Geotextile cementing shell and method of its manufacture

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: claimed group of inventions relates to means for providing reliable and durable protection of hydrotechnical, hydrological, industrial, civil, military construction objects to be erected, to prevent processes of shoreline soils weakening due to erosion caused by water current, action of coastal waves, exogenous processes, to strengthen soils on flanks and slopes, to prevent it from sliding down, which can be used on areas with composite terrain. A geotextile cementing shell is a structure consisting of two high-strength synthetic fabric webs 1 connected to each other, for example by sewing 2, forming a shell, which is then filled with a concrete mixture. By means of concrete laid in the shell, it is a three-dimensional structure of polymer materials, divided into sectors. Wherein the geotextile cemented shell is made closed and hollow, has the undulated uniform cross-section, this is achieved by quilting two webs 1 and sewing them around the perimeter. The structure is made of a polyester textile fabric with the surface density of at least 280 g/m2, with the linear density of at least 87 tex threads, with at least one opening 3 made on the front side of the device, with a valve 4 installed in the opening by the sewing method. The valve 4 is represented by a woven hollow structure of a cylindrical shape and is made with the possibility to prevent the concrete mixture from leaving the shell cavity. The method of manufacturing the geotextile cemented shell is characterized by the application of one polyester fabric web 1 to the other, by fastening them together with sewn joints 2, of lockstitch or chain stitch, along the entire perimeter. In the case of using in the design a reinforcing polymeric mesh, it is located between two polyester fabric webs. Thereinafter, over the entire product area, the upper layer and the lower layer of the material are quilted with breaking down into sections in the staggered order in at least three rows. Along the perimeter, polyester bands or loops are sewn. Thereinafter, at least one opening 3 is cut in the upper web 1, in order to sew therein the preformed valve 4, also made of a polyester fabric.

EFFECT: reducing the material consumption of the device and simplifying the method of manufacture.

18 cl, 16 dwg

 



 

Same patents:

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method to prevent deformations of linear structures, erected on landslide slopes or manmade slopes on melting permafrost soils, includes erection of a working site, installation of piles into slope soil, combination of piles into a single grill. After submersion of piles into soil at the free end of each pile they install a reinforced concrete head, and combination of piles into a single grill is carried out by installation of a vertical geogrid, stiffly connected to heads of piles and layers of horizontal geogrids arranged above heads of piles. The working site from the bottom of the pile heads to the first layer of the horizontal geogrid and also gaps between layers of geogrids are filled with crushed stone and compacted. Horizontal geogrids are installed with the condition of their partial arrangement in a non-moving massif of the slope soil or natural slope.

EFFECT: prevention of deformations of motor and rail roads on slopes under conditions of melting permafrost soils in process of operation of structures, reduced material intensity, realisation of anti-landslide actions.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining operations.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises the construction of three artificial elements: impervious screen, a protective berm, a protective coating. And the impervious screen is created by drilling of inclined wells of large diameter in the winter period from the upper site of the ledge nonworking edge side most affected to thawing, parallel to the slope surface at its full height followed by filling them with ice rock stones, chilled fresh water and freezing with natural cold, and the protective berm is erected over the mouth parts of the wells, starting from the upper edge of the ledge of the tapered section of calculated height, using layered freezing of overburden rocks, which in the summer period, including the surface of the ledge slope, to prevent thawing, covered with the protective coating, which is made in the form of removable flexible moisture-heat- and light-reflecting mat, removed with the onset of winter, the thickness of which is determined based on the mathematics.

EFFECT: prevention of thawing of frozen rocks of non-working ledge edges of pits.

1 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: onto an earth strip directly adjacent to embankment foot, with width of 2.5-3.0 meters, fertile soil is moved in one-two trips of a grader from a strip located at the distance of 4.0-7.0 meters from the slope foot, to produce a layer of 15-20 cm. Then earth is ploughed up with full layer turnover for depth of 50 cm. At the same time it is tilled, and fertile layer is moved to the depth of 20-50 cm, and layer of low-fertility soil reaches the surface, further preventing intense development of weed plants. Then, using a tree planter, low-growing or trailing creeping-rooted shrubs are planted into the prepared soil, and its roots, getting during planting into fertile soil, which is periodically wetted with precipitation flowing off the road bed, develop intensively and produce root shoots, which populate the entire embankment slop to its border.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of motor road embankment slopes fixation due to soil strengthening with durable and strong branched roots of shrubs.

