Medical adsorbent and method for its obtaining
SUBSTANCE: medical adsorbent contains activated carbon in the form of spherical pellets, obtained by carbonizing and activation of regenerated cellulose in a spherical shape, and having average pore diameter of 1.5 to 2.2 nm, specific BET surface area of 700 to 3000 m2/g, average particle size of 115 to 1002 mcm, oxide content of 0.05 meq/g or more on the surface, and packing density of 0.4 to 0.8 g/ml. Method for adsorbent production comprises the steps of: spherical viscose conversion into regenerated spherical cellulose in an acid precipitation bath, and carbonizing of the resulting regenerated spherical cellulose at a temperature of 300°C to 700°C under a nitrogen atmosphere, and then steam activation at a temperature of 750°C to 1000°C, acid cleaning and heat treatment at a temperature of 500°C to 800°C. It can be used as a therapeutic or prophylactic agent for kidney disease or liver disease for oral administration.
EFFECT: adsorbent has low dosage and excellent adsorption capacity and selective adsorption of toxins, it can shorten the activation time, it is economical and environmentally friendly.
6 cl, 6 ex, 3 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of charcoal sorbent to be used for production of active coals and carbon sorbents used in agriculture. Carbon-bearing stock (saw dust with initial moisture content of 10-30%) is carbonized at 450-600°C.Carbonised matter is activated by steam-gas mix at 650-800°C and cooled in thin bed to 20-30° at temperature decreased rate of 10°C/min. Obtained charcoal sorbent is subjected to additional activation for air oxygen oxidation.
EFFECT: invention allows production of charcoal sorbent that features iodine absorption capacity of 30-41% that complies with GOST requirements to DAK-grade ground active coal; continuous carbonisation-activation in one apparatus, porous structure of sorbents, required adsorption properties.
SUBSTANCE: invention is directed at obtaining functionalised carbon nanotubes having good compatibility with polymeric matrices. The carbon nanotubes are subjected to processing in hydrogen peroxide vapour at a temperature of from 80°C to 160°C for 1-100 hours. The processing may be carried out in a unit with fluidised bed of the carbon nanomaterial.
EFFECT: method is characterised by high efficiency, lack of toxic oxidation products, low consumption of reagents, can be easily scaled.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 4 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: coal is obtained by carbonisation and following activation of polymeric organic, sulfonated initial substances. Installation includes means of drying for drying initial substances, means of sulfonating, placed downstream relative to means of drying. Further, installation contains means of carbonisation, placed downstream with respect to means of sulfonating, as well as means of activation, placed downstream with respect to means of carbonisation, where activation of carbonised products is performed. Installation also includes means of processing discharged gases, which are formed in means of carbonisation and/or in means of activation in the course of process. All discharged gases are subjected to afterburning.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of the process and its ecological safety.
6 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of industrial heat-and-power engineering and can be applied in obtaining activated coal. Method of activating fractionated by size coal particles is realised by their continuous re-pouring and interaction with countercurrent torch in inclined relative to horizontal plane reactor with heating, separation and burning of volatile substances, formation and output from reactor of mixture of volatile substances and products of burning, further re-pouring and cooling by countercurrent flow of products of burning in inclined relative to horizontal plane cooler and after-burning volatile substances and release of products of burning into atmosphere. Processes of activation and cooling are realised in reactor and cooler of drum type and/or chamber type with mechanised grate. Torch is formed by separately introduced jets of gas, air, steam and products of burning, with steam, being obtained in boiler-utiliser in the process of after-burning of mixture of volatile substances, products of burning are output from cooler, and products of burning from boiler-utiliser are supplied into cooler.
EFFECT: invention ensures reduction of heat loss and gas consumption.
4 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to an activation method of pulverised coal particles fractionated as to size by their introduction as vertical slot flows mixed with combustion products and heating with cocurrent vertical slot gas flames in horizontal chamber-flame heaters, emission and combustion of light and heavy fractions of volatile matters at interaction with gaseous combustion products, air and steam in inverter reactors, air cooling in a fluidised bed with simultaneous removal of heat to a surface heat exchanger, which differs by the fact that flame heating is performed at oxygen deficit with release of moisture and light fractions of volatile matters, and incomplete combustion products and heated coal particles are introduced to vertical inverter annular reactors, in which at first, ignition and combustion of light fractions of volatile matters is arranged in annular down flows with air make-up of flames with radial jets from vertical paraxial sections; then, heavy fractions of volatile matters are removed and burnt in down flows with blowdown of flames with tangential steam jets at simultaneous removal of heat to built-in surface coolers. Besides, the invention refers to an installation for implementation of the above method.
