Method of increasing energy efficiency of refrigerators
FIELD: satisfaction of human life necessities.
SUBSTANCE: part of heat flow from the surface of condenser is utilized by converting thermal energy into electrical energy that can be accumulated in the battery and used to power the additional blower of condenser surface, or to ensure the operation of refrigerator in case of an emergency power failure, or to ensure the operation of additional devices that increase comfort level of refrigerator. To convert thermal energy into electrical, multilayer film thermocouples can be used which are attached to the surface of condenser by means of foil plate, or foil plate can be a substrate on which multilayer film thermocouples are produced by method of sputtering thin thermocouple films.
EFFECT: providing the prospect of improving the design of refrigerators and creating new models of refrigerators with increased efficiency and a higher level of comfort.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: method of cold generation, as per which a cooling agent is evaporated subsequently in an evaporator, its pressure is increased in a compressor, cooled and condensed in a condenser. After that, its pressure is decreased and it is returned to the evaporator. Cooling agent pressure is decreased during a periodic process. It involves the following: accumulation of a cooling agent leaving the condenser in a tank before its filling, pumping-out with a compressor of cooling agent vapours from the tank till the pressure is achieved in it, which is equal to pressure in the evaporator, and supply of the rest cooling agent in the tank to the evaporator.
EFFECT: increasing refrigerating factor of refrigerating machines and a conversion factor of heat pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the cooling consumer device with the automatic defrosting, in particular, for home use. This cooling device contains internal compartment for food storage, made by thermoformed section, refrigerating chamber with evaporator and fan for air circulation inside the specified internal compartment. This device contains passage for the cooling air supply by fan to the specified cooling consumer device. Specified passage is provided during thermal forming of the specified thermoformed section. Plate is connected with the thermoformed section to close passage and contains pair of parallel branches passing insides the passage. The sealing elements are made out of sponge material, and are located in the passage, they are installed between the thermoformed section and plate branches to prevent the cooling air leaks. Also, manufacturing method of the cooling consumer device is described.
EFFECT: group of inventions increases efficiency and economic feasibility of the cooling consumer device.
11 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat-exchange compositions, used in cooling systems and heat-transmitting devices. Heat-exchange composition includes, at least, approximately 45 wt % of trans-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (R-1234ze(E)), to approximately 10 wt % of carbon dioxide (R-744) and from approximately 2 to approximately 50 wt % of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R-134a).
EFFECT: combination of required properties of good cold productivity; low combustibility, low greenhouse potential value WGP with improved miscibility with lubricating materials (lubricants) in comparison with existing refrigerants, such as R-134a and R-1234yf.
59 cl, 1 dwg, 30 tbl
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to compressors to be used in cooling systems. A piston compressor to be used in a cooling vapour compression system comprises the first and the second inlet manifolds, the first and the second piston compression units, an outlet manifold and the first pulse valve. The inlet manifolds divide the flow entering the compressor. The first and the second piston compression units receive the flow from the first and second inlet manifolds respectively. The outlet manifold collects and distributes the compressed cooling agent from the compression units. The first pulse valve is installed outside the first inlet manifold to control the cooling agent flow in the first inlet manifold. Another implementation version implies that the second valve is installed outside the second inlet manifold to control the flow in the second inlet manifold, and the first and the second valves are controlled by a controller. The controller actuates the first valve with variable width of pulses with their interval being less than the operating inertia of the cooling vapour compression system.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and simplified design of a compressor.
15 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to refrigerating equipment. cooling method of a sealed unit of a compression refrigerator involves moistening of a condenser surface. The condenser surface and the compressor housing surface is sprinkled with an air-and-water mixture with further blowing; activation/deactivation of the condenser and/or compressor surface blowing is performed by a controller based on measured temperature values of the unit components.