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nature conservation arrangement of mountain and foothills landscapes and may be used as anchors for anti-erosion and anti-landslide structures, and also in case of emergencies. The method to install wire anchors is characterised by the fact that a device is screwed into soil for the required depth, and the device comprises doubled hollow pipes, the outer of which comprises evenly arranged ledges of permanent rectangular cross section, rigidly fixed along the side cylindrical surface along the helical line with permanent pitch. After the device reaches the required depth, the inner pipe together with cohesive soil is withdrawn from the outer pipe to form hollow space, and soil is removed from it. Then a wire anchor is inserted into the produced hollow space of the outer pipe, with a cylindrical head, and backfilling is done with soil for height h with subsequent putting of cylindrical attachments onto the anchor wire, and the outer pipe is screwed out with the help of a handle as the anchor is grown.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and reliability of installation of wire anchors on slopes and ravines.

4 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method of soil reinforcement includes filling, levelling, compaction of a soil layer, arrangement of reinforcing elements on the surface of the soil layer and their filling with soil of the next layer. At the same time reinforcing elements arranged on the surface of the soil layer are made in the form of concrete slabs having vertical holes in their body in the form of cones truncated downwards, designed for provision of filtration processes and increased adhesion of concrete slabs with soil after embankment filling. Concrete slabs arranged on the surface of the soil layer of embankment are made by filling of the form with concrete mix with metal elements installed inside in the form of truncated cones, which provide for production of holes in the concrete slab. Besides, internal dimensions of the form correspond to external dimensions of the concrete slab, and the position of the concrete slab in the body of embankment, number and location of holes in the slab depend on the specified calculation. At the same time the concrete mix in the form of coarse filler and reinforcing material contains wastes of casting production in the form of slag.

EFFECT: increased stability and operational reliability of soil embankment due to increased forces of embankment soil adhesion to a reinforcing element.

Reinforcing mesh // 2539196

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to meshy reinforcing roll materials designed for creation of reinforced layers in various coatings, for instance, road, asphalt, concrete ones, etc. The reinforcing mesh with cells formed by crossing bundles of threads, fixed by impregnation and/or a coating, where bundles comprise several threads, separate threads are longer compared to other threads of this bundle, and longer threads stretch in a wave-like manner and form loops. Bundles in one of crossing directions are made as doubled with a gap between each other, making from 0.01 to 0.55 of the bundle width, bundles in the other crossing direction are made as doubled without a gap between each other. Bundles doubled without a gap comprise longer threads stretching in a wave-like manner, forming loops that fix bundles doubled without a gap with bundles doubled with a gap in crossing zones. Width of bundles doubled with a gap makes from 1.3 to 2.5 of width of bundles doubled without a gap. Impregnation and/or coating is arranged by bitumen produced from water emulsion of bitumen.

EFFECT: reduction of possibility of irreversible deformation and damage of a mesh under conditions of considerable deformations of the coating and preservation of reinforcing ability of the mesh even after significant deformations of the coating.

2 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: engineering-geological and hydrogeological survey is carried out to detect available landslide bodies. Then biolocation survey is performed, using the results of which they detect underground watercourses and discover their characteristics for detection of quantity and location of through filters. Afterwards on the surface of a ledge or a slope or a hillside outside the landslide body a header is arranged for collection of surface waters and some shallow watercourses. Afterwards from the foot of the ledge or the slope or the hillside they arrange a drainage mine deep into the ledge or the slope or the hillside outside the landslide body, from the surface of the ledge or the slope or the hillside they drill vertical wells until coupling with the drainage mine for through filers, couplings are arranged with connection chambers, through filters are lowered into vertical wells from the surface, and through filters are made in the form of pipes with perforated sections of holes and filtering elements made at the coupling level with underground watercourses. The header and the drainage mine are arranged with an inclination of i=0.005 towards the drain for self-flow of captured water.

EFFECT: provision of reliable prevention of landslide formation due to complete drainage of surface and underground waters from a landslide body.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method consists in drilling of wells, damage of highly icy fragments via drilled wells with subsequent formation of reinforcing elements in the base under the structure in the form of piles by means of filling of the produced cavities with a soil and cement pulp. Piles are formed by formation of a soil and cement body simultaneously with drilling of wells by injection of cement mortar under high pressure with soil mixing at reverse movement of a drilling tool. Simultaneously with formation of the soil and cement body they thaw permafrost soil by addition of a concrete strength gain accelerator into the injected cement mortar for activation of concrete hydration and increased heat evolution in the process. The concrete strength gain accelerator in the injected cement mortar is burned anhydrous lime in the amount of 10-15% and hydrochloric acid in the amount of 1-2%.

