Method for detecting and identifying toxic chemicals using mobile chemical control complex
SUBSTANCE: method for detecting and identifying toxic chemicals using a mobile chemical control complex is proposed in accordance with the developed chemical control algorithm using equipment of this complex. The method includes the following three stages: rapid analysis conducted up to 30 minutes in series using GDA 2. 5 gas analyzer, TruDefender FTG, FirstDefender and TruDefender FT spectrometers; sampling conducted up to 5 minutes in parallel using sampling tubes Tenax-TA and KPO-1M kit; in-depth analysis conducted up to 180 minutes using Agilent 5975T mass-spectrometer including Agilent G1888 vapour-phase system and ACEM 9300 thermodesorber.
EFFECT: increasing accuracy of detection of various concentrations of toxic chemicals and identification of these substances in environmental objects, as well as timely informing officials about the nature of the used chemical in order to make further decisions on making corresponding arrangements.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises X meteorological sensors (1), Y sensors (2) of environmental monitoring, Z sensors (3) of measurement of production medium indices, integrators (4) of sensor readings (1-3), signal converters (5) to each integrator (4), a measurement unit (6), setters (7) of limit permissible indices for each sensor (1-3), comparison units (8) to each sensor (1-3) and setter (7), a coupling unit (9), a power supply unit (10), a mode control unit (11), a control and communications unit (12), a power supply monitor (13), an additional source (14) of power supply, a power supply buffer (15), a nonvolatile memory unit (16), an input-output unit (17), gas dischargers (18), suppressors (19), additional gas dischargers (20) and additional suppressors (21).
EFFECT: increased reliability of device operation due to reduced impact of electromagnetic noise.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of aviation instrument making and may be used in aviation meteorology in measurement of parameters of aviation dynamics in surface layer for assessment of conditions of aircraft take-off and landing, in forecasting of environmental situation in areas of anthropogenic catastrophes, and also on aircrafts and vessels in measurement of parameters of a wind speed vector. Substance: a system comprises a wind-receiving device (1), flow-through pressure difference sensors (2), electric measurement circuits (3) for generation of primary informative signals, an analogue-digital converter (4), an information processing device (5), an information display device (6). At the same time pressure difference sensors (2) with their electric measurement circuits (3) create a unit (7) of generation of primary informative signals by signals of pressure difference. Besides, the system comprises a unit (8) of primary signals generation by climatic parameters of atmosphere, comprising an averaging cavity (12) of signal generation by atmospheric pressure, communicated with a sensor (13) of atmospheric pressure, an averaging cavity (14) of temperature perception, communication with a sensor (15) of atmospheric temperature, and a compensation sensor (16) of temperature connected with its electric measurement circuit (17) of signal generation by temperature compensation. Besides, the system comprises a unit (9) of preliminary processing of signals, comprising serially connected circuits (18) of temperature correction and low pass filters (19). Inputs of the unit (9) of preliminary signals processing are connected to electric outputs of the unit (7) of primary signals generation by pressure difference and to the output of the unit (8) of primary signals generation by a signal of temperature compensation. Outputs of the unit (9) of preliminary processing of signals by signals of speed are connected to inputs of the analogue-digital converter (4). The digital output of the analogue-digital converter (4) is connected to the unit (5) of functional processing. Outputs of the unit (5) of functional processing are outputs of the system of measurement of parameters of atmosphere dynamics in surface layer by signals of speed and direction of the wind, atmospheric pressure, speed of its change, temperature of atmospheric air and speed of its change.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of a system due to expansion of functional capabilities, increased noise immunity of system functioning to disturbances of surface layer of atmosphere.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: mobile laboratory of environmental monitoring comprises a car carrier, a navigation system based on GPS and an electronic compass, control and measurement instrumentation, laboratory, automated work place and technological equipment. The control and measurement instrumentation comprises equipment for continuous dosimetry measurement of gamma radiation, gas-analysing and chromatographic equipment, equipment for occasional measurement of gamma radiation, and gas analysers. The gas-analysing equipment for continuous measurement comprises a gas chromatograph equipped with a system of dampers, a chemiluminescent gas analyser, and IR Fourier spectrometer. The laboratory comprises a hardware-software complex and is provided with equipment for protection of laboratory personnel. The automated work place comprises a table of a chemist engineer, a table of engineer radiologist, a stand with cabinets for placement of gas-analysing equipment, and swivel chairs. The technological equipment comprises radio devices, a signal installation and a remote control, a light module, an emergency lighting system.