EFFECT: increasing cooling intensity of compressor and condenser surfaces.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to processing of solid domestic wastes. Proposed method comprises collection of wastes in metallic container, loading containers with wastes into the kiln, heating and kilning the wastes by steam-gas heat carrier consisting of hydrocarbon gas combustion products mixed with steam and air at the pressure of steam-gas heat cattier exceeding barometric pressure, discharging container with kilned wastes and emptying them. Amount of steam in heat carrier in kilning is kept within 15%-45%, steam-gas heat carrier temperature makes 500-600°C. Pressure of steam-gas heat cattier exceeds barometric pressure by 20-100 Pa.
EFFECT: fast decontamination in emergent situations.
6 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: control method of one or more compressors (12) used for compression of one or more gas flows (10) at normal operating temperature. At least one cooling agent compressor (12) is equipped with steam recirculation pipeline (30). Initial flow (10a) for the compressor is obtained as a result of combination of recirculation steam flow (30) from steam recirculation pipeline (30) and at least partially evaporated cooling agent flow (8). Initial flow (10a) for the compressor is passed through inlet separator (11) to obtain gas flow (10) for the compressor, which is passed through cooling agent compressor(s) (12). Inlet temperature T1 of gas flow (10) is determined for the compressor, and cooling agent flow cooling is controlled depending on temperature T1 to obtain gas flow (10) for the compressor at normal operating temperature at least of one cooling agent compressor (12).
EFFECT: use of the invention will allow independent control of temperature of the initial flow entering the compressor.
21 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: refrigerating system includes a compressor acting at the speed of a compressor between the first speed and the second speed for supply of flow of compressed fluid medium to a header under the compressor pressure, and a condenser interconnected as to fluid medium with the header to receive compressed fluid medium. A fan of the condenser operates at speed of the fan between minimum speed of the fan and maximum speed of the fan to direct the cooling flow to the condenser to cool down compressed fluid medium, and an evaporator installed to receive compressed fluid medium flow and acting to cool down the second fluid medium. Controller operates at least partially based on the measured temperature of the second fluid medium and measured temperature of cooling flow to determine desired pressure and change the speed of the compressor and speed of the fan so that the compressor pressure is equal to desired pressure.
EFFECT: use of the invention will allow improving the efficiency under variable conditions.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: conditioner (1) comprising a coolant circuit (10), including a compression mechanism (21), a heat exchanger (23) on the side of a heat source, an expansion mechanism (24) and a heat exchanger (41) on the usage side, and also an electromagnet induction heating device (6), which heats a tube (10f) for coolant and/or an element in thermal contact with coolant, passing via the tube, a control unit (11) and a fan on the side of the heat source. The control unit sets the heating device (6) into the condition of forced shutdown, if any of the conditions specified below is met: the condition, when the difference between the temperature set inside the room and temperature inside the room is less than the specified temperature or the compression mechanism is stopped; and the condition, when low pressure reduction is controlled, high pressure reduction is controlled, inverter outlet tube temperature reduction is controlled, inverter electric current reduction is controlled, pressure difference to compression ratio protection is controlled, inverter electric current/temperature reduction is controlled, or total electric current reduction is controlled, or when status of alarm on gas shortage is active.
EFFECT: using the invention will save energy by prevention of operation efficiency drop.
3 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: conditioner (1) uses a refrigerating cycle comprising a compressor (21) which provides circulation of the coolant, and a tube (F) for the coolant, covered with a magnetic tube (F2) around the periphery, and comprises a coil (68), an electromagnetic induction thermoresistor (14) and a controller (11). The coil (68) generates a magnetic field for induction heating of the magnetic tube (F2). The electromagnetic induction thermoresistor (14) detects the temperature of the coolant which passes through the accumulating unit (F), which is at least one part of the refrigerating cycle. The controller (11) allows the generation of a magnetic field by means of the electromagnetic field generator when the condition of permit of generation of electromagnetic field is met. The condition of permit of generation of electromagnetic field is a condition where the temperature detected by the electromagnetic induction thermoresistor varies between two states of the output signal of the compressor (21).
EFFECT: conditioner can prevent excessive temperature increase of the coolant even when the coolant is heated by electromagnetic induction heating method.