EFFECT: reduced time for erection of reinforcing piles and accelerated strength gain by erected piles.

2 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the road and railway construction, construction of aerodromes, objects and structures for various purposes, landscape construction and can be used to organize the storage and use of bulk geogrid when developing the base of the road pavement. Method of preparation for storage and usage of bulk geogrid manufactured from the flexible strips stacked on each other and connected inter se in transverse direction in staggered order, consists in forming of package for its placing on the prepared surface. Formation of package is carried out by continuous zigzag laying on the prepared surface of indicated interconnected flexible strips at least in one horizontal row, at that the loops of zigzags have the same geometric dimensions.

EFFECT: technical result consists in providing the compact arrangement of bulk geogrid on the support surface while simplifying the process of geogrid usage.

6 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: in a landslide protection structure on the basis of a collapsed slope there is a bed of flexible mats, which are made of tight rows of light fascines laid normally to the line of slope inclination. On top of flexible mats there is a fixture of gabion mats with drainage devices made of light fascines and perforated pipes laid by alternating rows and wrapped into a gabion net. Flexible mats in the base and gabion mats on top of them are connected to each other by a galvanised metal wire with diameter of 2.5-3 mm. A drainage prism from rock filling is arranged along the foot of the collapsed slope. Above the slope fixture from flexible and gabion mats there is an additional fixture with low inclination from similar gabion mats with drainage devices. Gabion mats of slope and additional fixtures are tightly tied with the help of reinforcement wire and are fixed to reinforced concrete anchors arranged at a certain distance from each other in stable soil behind collapsed massif of the slope.

EFFECT: reliable protection of different objects located under slopes, where landslides and collapses of soil massifs are possible.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the methods for prevention of soil and groundwater pollution, in particular to the creation of concrete blankets on the landfills and storage of industrial, household and mainly liquid wastes. Subgrade 1 is prepared and protective layer 2 is arranged in it. Protective layer 2 is previously placed between two layers of geotextile 3 and 4. Mixture of sodium and calcium bentonitic clay 5 is used as the protective layer 2 in ratio of 75% Na-bentonite and 25% Ca-bentonite. Layer of mineral soil 6 with surface treated with fixing agent 7 is laid on top of the protective layer 2. Polymer liquid emulsion from wastes of polyisobutylene is used as a fixing agent at t=34-40C.

EFFECT: high operational reliability, durability, as well as stability of coating on the slopes and in case of subsidences of the base are provided.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions is related to hydraulic engineering, namely to the means for strengthening the surfaces of various objects of natural or synthetic origin, including the banks and beds of watercourses, surfaces of dams and dikes, as well as underwater lines of pipelines, bridge supports. Besides, the device may find application also in the field of construction. Unit of movable joint for web forming of concrete mats comprises the connecting element and fastenings. Fastenings are embedded into the concrete units of mats. According to the first option of the device, the units are asymmetric in plan and are designed with bevels, forming the cavity in the web. According to the second option of the device, the units are designed with recesses outside the plane of maximum size of the unit in plan, forming the cavity in the web. According to the third option of the device, the units are designed with bevels or recesses in its corner portion, forming the cavity in the web. Connecting element is disposed in the cavity indicated in options of the device, and is connected with fastenings with possibility of unit displacement.

EFFECT: protection of mat fastening against the mechanical damages and manufacturability of creation of movable joint of concrete mats are increased.

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental protection. For predicting the destruction of riverbanks, including the determining of adverse sites of the surveyed territories and ranking the sites, the coastal zone of the river is preliminary examined and the coastal areas with the square S equal to 1 m2 are selected. Then, on each of the selected sites the site square, covered with vegetation, is determined, they are summed and the square1 is obtained, m2. Then the rate of total projective covering soil with vegetation is calculated as the ratio S1:S,%, on the same sites the benchmarks are set at a distance of 2, 4, 6 meters from the shore horizon and the readings on the ground level on the benchmark are taken as the reference point of the condition monitoring of sites of riverbank. Then the wash height h, cm, is monthly measured at each benchmark, relative to the reference point, and then the average total index of wash height hav in three benchmarks is calculated, then a comparative analysis of the dynamics of the processes of soil losses from coastal areas of the river bank is performed, and on its basis the relationship is set between the value of the total index hav and the total projective cover, and then the degree of degradation of sites is evaluated, they are ranked to undisturbed and disturbed. Prediction of destruction of sites of the riverbank is made on the basis of the complex use of total index of wash height hav and total projective cover.

