injection wells of an underground gas storage to a reservoir bed under pressure exceeding formation pressure; further extraction of gas from the underground storage for further gas supply to the main gas line. The above extraction from the underground storage and its supply to the main gas line is performed in a compressor mode that is performed till pressure in the reservoir bed reaches the value excluding allowable well water flooding. With that, a suction gas line of compressor is connected to a gas extraction pipeline from the underground gas storage, and a discharge gas line of compressors is connected to the main gas line.
EFFECT: improving operating efficiency of an underground gas storage.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a method for making a low-permeability screen in porous medium at underground gas storage in porous reservoir beds and can be used in oil and gas producing industry. According to the invention, first, required volumes of solutions are determined in interwell spaces; the amount of 0.5-0.55 of design volume of spike solution and spike solution itself are pumped subsequently to injection wells till gases appear in a relief well; after that, design volumes of the solution and gas, which provide minimum required width of a screen, are pumped to the unloading well; waste gas of compressor stations is used as gas for creation of a screen. Nonflammable and/or inert gases are used as gases for creation of the screen.
EFFECT: increasing the screen continuity, reducing the flow rate of foaming agent solution and consumed energy for pumping-in and pumping-out, economy of natural gas and improvement of environmental situation in the underground gas storage location area.
3 cl, 6 tbl, 4 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes performing a test pumping of liquid waste into absorbing well before operational pumping, while changing flow step-by-step. From equation of absorption base hydrodynamic parameters are determined for calculation of predicted coefficients of operation characteristics of absorbing well and reserve well. During operational pumping of liquid waste together with thermometry along absorbing well shaft, registration of actual pressures and flow on pump devices, actual pressures on mouth in tubing pipes of absorbing well, actual pressures on face are additionally registered in absorbing well as well as pressures on mouth in behind-pipe space, actual loss at mouth in behind-pipe space, actual loss of waste on mouth, actual positions of face well, upper and lower limits of absorption range from well mouth. In reserve well actual pressures on face are registered, as well as actual positions of liquid level from reserve well mouth, upper and lower limits of absorption range. Prediction coefficients are compared for operation characteristics of absorbing well and reserve well to actual coefficients. 9 conditions of hydrodynamic bed conditions at reserve well and absorbing well are considered during pumping of waste. Specific actions of operator on each condition are described.
EFFECT: higher reliability and trustworthiness.