11 cl, 28 dwg
FIELD: refrigeration industry; cooling installations components.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with the field of cooling installations equipment and may be used for production of air conditioning systems. The gas compressor contains a body and located in it two driving and two driven pistons. The body is made out of two hemispheres and contains two gaskets made out of an antifriction heat-insulating elastic-flexible material. Each piston is made in the form of ball-type sectors, on a spherical surface of each of which there is an elastic member. An aperture angle of lateral surfaces of the sectors of the driving pistons makes 86° - 90°, and an aperture angle of the lateral surfaces of the sectors of the driven pistons makes 42°-83°. A groove is made radial with trapezoidal cross-section and oriented perpendicularly to axes of the shaft of the compressor. The bases of the cross-section are in ratio of 1:2 - 1:5, and a lateral side is equal to the length of the smaller base. The elastic member is located on the bottom of each groove and its cross-section is an ellipse. The bigger diameter of the ellipse by 3-7 % is more than the length of the centerline of the trapezoidal cross-section of such a groove. On the elastic member there is the second elastic member of a rectangular cross section, the width of which by 2-5 % exceeds the length of the smaller base of the groove, and its length ensures formation of a ledge on the ball-type surface of the piston, the height of which makes 1-3 % of the smaller base of the groove. The invention allows to increase efficiency of the gas compressor.
EFFECT: the invention ensures increased efficiency of the gas compressor.
FIELD: refrigeration equipment, particularly using carbon-dioxide.
SUBSTANCE: compression refrigeration machine preferably using carbon-dioxide as refrigerant comprises compressor, heat exchanger, cooler (condenser), expander, liquid coolant separator linked to inlet compressor pipe by pipeline. Pipeline is provided with automatic butterfly valve maintaining constant pressure upstream butterfly valve. Machine also includes pump, connected to electric motor and linked to expander by its shaft, and evaporator. Separator has opened vapor cavity and is installed in air-tight case together with expander and liquid coolant pump. Liquid coolant pump is connected to electric motor and to expander shaft by microprocessor-operated electromagnetic clutches. Microprocessor is linked to compressor.
EFFECT: increased efficiency.
FIELD: mechanical engineering; refrigerating units of transport facilities proper and cargo carried in them.
SUBSTANCE: proposed refrigerating plant has compressor, condenser, throttling unit and one or several evaporators. Used as working medium is liquid whose boiling point exceeds ambient temperature, for example water, mixture of water and ethyl alcohol or low-boiling organic fluids. Proposed plant is equipped with turbo-compressor. Working pressure inside system is maintained below atmospheric pressure. Rarefaction is maintained by periodic discharge of working medium vapor from condenser by means of additional compressor or vacuum pump. Working medium vapor discharged from condenser is fed to suction air branch pipe of engine. Entrainment separator is mounted between evaporators and compressor. Check valve is fitted between compressor and condenser. Vacuum hoses are used as parts of piping.
EFFECT: avoidance of penetration of ecologically toxic refrigerants into surrounding atmosphere; possibility of connecting many evaporators.
FIELD: refrigeration equipment, particularly used to utilize secondary energy and natural source energy having low potential, namely for combined heat and cold production.
SUBSTANCE: refrigeration plant comprises body, turbine, compressor, supply pump, evaporative and condensation chambers and capillary system for working liquid throttling. The body is separated into power and cooling sections by solid partition. Evaporative, working and condensation chambers are created in the power section. Inside surfaces of side evaporative chamber walls and partition are covered with wick. Inner surface of end wall is provided with grooves and covered with thin porous material layer. Shaft extends through body walls, power and cooling sections, solid partition and wick layers. Feed pump rotor is put on shaft end so that the pump is communicated with working liquid reservoir. Arranged in cooling sections are low-temperature evaporative chamber and compressive condensation chamber communicated by compressor to which vapor flow is fed. Compressor rotor is put on shaft.
EFFECT: increased performance.
FIELD: refrigeration or cooling, particularly compression machines, plant or systems with non-reversible cycle.