EFFECT: invention provides increase in reliability of prediction of destruction of river banks.

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to coast-protecting structures. The method to protect river coasts at foothills consists in the fact that at first they horizontally lay reinforced concrete beams 4, to the ends of which at the side of the river they fix tetrahedrons 5, the skeleton of which is represented only by structure ribs. After that, gabions 1 are laid, besides, stone laid into gabion boxes protrudes from net cells by 3-4 cm. The gabion structure is protected from abrasive at high speeds of the flow and increased concentration of abrasive.

EFFECT: increased reliability of coast-protecting structures.

2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a protective system, in particular to the protective system intended for preservation and restoration of the shoreline. The protective system (1) comprises a gabion having opposite side walls (13, 15) interconnected at regular intervals along the length of the gabion by several separating walls (7, 9), and the gaps between neighbouring pairs of partition walls (7, 9) bound together with the side walls at least one separate compartment (7) of the gabion. At least one separate compartment of the gabion is bounded by respective opposite side walls or opposite parts of the side walls in the respective opposite side walls. The partition walls are hingedly connected to the side walls, and the separate compartment of the gabion extends from it outwardly with at least partial converging of panels of the open frame (21), forming in whole or in part the protruding compartment (5) of the gabion. The method of preservation or restoration the shoreline comprises the following steps, including creation of the above-mentioned protective system; at least partial filling at least one compartment with the filling material, preferably sand, stones and/or vegetation; at least partial filling the protruding compartment with oyster shells, and performing at least partial facing the shoreline with the protective system.

EFFECT: protective system is used for changing the direction of the wave energy, especially sea wave energy, to preserve the shoreline, as well as for restoration the shoreline.

36 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: in a landslide protection structure on the basis of a collapsed slope there is a bed of flexible mats, which are made of tight rows of light fascines laid normally to the line of slope inclination. On top of flexible mats there is a fixture of gabion mats with drainage devices made of light fascines and perforated pipes laid by alternating rows and wrapped into a gabion net. Flexible mats in the base and gabion mats on top of them are connected to each other by a galvanised metal wire with diameter of 2.5-3 mm. A drainage prism from rock filling is arranged along the foot of the collapsed slope. Above the slope fixture from flexible and gabion mats there is an additional fixture with low inclination from similar gabion mats with drainage devices. Gabion mats of slope and additional fixtures are tightly tied with the help of reinforcement wire and are fixed to reinforced concrete anchors arranged at a certain distance from each other in stable soil behind collapsed massif of the slope.

EFFECT: reliable protection of different objects located under slopes, where landslides and collapses of soil massifs are possible.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering and can be used when creating the impervious protection of water entities, canals and reservoirs of industrial wastes made on subsiding soils. Ground base is prepared. Bentomate mattress is laid. Revetment from concrete or reinforced concrete slabs is performed. In this case, strip of bentomate mattress is placed on mattress under the joints of concrete slabs. Width of additional strip of bentomate mattress depends on geological and subsiding soil properties.

EFFECT: high production manufacturability and simplification of works on creation of impervious coating is provided.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method includes orientation of a flexible concrete mat (FCM) in respect to a bottom surface by its one or another side depending on type of soil. The method to install the FCM according to the first version includes orientation of FCM to the bottom surface with the side having higher penetration power as water flow in a water course exceeds the value of non-washing speed for this section of the water course and/or if characteristics of bottom surface soil are sufficient for FCM self-submersion into soil under gravity. Otherwise the FCM is oriented to the bottom surface with the side having the lower penetration power. The method of FCM installation according to the second version in case, if the bottom surface is formed mainly by rock, half-rock or clayey soils includes FCM orientation to the bottom surface with a side, on which blocks have bases of flat shape and larger area in plan compared to the opposite side. If the bottom surface is formed mainly by sandy or macrofragmental soils, then orientation of FCM to the bottom surface is carried out with a side, on which blocks have bases of smaller area in plan or are made without bases. If the bottom surface of the water course mainly contains sludges, sapropels, peated soils or peats, then the FCM is oriented to the bottom surface with its any side. The flexible concrete mat comprises concrete blocks, connected to each other row by row and in rows with at least one connection element. Surfaces in these blocks at the upper and lower side of the FCM are made mainly narrowing in direction from the central part of the blocks. The bases of the blocks have flat shape at one or both sides of the FCM. Ratios of average values of the base area, height of blocks and angles of inclination of the side surface of blocks must correspond to the laws given in the patent claim. The coefficient of asymmetry between FCM sides exceeds or its equal to 1.05.