EFFECT: provision of continuous automated monitoring of organic and inorganic air pollution.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mobile technical means of sampling and quantitative chemical analysis of atmospheric air samples and industrial emissions, and may be used in the system of environmental monitoring for efficient and valid detection of sources of above-limit pollution of objects of environment in local urban territories. A mobile laboratory of operating control of atmospheric pollution in urbanised territories consists of a carrier vehicle (with high plastic roof and wheel formula 4×4) and a trailer. Besides, the trailer is equipped with control and measurement and auxiliary equipment, energy units and life support facilities, making it possible to perform simultaneous sampling, identification and quantitative chemical determination (also with usage of different gas analysers) of harmful substances in samples of atmospheric air and industrial emissions.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of a system of urban environmental monitoring due to reliable and operating determination of sources of above-limit pollution of environmental objects by continuous comparison and modelling with the help of PC processes of harmful substances scattering by results of direct measurements of atmospheric air (water and soil) and industrial emissions with account of actual meteorological parameters.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices for measurement of meteorological parameters in systems of temperature control of heated equipment. Substance: device comprises a ball-shaped sensor (1), inside of which there is a temperature sensor (2) and a heating element (3) with continuous heating capacity. Besides, the device comprises a unit (4) of detection of heat release coefficient, an ambient temperature sensor (5), a solar radiation capacity sensor (6), a unit (7) of calculation of thermal radiation capacity of a ball-shaped sensor (1), a communication unit (8). The temperature sensor (2), the heating element (3), the ambient temperature sensor (5), the solar radiation capacity sensor (6), the unit (7) of calculation of heat radiation capacity and the communication unit (8) are connected with the unit (4) for detection of heat release coefficient.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of temperature detection.
FIELD: aircraft engineering.
SUBSTANCE: in cruising flight of aircraft with definite gas turbine engine the following parameters are measured: altitude, pressure, ambient air temperature and relative humidity, flight speed, full temperature of low-pressure turbine exhaust gases, rpm of one of engine rotors and fuel consumption. CT availability or absence is registered. For every preset altitude, calculated is total quantitative statistic of steam oversaturation at relative humidity of atmospheric air of 60% and equality of outside air and standard temperature. CT formation boundary height is calculated at different deviation of ambient air temperature from standard value and different magnitudes of relative humidity. Model for forecasting of CT and CFC formation and availability in preset lanes is constructed. Indications of heat effect change caused by CFC in preset lane sector at definite altitude are defined with allowance for density of air traffic.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of evaluation of ecological optimization of daily flights and peculiarities of atmospheric conditions at airliner cruising altitudes.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: air temperature is measured by a psychrometer. Then air moisture is measured using a stationary psychrometer, and air motion speed is determined using anemometers. Then on the basis of the produced parameters - air temperature in the working area, its moisture and speed of motion, and also temperature of surrounding surfaces in the working area - the extent of comfort is calculated using the following formula: S=7.83-0.1ta-0.0968ts-0.0372P+0.18v(37.8-tp). where tp - air temperature in the working area of the production premise: ts - temperature of surrounding surfaces in the working area: v - air motion speed, m/s: P - partial pressure of water vapours calculated in accordance with the following formula: P=0.01φ×Psat. mm of mercury column, where φ - relative air moisture. %; Psat - partial pressure of water vapour in saturated condition. Afterwards comfort of microclimate parameters is estimated using the following scale: 1 - very hot; 2 - too warm; 3 - warm, but nice; 1 - feeling of comfort; 5 - cool, but nice; 6 - cold; 7 - very cold. At the same time measurements are carried out: air temperature and its moisture by the stationary psychrometer of VIT-2 type. speed of air motion by the digital anemometer LTK-1034. and temperature of surrounding surfaces in the working area - with the help of a contact thermometer with the submerged probe of TK5.01M type.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, speed and reliability of system actuation.
4 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: complex comprises the following components installed in a single thermostatted body: a control unit, a unit of coordinates detection according to a satellite navigation system, a unit of atmosphere condition identification, connected to a transceiving device. Besides, the complex comprises a power supply unit connected to power-consuming units. Besides, the control unit is made as capable of connecting units of coordinates detection according to the satellite navigation system, detection of ice cover thickness and detection of atmosphere condition, and also the transceiving device to receive a control signal and to transfer telemetry of complex board systems conditions.
EFFECT: possibility to do monitoring of ice and environment condition with simultaneous detection of complex location coordinates, higher safety when navigating vessels in ice.
FIELD: instrument making industry.