SUBSTANCE: refrigeration plant comprises two-step compressor, condenser, receiver, regulating valve, economizer, air cooler and mixing chamber. The receiver is provided with coil and may act as liquid separator, circulation, linear and drain receivers to provide dosed coolant supply into cooling system. The first compressor stage cylinders may suck coolant from receiver and feed coolant in mixing chamber. Vapor exiting from economizer is also fed into the mixing chamber. The second stage cylinders suck vapor from mixing chamber and supply vapor to condenser. Liquid coolant from condenser passes into receiver via economizer and coil and then into air cooler through regulation valve. Vapor from air cooler enters receiver.
EFFECT: reduced ammonia consumption, power inputs, costs and increased plant safety.
FIELD: refrigerating engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed refrigerating plant includes compressor, condenser, receiver, adjusting valve and air cooler. Receiver is provided with coil; it may combine function of liquid separator, linear and drainage receivers. Compressor is used for suction of cooling agent vapor from receiver. Vapor from air cooler is admitted to receiver. When condenser of heat exchanger is overfilled with liquid cooling agent, it is automatically discharged to receiver. At removal of snow from air cooler surface, condensate is drained into receiver. For preheating liquid in receiver, use is made of flat flexible heating element manufactured from non-metallic resistive materials; it is connected and disconnected by command from level relay.
EFFECT: reduced power requirements; low cost of refrigerating plant; enhanced safety.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: cooling engineering.
SUBSTANCE: refrigerating plant comprises two-stage compressors, condenser, one-stage compressor, economizer, float valve, and three receivers. The third receiver is provided with a separating column. The receivers are made for permitting operating as liquid separator, circulating linear, and drain receivers, and batching the coolant charge. The two-stage compressors are made for permitting sucking the vapors of coolant from the receivers of low-temperature cooling systems and supplying them to economizers for cooling and for permitting sucking vapors from the economizers and delivering them to the condensers and, then, through the economizers, to the receivers. The vapor-liquid mixture enters the separating column of the vapor from which it is supplied to the receiver. When defreezing, the vapor-liquid mixture enters the separating column of the receiver through the float valve.
EFFECT: enhanced safety and reduced power consumption.
FIELD: refrigerating compression plants working at supercritical high pressure.
SUBSTANCE: proposed compression plant includes compressor (1), heat-liberating heat exchanger (2), expansion unit (3) and heat-absorbing heat exchanger (4) connected in closed circulating loop which may work at supercritical high pressure. Cooling agent charge and structural members of plant are rated at pressure inside plant during idle time below 1.26 of critical pressure of cooling agent when temperature of entire plant is set at level of 60°C. Carbon dioxide or mixture of agents containing carbon dioxide is used as cooling agent for plant.
EFFECT: simplified construction and enhanced efficiency.
10 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering, particularly devices to prevent wet vapor ingress in cylinders of compressors used in gas-processing plants for pressure increase in natural gas pipelines.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises horizontal sucking pipe and emergency shutdown sensor. Low-frequency ultrasound generator is arranged inside horizontal sucking pipe. Ultra-violet radiation sensor is installed in lower part of horizontal sucking pipe and is spaced 0.1-1 m from low-frequency ultrasound generator.
EFFECT: increased operational reliability.
FIELD: heat power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises pump, circulation circuit provided with two compressors in the top stage. Each of the compressors is connected with the condenser, throttle valve, and evaporator connected in series. The device is additionally provided with separating tank connected to the circulation circuit between two compressors in the top stage that separates the circulation circuit into two circuit, two steam-jet ejectors in the bottom stage interposed between the condenser, and compressor. The separating tank is additionally connected with the circulation circuit in the section between the nozzles of the steam-jet ejectors. The device has two regenerative heat exchangers each of which is interposed between the condenser and throttle valve. The evaporator is connected with the pump, to the top section of the separating tank, to the inlet of each steam-jet ejector, and to the outlet of each throttle valve.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
1 cl, 2 dwg