EFFECT: higher reliability of FCM adhesion to protected bottom surfaces of any type.

17 cl, 5 dwg, 3 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering and nature conservation construction and may be used to protect coastal areas, roads and other facilities against landslides and collapses of soil massifs. The anti-landslide system comprises a stepped arrangement of gabions and heavy fascines at the foot of the collapsed slope. Along the foot of the first stage made of three rows of heavy fascines 4, there is a pile grid 13. The pile grid 13 is made of a group of piles 14, driven into the base at a certain distance from each other along one line, and a metal lathing 15. The lathing 15 is arranged on top of piles at the height of the first step. Gabion mats 5 with drainage devices that create sites of steps 1, 2, 3, are made as cut into a collapsed soil massif and with an inclination towards the retaining walls. On top of the last step the gabion mat 6 of the site is arranged further than the line of possible massif collapse, to its stable soils.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and reliability of system operation as an anti-slide structure.

2 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering construction and may be used to protect coastal areas, roads and other facilities against landslides and collapses. The method includes laying of gabions onto the collapsed slope. At first on the base of the collapsed slope they arrange a preparation from flexible mats 2, made from tight rows of light fascines, laid normally to the line of the slope inclination. Then on top of the flexible mats 2 they arrange a fixture from gabion mats 3 with drainage devices, made of light fascines and perforated pipes laid in alternating rows and rolled into a gabion net. Flexible mats 2 in the base and gabion mats 3 on top of them are connected to each other with a galvanised metal wire with diameter of 2.5-3 mm. Along the foot of the collapsed slope they arrange a drainage prism 6 from drop-fill rock. Reliable protection is provided for different facilities located under slopes, where there are landslides and collapses of soil massifs. The method may be most effectively used, when the height of the possible collapse of the soil massif does not exceed 10-12 m.

EFFECT: protection of coastal areas, roads and other facilities against landslides and collapses.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly hydraulic structure reinforcement.

SUBSTANCE: method is performed in two-stages. The first stage involves forming vertical elongated flat ground massifs secured by hardening material. Massifs are created in crest embankment area and in upper area of embankment slope so that massifs are spaced minimal available distance from crest and pass through embankment body, including land-sliding upper embankment slope area. Massifs are anchored in mineral bottom by lower edges thereof and are arranged at least in three rows and there are at least three massifs in each row. Method for massifs forming involves driving double-slotted injectors directly in embankment ground or in wells formed in embankment and having plugged wellhead; orienting injector slots perpendicular to hydraulic pressure head vector direction in embankment area to be reinforced; injecting hardening material under increased pressure across horizons from top to bottom or in reverse direction, wherein injection is initially performed under 5-15 atm pressure and at minimal rate in each second injector of one outermost row beginning from extreme ones; feeding hardening material in previously missed injectors in this row; supplying injectors of another extreme row with hardening material in the same way; feeding hardening material to ejectors of medium rows under 10-20 atm pressure; performing the second reinforcement stage as material hardens to obtain 70% strength. The second reinforcement stage involves forming vertical elongated flat massifs of secured ground anchored in mineral bottom by lower edges thereof and arranged at least in three rows, wherein each one includes at least three massifs. Massifs extend at the angle exceeding embankment slope angle to horizontal line. Massifs are formed with the use of double-slotted injectors in remainder embankment area. Injector slots are directed perpendicular to hydraulic pressure head vector direction in embankment area to be reinforced. Hardening material is ejected in above succession, wherein hardening material pressure is equal to design process pressure enough for direction of feeding hardening material through injector slots and lesser than hardening material injection pressure of the first reinforcement stage.

EFFECT: increased reliability of structure reinforcement; prevention of land-slide on structure slopes.

3 cl, 3 dwg

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