SUBSTANCE: device for remote measurement of atmospheric parameters comprises a scanning device and a transponder. The scanning device comprises a driving oscillator 1, a power amplifier 2, a duplexer 3, a transceiving antenna 4, doublers 5, 26 and 27 of the phase, dividers 6, 28 and 29 of the phase into two, narrow-bandwidth filters 7, 19, 21, 30 and 31, a phase detector 8, phasemeters 9, 32 and 33, registration unit 10, multipliers 18 and 20, an adder unit 22, band pass filters 23, 24 and 25. The transponder comprises an acoustic transmission line 11, a microstrip transceiving antenna 12, the electrodes 13.1, 13.2 and 13.3, buses 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 15.1, 15.2 and 15.3, sensing elements 16.1, 16.2 and 16.3, reflecting gratings 17.1, 17.2 and 17.3, the interdigitated transducer I, II and III.
EFFECT: enhanced functionality due to simultaneous remote measurement of temperature and humidity of the atmosphere.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: complex includes above-water and underwater sections connected with a cable. The above-water part comprises a control unit, a unit of coordinates determination according to a system of satellite navigation, a unit of ice cover thickness detection, a unit of atmosphere condition detection, connected to a transceiving device, and also a power supply unit, connected to power consuming units. The underwater part comprises an underwater navigation beacon. At the same time the control unit is made as capable of connection of units of coordinate determination according to the satellite navigation system, detection of ice cover thickness and determination of atmosphere condition, and also the transceiving device and the underwater navigation beacon to produce a control signal.
EFFECT: possibility to monitor condition of ice and environment with simultaneous determination of complex location coordinates, higher safety when navigating vessels in ice.
SUBSTANCE: method includes calculating a Fourier spectrum from waveforms of external earthquakes detected by two seismic stations, wherein one of the stations, which is close to the earthquake hypocentre, is called the input station and the other, which is located at the point of estimating tension in the earth environment, is called the output station; calculating the quasi-amplitude-frequency characteristic of the earth environment at the location of the output station, as well as two criteria therefrom: integral and fractional-integral; deducing an imminent earthquake from observing a sharp decrease in the values of the integral criterion and a sharp increase in the values of the fractional-integral criterion; predicting the local magnitude of the imminent earthquake from the maximum value of the fractional-integral criterion, wherein the local magnitude is predicted using a calibration curve of local magnitudes of earthquakes plotted in advance for a specific pair of stations from values of the fractional-integral criterion.
EFFECT: short-term prediction of the local magnitude of an earthquake.
2 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: acoustic signal is emitted toward sea bottom. Signal of sound reradiation from water column is received. Gas flares are isolated from receive signal. Gas flare inclination is used to evaluate the stream velocity profile and direction. Density of gas flare sources on sea bottom and methane flow direction in water for every flare are calculated. Obtained data allows the determination of methane concentration in water column in the area of methane discharge.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and accuracy of evaluation.
SUBSTANCE: method includes collecting sedimentary rock samples and extracting insoluble organic matter therefrom; measuring the intensity of infrared spectral bands at 2930, 2850, 1710 and 630 cm-1 of the infrared spectrum of the insoluble organic matter. The obtained values are used to calculate standardised parameters, from which the catagenesis substage and the corresponding maturity of the sapropel organic matter are determined.
EFFECT: high reliability and level of detail of determining maturity of organic matter.
5 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: emitter and receiver of acoustic waves are placed on opposite surfaces of a porous medium sample, first radiation is carried out over at least one part of the porous medium sample by acoustic waves, and speed of longitudinal acoustic waves propagation is measured, on the basis of porosity and nature of sample saturation they select empirical interconnection between speed of the longitudinal acoustic wave and porosity for this type of the porous medium, they perform a filtration experiment to pump pollutant solution via the porous medium sample, they perform the second radiation of the same part of the sample by acoustic waves and measure speed of propagation of longitudinal acoustic waves, and using selected empirical interconnection, they determine variation of porosity in this part of the porous medium sample, based on speeds of the longitudinal acoustic wave measured before and after pumping of the pollutant.
EFFECT: provision of possibility to determine variation of porous medium properties arising as a result of pollutant impact.
18 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: geoinformational analysis of the studied territory is carried out. 2-3 samples of bottom sediments on small-inflow areas with a relatively sharp reduction of water exchange intensity are collected. The chemical composition of the collected samples is carried out and an average concentration of the substance is calculated. Regions with increased vales of the concentration are studied in more detail, carrying out more frequent sampling of the bottom sediments of rivers and other components of the environment. In the period with water runoff, close to mean long-term values, detailed specialised geological-chemical mapping of a prospective area is carried out.
