Method for regulating water-salt balance of lake

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: according to the proposed method, the regulation of the water-salt balance in the lake is carried out by building a complex of hydraulic structures (canals) around the lake, intercepting surface run-off from slopes, and discharging water into the water intake, for example, into a natural reservoir or river. In order to reduce the level of the lake pollution by chemicals, the surface run-off entering the outlet canal from the surrounding slopes is preliminarily cleaned of harmful impurities, and then, if necessary, they are dumped into the lake. At the same time, water is regulated in the lake by taking water out of the lake at its excess and draining water back into the lake at its lack. A distinctive feature of the proposed method is that when selecting excess water from the lake, it is previously desalted and discharged through the outlet canal into a separate receiving reservoir, and the resulting liquid salt concentrate is poured back into the lake or dried to powder form, after which the resulting mineral powder salts are scattered to the lake water area, thus ensuring the optimal level of water and mineral salts in the lake at the specified optimum level - 40-60 grams per litre.

EFFECT: preventing the degradation of the mud reservoir of a lake by maintaining the water level and the degree of its mineralization at a specified optimum level, reducing the pollution of a lake with pesticides.

3 cl, 1 dwg

 



 

Same patents:

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: dam is constructed on the tributaries of the main rivers with possibility of formation of temporary flood reservoir in the zone of flood formation and is laid across the inflow bed in the form of trapezoidal prism. Dam is made of waterproof bags with loose filler. Bags are stacked along the inflow bed in layers, with alternation of layers with longitudinal 6 and transverse 7 locations of bags relative to bed. The lower layer is formed of longitudinally disposed bags. In its turn, the longitudinal rows of bags are stacked at a distance from each other.

EFFECT: possibility of construction of flood-control dam in river beds of any configuration and in any geological conditions.

5 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method involves installation of waterproof cross fencing in winter in the pre-selected place on the bed of mountain river. Dam, forming the upper pool in front of it, is constructed above the fencing down-stream, from which short-term water discharges are executed at negative air temperatures. Each of the discharges is interleaved by pause in time until the freeze of the discharged water and water on the surface of the upper pool, forming two ice-catchment basins, lying on the ground of the river bed. One of the basins is located above the fence, and the other - above the dam. Cycle of basin formation is repeated for several years until the thickness of the ice in basins reaches the value greater than 80 m. Ice-catchment basins in the southern latitudes of the Earth are formed at the altitude greater than 2500 m above the sea level.

EFFECT: irrigation of lands on piedmont territories throughout the spring-summer period.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method includes erection of coast-protecting structures on lowered sections and sections subject to flooding on backwater soil structures in the form of a prefabricated discharge structure 1 opposite to a superfluent flow with fixation of water impermeable protective means at the side of an inclined discharge part and with the possibility of dismantling upon the end of flood. The prefabricated discharge structure 1 is made of modular type with support units and with the inclined discharge face. Modules are assembled in the form of rod tetrahedrons of quick-split design according to the scheme of a three-hinged arc or the scheme of a welded or a disassembled arc. Modules are installed at the distance from each other or nearby with account of features of the relief and contour shape of the discharge structure, and they are fixed either in soil with the help of support elements, or on a foundation laid onto a hydraulic insulation layer. In the modules a massif 5 is installed, providing for resistance against hydrostatic pressure, and modules are connected to each other with the help of shields 7 and/or rods, which are fixed in units of modules with the help of connection elements. At the discharge side they install hydraulic insulation protective means that form a water impermeable protection in the discharge zone with a stiff and/or flexible structure of a discharge face.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of the method of flood protection by means of provision of safe flood flows via soil structures with provision of integrity of a flood protection structure, labour inputs during its erection are reduced, and possibility is provided to use it on the area with complex relief.

7 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering. The method to dry a storage pond on a river arranged as a result of weir construction on it includes arrangement of two dams in the water area of the storage pond, which are aligned along the bed of the river flowing between these dams, ends of which reach the riverhead of the storage pond. In the riverhead of the storage pond the ends of dams are created with gaps to its coasts, and lower ends, not reaching the storage pond weir, turn towards the riverbed middle in plan, joining each other there. For passage of water from the riverbed they develop a tunnel or tunnels on the bottom of the storage pond or below its bottom with an outlet to the river bed along its flow downstream the storage pond weir.

EFFECT: makes it possible to dry a storage pond with subsequent use of dried territories.