EFFECT: lower gas consumption and losses of coal activation heat.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to highly efficiency adsorbents based on highly porous activated carbon with meso- and macropores, having the form of separate grains of activated carbon, where at least 55% of the total pore volume of the highly efficient adsorbents comprises pores (i.e. meso- and macropores) with diameter greater than 20 Ǻ, the adsorbents being characterised by pore diameter distribution centre greater than 25 Ǻ, having BET specific surface area of at least 1250 m2/g, iodine number 1250-2100 mg/g, and obtained from granules of sulphonated divinylbenzene-cross-linked polystyrenes via carbonisation or two-step activation.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain adsorbents which, besides properties given above, have resistance to abrasive wear and destruction, and are suitable for use in various fields.
7 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method of producing spherical activated carbon involves the following steps: formation of spherical material from cross linked vinyl resin, oxidation of spherical material in an atmosphere which contains oxygen, with formation of non-thermomelting spherical material and activation of the non-thermomelting spherical material with formation of spherical activated carbon.
EFFECT: obtaining activated carbon, which is suitable for oral administration, with required properties such as, average particle diametre particle size distribution, pore volume or specific surface area.
8 cl, 2 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: carbon materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to manufacture of activated carbons based on anthracite and process according to invention consists in treating starting material with hydrochloric acid and/or ammonia solution at 50-60°C followed by filtration, drying, and subsequent gradual (10-30°C/min) raise of temperature to 750-800°C to perform activation.
EFFECT: shortened manufacturing time, increased specific surface, adsorption capacity, and crushing resistance of activated carbon.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 9 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to preparing sorbent for organic compounds from carbon residue formed during pyrolysis of rubber-containing waste, including worn-out tires. After termination of pyrolysis process, steam originated from an exterior source is first fed directly into pyrolysis chamber for at least 10 min and then cooling water is fed stepwise with intervals at least 10 min, amount of added water being not larger than 0.12 L per 1 kg carbon residue. Received steam preliminarily activates carbon residue and stepwise feed of cooling water fulfills two functions: increase of porous structure of carbon residue and gradual temperature drop in the chamber to 150-200°C. During each interval between water supply step, carbon residue undergoes gradual activation caused by steam formed in preceding cooling step. Summary amount of water supplied in all cooling steps does not exceed 0.5 L per 1 kg carbon residue.
EFFECT: simplified method of preparing sorbent having high oil-sorption capacity.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to biology and medicine, and can be used in clinical practice for therapy of diseases related to lipid storage disease and disorders of lipoprotein metabolism. What is presented is a sorbent for removal lipoproteins (LDLP) from human plasma and blood, which contains a non-woven microfiber matrix of polypropylene and polyacrylic acid covalently bond to a matrix surface. The sorbent is produced by photo-induced graft polymerisation of acrylic acid on the surface of the sorbent matrix. The sorbent matrix is processed with a photoinitiator solution in a volatile solvent and air-dried. The sorbent matrix is then immersed into an aqueous solution of acrylic acid, removed from a solution of acrylic acid, laid on a flat substrate, coated with an ultraviolet-transparent plate from above and exposed to ultraviolet through this plate. The produced sorbent has the high sorptive capacity and LDLP selectivity.
EFFECT: method is easy to implement and cost-effective.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of analytic chemistry. Carrier is modified with organosilicon compound, containing -SH or -NH2 group, is processed with colloid gold solution. After that, sulphur-containing organic compound is covalently fixed on the surface of gold nanoparticles.
EFFECT: claimed is method of obtaining separation material, containing silicon dioxide-based carrier and gold nanoparticles.