EFFECT: detection of geochemical anomalies basing on the analysis of the chemical composition of the bottom sediments of rivers.
FIELD: mining operations.
SUBSTANCE: core-sample is taken from the borehole wall, and at least one part is split from the core-sample. The split parts of the core-sample are irradiated with the longitudinal acoustic waves and the speed of wave propagation in each of the split parts is measured. The empirical relationship is chosen between the speed of the longitudinal acoustic wave and the porosity for a given lithology type of the rock, and porosity is determined of each irradiated split part of the core-sample, using the measured speeds of acoustic longitudinal wave and the selected relationship between the speed of the longitudinal wave and porosity for a given lithology type of the rock. The value of change in porosity is determined by comparing the obtained values of the irradiated split parts of the core-sample and value of reference porosity, typical for this lithology type of the rock.
EFFECT: provision of opportunity to determine changes in rock properties of borehole area of bed created as a result of exposure to the pollutant.
32 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a method (versions) of determining representative elements of areas and volumes in a porous medium. A representative element of area (REA) is the smallest area that can be modelled to yield consistent results, within acceptable limits of variance of the modelled property. Porosity and permeability are examples of such properties. In 3D, the corresponding term is representative element of volume (REV). A REV is the smallest volume of a porous medium that is representative of the measured parameter.
EFFECT: high accuracy of obtained data.
30 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method is proposed to direct drilling of a drill well in a target underground bed, including stages of preparation of drilling equipment, having a layout of a bottom of a drilling string, which includes a controlled subsystem of directional drilling and a directional measurement logging instrument during drilling with the possibility of circular viewing and anticipatory viewing; determination of availability of the specified type of bed feature in a target bed; and navigation of a drilling trajectory in a target bed by drilling equipment, which includes reception of measurement signals from the directional measurement instrument, production of bed parameter indices on the basis of received measurement signals in respect to a bed feature in the target bed and control of a subsystem of directional drilling for drilling in the direction determined depending on produced indices of bed parameters.
EFFECT: expansion of functional capabilities and increased information value of tests.
23 cl, 56 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to physical-chemical analysis methods and can be used in diamond analysis. Disclosed is a method of restoring temperature-time conditions for genesis of diamonds of the type IaAB or mixed type Ib-IaA, based on calculation, from local concentrations of impurity nitrogen in forms C, A and B in a crystal, measured for example by infrared microspectroscopy, of local values of an integral parameter Knt of aggregation kinetics of the n-th order of corresponding nitrogen centres. The method further includes recording the change in values of the integral aggregation parameter of corresponding nitrogen centres Δ(Knt) on crystal growth layers, for example in any region of the thin diamond plate crossing the growth layers. The temperature T and time Δt of genesis are determined using the equation Arexp(-Ea/kBT)×Δt=Δ(Knt), where: kB is Boltzmann constant, Ar and Ea denote Arrhenius constant and activation energy of the process of aggregation of C- or A-centres, corresponding to the aggregation kinetics order n.
EFFECT: high reliability of recovering the history of genesis of a diamond crystal.
5 cl, 8 tbl, 26 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to geochemical prospecting and can be used to determine the erosional truncation level of ore occurrences and endogenic geochemical anomalies. The method comprises collecting samples from the surface and from wells of an endogenic envelope or potential ore formation; analysing the samples for indicator elements using a quantitative precision method; based on the analysis results, calculating pair correlation coefficients and constructing ranked series of zoning elements. The erosional truncation level is determined by comparing the pair correlation coefficients and the ranked series with a reference summary table.
EFFECT: faster and more efficient determination of erosional truncation level.
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a high-sensitivity method for measuring the amount of individual's blood plasma glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhetinic acid and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts. The high-sensitivity method for measuring the amount of glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhetinic acid and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts is characterised by the fact that a mixture of individual's blood plasma with methanol or ammonia water in the specific concentration is introduced into a solid phase having the reverse-phase distribution function and the anion exchange function; the solid phase is then washed with a cleaning fluid that is a single-component fluid or a mixed fluid of at least two components specified in a group containing water, alkali, alcohol and acetonitrile. That is followed by elution from the solid phase in acid alcohol specified in formic acid - methanol or formic acid - ethanol; that is followed by the stage of measuring glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhetinic acid and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts by liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry.
EFFECT: high-sensitivity method enables detecting and measuring the amounts of individual's blood plasma glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhetinic acid and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts.
4 dwg, 17 tbl, 7 ex