6 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method includes actions to damage ice cover of a river and to erect a water barrier. The ice cover of the river is damaged by multiple parallel through slits 8. The water barrier 1 is erected in the form of an ice dam on a potentially flooded coast 5. The dam is built from ice blocks received as a result of sawing works on the river. The height of the dam must exceed the maximum level of the suggested water rise.

EFFECT: method makes it possible to speed up passage of floor waters during spring high water, to reduce economic damage from floods and to increase reliability of public and territories protection.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering construction and can be used as protection against floods in case of emergency situations, when conducting the rescue and recovery operations, as well as in case of capital construction in close conditions. Protective structure consists of triangular trusses assembled from the spacer tubes by fixing them in junction points and elongated impervious blanket. The upper slope is assembled from assembled flat slabs with the connected locks and long side oriented along the protective structure and with shear of vertical joints. Waterproof material is laid under the framework of protective structure on the prepared soil of foundation and impervious blanket is arranged in front of it. Waterproof material is sprinkled on top with soil. As the distance from the upper slope to the outer slope increases, the height of powdering layer h reduces. Triangular trusses are mounted in the soil by means of anchors. Height of powdering layer depends on the water head H and in the upper point h=(0.2÷0.4)H. Flat slabs are made of plastic or composite materials.

EFFECT: invention provides the increased reliability for protection of the shores of river beds and durability of the protective structure.

4 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: protective structure comprises spacer tubes assembled into triangular trusses. Spacer tubes are fixed into assemblies with the help of connection tips, made of a connection element and a movable lock, by means of placement of the movable lock on the end of the spacer tube and its latching by clockwise rotation. A slot is provided at the ends of the spacer tube. Trusses are fixed into soil of the base by anchors. Lower tiers of the triangular truss are assembled from thicker spacer tubers compared to upper ones.

EFFECT: increased reliability of a protective structure in operation and provides for quick and effective construction of a structure under difficult extreme conditions, structural solution makes it possible to use a protective structure many times and to increase durability 1,5-2 times.

4 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: structure in the form of a prism with a polygonal discharge and bottom slope is assembled from spacer tubes along the entire coast of the river. Spacer tubes are fixed by yokes around the transverse reinforcement to produce nodes. Waterproof material is laid under the frame of the structure on the prepared soil of the base. At the discharge side there is waterproof cloth laid on the polygonal slope and fixed to produce extended blanket. Length of the waterproof section L will be L≥CH, where L - length of extended underground contour, at which there are no filtration deformations; C - Bligh's coefficient - value reverse to gradient; H - existing head. The frame of the structure is fixed to the soil of the base by anchors. Diameters of spacer tubes are 30-100 mm. The structure has high resistance of the structure to shift, reduces filtration, increases length of filtration track and prevents possible filtration deformations.

EFFECT: increased durability and provides for possibility to use an anti-flood structure many times.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: device includes a block of one and more pipelines bent at an angle and connected to each other with lateral sides and mounted in one block. The block is fixed on the way of flow of coastal currents to change direction of some part of water flows, to increase their speed and introduce these flows to a water area of bays and gulfs. Each pipeline is made in the form of a sector of a circular tubular cross-section, along the outer and the inner surfaces of which broken screw lines and screw surfaces are formed. A pipeline consists of sections, each of which is mounted of a strip bent to one side along straight lines arranged at an angle to the strip edges, with variable formation throughout the length of the strip of equilateral and isosceles triangles that are different as to sizes. Two similar equilateral triangles are located with their bases on two sides of the biggest equilateral triangle. On lateral sides of isosceles triangles there located are two similar equilateral triangles with two similar isosceles triangles located to them with their bases, on one of which an equilateral triangle is located. Sides of smaller equilateral triangles differ from sides of bigger equilateral triangles by one and the same linear value. Sections are connected to each other with free sides of the above triangles.

EFFECT: cleaning of stagnant and dirty waters of water areas of bays and gulfs owing to creating constant circulation of clean sea water inside them.

12 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: main body of a water-barrier structure in the form of a dam bank from snow is created directly at the edge of the protected area. A facility for heat insulation is laid on top. Afterwards the facility for heat insulation is closed with a flexible concrete mat or sacks with ballast.

EFFECT: using the invention will make it possible to eliminate limitation in selection of a possible area of erection of a temporary water-barrier structure due to simplification of its design, its higher reliability.