3 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of water purification. Method includes interaction of metal aluminium with hydrochloric acid solution, further introduction of additive into mixture and mixture exposure of with obtaining polymerisation product. Activated carbon with particle size 100-10000 nm is introduced into mixture as additive in amount 9-12 kg/ton. Polymerisation product contains polyaluminiumhydrochloride with polymerisation degree about 70% and index of basicity 5/6. Method of water purification with obtained means is realised in apparatus, which contains mixer, flocculator and flotator.
EFFECT: claimed is method of obtaining means for water purification based on chloroaluminium-containing coagulant.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves boron industry waste (borogypsum) processing with the waste containing calcium sulphate dehydrate and amorphous silica. The waste is processed by means of a stoichiometric amount of potassium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide in a solid-to-liquid ratio 1:(19-20).
EFFECT: producing the high-capacity sorbent in relation to heavy metal ions.
2 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes coprecipitation at pH 8.9 of magnesium and aluminium hydroxides taken in molar ratio of 4:1, moulding the precipitate and granulating by drying. Successive modification with polyhexamethylene guanidine and 1,8-dioxynaphthalene-3,6-disulphonic acid is then carried out.
EFFECT: increased selectivity of the sorbent.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a method of producing a sorbent, which includes mixing sodium salt-preactivated bentonite clay and crushed paraffin. Mixing is carried out at 60-70°C for 20 minutes. Particles with size of 2-5 mm are moulded from the mixture. Moulding is carried out while stirring the mass with an anchor mixer rotating at 50-60 rpm.
EFFECT: low cost of the sorbent while preserving quality.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of obtaining ferromagnetic carbon sorbents, intended for water purification. Cellulose-containing raw material is impregnated with water solution of iron salt, moisture excess is separated and obtained mixture is subjected to pyrolysis. Pyrolysis is carried out in pyrolysis chamber at 400-500°C, realising a series of successive 0.1-1.0 s long heat impulses with 10 s interval between impulses. Mixture heating is realised by means of nichrome rods, connected with electric generator and placed in the volume of pyrolysis chamber with separation of chamber into locally heated cells.
EFFECT: invention provides reduction of energy consumption, time for the process realisation and its cheapening.
4 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a process of production of magnetic sorbents. The sorbent comprises humic acids as a polymeric binder and a magnetic filler comprising magnetite. The size of magnetite particles is 7-30 nm. The magnetite:humic acid ratio is from 1:4 to 4:1. The efficiency of aquatic environment decontamination by introducing the sorbent depends on the nature of contaminants and amounts to 97-100%.
EFFECT: product possesses magnetic properties and high sorption capacity.
2 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of a sorbent for equipment for protecting respiratory organs. The method of producing a sorbent includes mixing powdered calcium hydroxide or oxide with water with weight ratio Ca2+/H2O of (0.70.3)/1 and adding a calculated amount of potassium orthophosphate having density of 1.41±0.05 g/cm3. The orthophosphate solution is prepared with molar ratio KOH/K2HPO4, of (0.9-1.1)/1, or molar ratio KOH/KH2PO4 of (1.9-2.1)/1. The obtained mixture is stirred, held and moulded. The granules are dried to residual moisture content of 16-21 wt %.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain a sorbent having a high chemisorption rate, high dynamic capacity for carbon dioxide and mechanical strength.
4 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 7 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of sorbents for chromatographic separation of fullerenes. Sandwiched nanotubes are subjected to heat treatment at 800-1000°C and mixed with disperse Teflon. Said step are performed in the medium of nitrogen or inert gas.
EFFECT: simplified production of efficient sorbent.
2 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: uniform, continuous and dense layer of pyrolytic carbon has width of carbon coating, close to monolayer coating, equal 0.4-0.5 nm, density of precipitated carbon coating, equal ρC = 2.0-2.1 g/cm3, specific surface SBET = 90-200 m2/g, cumulative volume of pores ΣVpore≤0.4 cm3/g, average size of pores DBET≤10 nm, most probable size of pores DBJH = 5-7 nm with absence of micro pores. Invention also relates to method of production of such mesoporous composite material.
EFFECT: claimed mesoporous composite material has high-quality thin carbon coating, which totally and uniformly covers external surface and walls of pores of said material.
4 cl, 3 dwg, 3 tbl, 10 ex