28 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: injection assembly consists of the water intake unit, pipeline with water supply valve into the bowl, laid on the seabed at a remote distance from the shore, and pure water supply system located on the bottom or along the perimeter of the bowl bottom. Discharge assembly consists of collection system of the upper water layers and pipeline with drain valve of the upper water layers. Supply of the clean water into the bowl and discharge of the upper contaminated layers of water from the bowl are performed. Natural injection of the clean water into the bottom part of the bowl is performed by means of the water intake unit from the bottom sea layers. Natural drainage is performed at low tide of the sea when opening the drain valve of the upper layers of water through the water discharge assembly. Discharge assembly is located below the water level in the bowl.

EFFECT: simplification of water supply system due to the use of sea ebbs and flows.

2 cl

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises a block of one and more pipelines bent at the angle and connected to each other by sides. The block is fixed on the path of coastal flows. The pipeline is made in the form of a sector of round tubular cross section of spiral form with a multi-faceted helical surface along its internal and external perimeter with an inlet hole. The pipeline is made of sections, each mounted of two subsections. Subsections are made of strips bent towards one side along straight bending lines placed at the angle to edges of strips, and coiled into a ring with alternate formation of isosceles, equilateral and scalene triangles of various sizes along the strip length. Sides of triangles differ from each other by a linear value multiple to integer number Δ. At two sides of the largest equilateral triangle there are two identical scalene triangles arranged with their large sides, sides of which are less than the side of the largest equilateral triangle by the value Δ. To the middle side of one of scalene triangles there is a smaller equilateral triangle is fixed, sides of which are less than the side of the largest equilateral triangle by the value of 2Δ. To the second side of the smaller equilateral triangle there is an isosceles triangle fixed by its base, sides of which are less than its base by the value of Δ and the side of the largest isosceles triangle by the value of 3Δ. To the side of the isosceles triangle there is an isosceles triangle fixed, the base of which is less than its side by the value Δ and the side of the largest equilateral triangle by the value of 4Δ. At the opposite side to the middle side of the second scalene triangle there is an isosceles triangle fixed by its side, the base of which is less than its side by the value Δ and the side of the largest equilateral triangle by the value of 3Δ. To the base of the isosceles triangle there is an isosceles triangle fixed with its side, the base of which is less than its side by the value of Δ and the side of the largest equilateral triangle by the value 4Δ. At one side of the subsection there is a hole in the form of a square, the side of which is less than the side of the largest equilateral triangle by the value 3Δ, and at the other one there is a hole in the form of an isosceles trapezoid. The large base of the trapezoid is equal to the side of the largest equilateral triangle, and the smaller base is less than the larger base by the value of 3Δ. Sides of the trapezoid are less than the larger base by the value of 2Δ. Subsections are connected to each other by holes in the form of trapezoids to form sections with inlet and outlet holes in the form of squares. Sides of holes are equal to each other and arranged at the angle, the value of which determines the spiral shape of the pipeline. Sections of the pipeline are connected into a pipeline, by alternate rotation by 90° of each subsequent section relative to the previous one.

EFFECT: treatment of areas of water of bays and gulfs by direction of flows in their stagnant waters and increasing water circulation.

21 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: accessory comprises a block of one and more pipelines bent at the angle and connected to each other by sides. The block is fixed on the path of coastal flows. The pipeline is made with formation of multi-pass helical surfaces of triangular shape at its external and internal perimeter and unidirectional multi-pass helical lines. The pipeline is made of sections. Each section is made in the form of a circular sector mounted from a strip bent alternately to different sides along the straight lines in the form of bending lines. Bending lines are placed on the strip at equal distances from each other and are placed at the angle to edges of the strip to form quadrangles of different size with two parallel sides arranged on the strip alternately and parallel to each other. The strip is coiled into a ring with multi-faceted surface. Sections are connected to each other by free sides of specified quadrangles in the form of a hollow pipeline of triangular shape with throughput section. The throughput section is bent at the angle from 30° to 180° and more to form along its perimeter an external and an internal surfaces of multi-pass helical surfaces of triangular shape and unidirectional helical lines.

EFFECT: treatment of areas of water of bays and gulfs by direction of flows in their stagnant waters and increasing water circulation.

12 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: device includes a block of one and more pipelines bent at an angle and connected to each other with lateral sides and mounted in one block. The block is fixed on the way of flow of coastal currents to change direction of some part of water flows, to increase their speed and introduce these flows to a water area of bays and gulfs. Each pipeline is made in the form of a sector of a circular tubular cross-section, along the outer and the inner surfaces of which broken screw lines and screw surfaces are formed. A pipeline consists of sections, each of which is mounted of a strip bent to one side along straight lines arranged at an angle to the strip edges, with variable formation throughout the length of the strip of equilateral and isosceles triangles that are different as to sizes. Two similar equilateral triangles are located with their bases on two sides of the biggest equilateral triangle. On lateral sides of isosceles triangles there located are two similar equilateral triangles with two similar isosceles triangles located to them with their bases, on one of which an equilateral triangle is located. Sides of smaller equilateral triangles differ from sides of bigger equilateral triangles by one and the same linear value. Sections are connected to each other with free sides of the above triangles.

EFFECT: cleaning of stagnant and dirty waters of water areas of bays and gulfs owing to creating constant circulation of clean sea water inside them.

12 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises a unit of one or more bent pipelines with a wave shape of the passage section, interconnected by lateral sides. The unit is fixed in the flow path of coastal currents. Each pipeline with the wave shape of the passage section is curved at an angle from 30° to 180° and more with a pitch of screw lines along the outer perimeter, changing by a diameter of the pipeline, and with a wave screw surface along the inner perimeter in the form of waveform pockets. The pipeline is mounted of sections with a multi-start wave screw surface of a double curvature. The surface of sections is provided with screw grooves inside and outside the pipeline at an angle to its axis as the waveform pockets with centres of the curvature, located outside and inside the cross section of the pipeline. The pipeline is mounted of sections, each of which is designed as a circular sector. The circular sector is made of a strip wound in a ring with the formation of quadrangles different in sizes with two parallel sides. In this case, the sections are interconnected by free sides of the quadrangles in the form of a hollow pipeline with the formation of the waveform screw surfaces along the outer and inner surfaces as the waveform pockets along the outer and inner surfaces, which can be different by the shape and sizes along the perimeter of the pipeline, directed to one side at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the pipeline with the wave shape of the passage section. The distance between the fold lines is equal to the sum of the perimeter lengths of geometric figures of the pockets of the inner and outer surfaces.

EFFECT: purification of aquatic areas of bays and gulfs by means of a flow in their stagnant water and an increase of water circulation.

12 dwg

FIELD: physics, acoustics.

SUBSTANCE: invention is used to protect underwater structures and equipment from biofouling. The method includes, at the output of a bypass channel, generating and emitting energy, information, high-gradient and bioresonance signals which act on fish and change their behavioural characteristics; simultaneously emitting noise signals and creating a dense air-bubble screen which rises on the surface of biofouling and impurities. The air-bubble screen and the noise acoustic waves are additional barriers for aggregation of fish near the output of the bypass channel with superheated water. A floating boom is turned on the water surface to form a continuous barrier for biofouling and impurities rising to the surface, which are then collected in form of dirty foam. A mobile system equipped with acoustic radiators is used to forcefully move the aggregation of fish - natural predators for biofouling, from a remote part of a water body to a region adjacent to a supply channel by continuously emitting energy, information, high-gradient and bioresonance signals. Simultaneously, a second acoustic module and a second acoustic-bubble module are used to form an acoustic barrier for fish - natural predators of biofouling, as well as an acoustic-bubble shield in the narrowest part of the water body. Recycled water being cooled in the water body is further purified from biofouling and impurities and fish are not released from this part of the water body. Simultaneously, a third acoustic module and a third acoustic-bubble module are used to form an acoustic barrier for juvenile fish- natural predators of biofouling, as well as an acoustic-bubble shield at the input of the supply channel of the facility of the power system. As a result, recycled water cooled in the water body is further purified from biofouling and impurities. Simultaneously, intense ultrasonic waves and low-frequency electromagnetic waves act on the biofouling at the input of a water-intake window, with simultaneous removal of biofouling from the mechanical protective screen, and at the output of the inlet pipe of the underwater structure. Simultaneously, an acoustic filter mounted at the input of the equipment of the facility of the power system performs fine purification of water from biofouling, as well as biological and mechanical impurities.

EFFECT: high quality of purification and reliability of protecting underwater structures and equipment from biofouling.

9 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: device includes an elastic cloth installed across the flow. The elastic cloth is made as meshed according to shape and size of the flow and is fixed to the frame. The frame is installed on a rotary crosspiece, which has a drive. At the same time the frame comprises a rotary axis parallel to the direction of the flow with the possibility of frame rotation with the elastic cloth perpendicularly to the direction of the flow and fixation of the frame in the necessary position. At the side part of the crosspiece there is a loading cart for removal of dirt.

EFFECT: increased quality of irrigating water treatment, simplified design and reduced energy intensity of treatment.

4 dwg

FIELD: ecology.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises the construction of the dam in which body the pipe culverts are placed inclined to the horizon in the direction of the water course, which inlet pipes are mounted at an angle to the river bed, and the dredging in front of the dam in the form of water-settling pit. In the water track downstream from a potential source of negative impact a permanent waterlock is created. At the bend of the pipe culvert above the dam level a plunger-valve is mounted, which cross section is 10-15% of the pipe cross-section. The inlet of the pipe is protected by the filter and the outlet - by a grid. At the outlet end an antierosion tray is placed, equipped with a small spring-board. The dimensions of the pit is calculated considering the time of layering of water-oil emulsion according to the formula: where L is length of the pit, m; Q3 is water flow in a water-settling pit, m3/sec, Q3=Q1; Q1 is water flow in the water course, m3/sec; F3 is the cross section of the water-settling pit, m2; t is time of layering of water-oil emulsion, sec; a3 is the width of the pit bottom, m; c3 is the pit width by the water edge, m; H is the dam height, m; h1≥0.5 is dam height above the maximum water level in the pit, m; hp=H-h1 is the pit depth, m. The protective waterwork, resulting in the process of implementation of the method comprises the dam with the pipe culverts placed in its body and the plunger-valves mounted on them from the side of the water inflow and a water-settling pit in front of the dam for collecting water with waterproof walls. At the outlet end of the pipe an antierosion tray is placed equipped with a small spring-board. The upper end of the plunger-valve is made bent down and is located on a bend of the pipe above the level of the dam. The inlet opening of the pipe is equipped with an inlet pipe which lower diameter is 150-200 % of the pipe cross-section. On the inlet opening of the pipe the filter is installed, made in the form of a removable convex grid coarse-meshed dome, and the outlet opening of the pipe is protected by the grid. The grid mesh size of the outlet opening is made greater than the mesh size of the grid filter of the inlet opening.

EFFECT: increased reliability and efficiency of protection of hydrological net from extreme oil pollution in emergency situations in the pipeline transport.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes laying of non-woven geosynthetic material fabric on the surface of the plot. At that in the pre-starting period, the bog vegetation is preliminary removed in the emptied water reservoir. Then, the area with a minimum design level of water of less than 0.5 m and the shallow waters are divided into plots, and then on the prepared surface of the plots the non-woven geosynthetic material fabric is laid. At that the cut edges of the fabric are buried by 45-50 cm on the border of the plots, then the nonwoven material fabric is fixed by the anchors followed by surcharging with the soil layer of 5-8 cm.

EFFECT: method enables to eliminate the bog vegetation in the bed of the water reservoir before putting it into operation and to stop its growth during the period of its exploitation.

5 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises a block of one and more bent helical pipelines joined to each other by sides and mounted in one block. The block is fixed on the way of a flow of coastal streams to change direction of some water flows, their increased speed and introduction of these flows into a water area of bays. Each helical pipeline is made as bent at the angle from 45° to 170° with a multiturn helical surface equipped with helical grooves inside and outside of the helical pipeline at the angle to its axis in the form of pockets of polygonal shape in the form of various geometric figures with four and more sides. The distance between straight lines of the bend is equal to the length of each polygon element. Pockets on internal and external surfaces may differ both in shape and dimensions along the perimetre of the helical pipeline. The pipeline is made of sections, every of which is made in the form of a circular sector, made of a strip wound into a ring with a polyhedral surface and formation of four quadrangles of different size with two parallel sides arranged in parallel to each other. At the same time the sections are connected to each other by free sides of the specified quadrangles in the form of a hollow helical pipeline.

EFFECT: efficient treatment of stagnant and contaminated water in water areas of bays due to development of permanent circulation of pure sea water inside them.

12 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic engineering, particularly to regulate water flow in water pool and to change flowage in separate zones thereof.

SUBSTANCE: method involves deepening flexible shells in water pool, fixing thereof at a given depth and filling shells with gaseous or liquid medium. Flowage regulation is accompanied by change in shells location and by change in volume of medium filling shells. Method in accordance with the second embodiment involves deepening flexible shells in water pool, filling thereof with gaseous or liquid medium and performing water mixing due to moving flexible shells with the use of floating crafts.

EFFECT: increased efficiency, reduced stagnation in separate water pool zones.

4 cl, 1 dwg

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