High-efficiency heat pump, which combines absorption and changes in solution concentration
FIELD: machine engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods for compressing the working fluid used to transfer heat from the coolant with a lower (E) to the coolant temperature with a higher temperature (Al), and may be used in the heat pump. The method combines absorption and change in concentration of the electrolyte solution, such as ZnCl2, (Na, K, Cs, Rb) OH, CoI2, (Li, K, Na) (Cl2, Br2, I, SO4) or substances whose concentration decreases with increasing temperature, in a polar solvent: H2O, NH3, Methanol, ethanol, methylamine, DMSO, DMA, AN, formamide, formic acid. A highly saturated solution is cooled, discharged from the absorber-exchanger (A1) from a high (1) to a low (2) temperature during passage through heat exchanger-crystalliser (NOT) to form absorbent crystals. Crystals separated (K1), remains low concentrated solution (2). For cooling low-concentrated solution is partially expanded (2), steam is supplied to crystals (R1) in which they are absorbed. Tighten the solution to the heat exchanger-evaporator pressure (E). The low-concentrated solution is expanded in the turbine producing work and refrigerating cycle to partially evaporate in an evaporator-heat exchanger (E) at a given temperature and solvent vapor formation. The additional absorbent crystals (K2) are separated, connecting them into the previously selected crystals (K1). Steam is heated by passing it through a heat exchanger, a crystalliser (NOT) and compressed (5) of its pressure absorber (A1). The low-concentrated solution (3) remaining after partial evaporation compressed to a pressure absorber (A1) and heated in a heat exchanger, a crystalliser (NOT). The separated crystals are heated in the heat exchanger, a crystalliser (NOT) is dissolved in a hot solution of (3) to form the highly-concentrated solution. Steam (4) is streamed into the absorber (A1), where the vapor is absorbed, and the heat is removed and re-formed starting solution.
EFFECT: method improves the efficiency of heat transfer, such as heating, air conditioning.
8 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to thermal pump. Thermal pump comprises multiple hollow elements provided with adsorbent. Said hollow elements house working fluid displacing between adsorbent and phase transition area. Hollow elements force the flow of heat transfer fluid in fluid circuit (101) by valve device over said hollow elements for them to be brought in thermal contact with fluid. Flow over hollow elements is alternated in cycles. At least two hollow elements, in every position of said valve, are flown over by fluid in parallel and at least two hollow elements are flown over successively. In every position of said valve, at least two sets of multiple hollow elements are flown over in parallel. At least one set of multiple hollow elements is arranged directly upstream or downstream of heat exchange (105, 106). The number of hollow elements flown over simultaneously in parallel makes at least one fourth, preferably, one third of the quantity of hollow elements flown over successively.
EFFECT: expanded applications.
18 cl, 17 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for conversion of heat energy to electricity, heat of increased potential and cold involves the following stages. A cooling agent is evaporated from a strong solution. A heated vapour flow is expanded with the performance of work and formation of spent vapour. Vapour is condensed. A liquid cooling agent is expanded and evaporated so that the cooling effect is formed. The cooling agent vapour of reduced temperature is absorbed. Pressure of the solution is increased and the solution is heated before evaporation. The heated cooling agent vapour is separated into two flows after evaporation, one of which expands with the performance of work, and the other one is condensed and used for generation of cold and/or heat energy. The cooling agent vapour flow, after its expansion with the performance of work, and the flow of the cooling agent vapour of reduced temperature and reduced pressure, which is obtained at evaporation of the cooling agent with the formation of the cooling effect, are absorbed using a common weak solution and with the formation of a strong solution including the cooling agent of both flows that are specified above. A device for conversion of heat energy to electricity, heat of increased potential and cold is described.
EFFECT: group of inventions is aimed at improvement of efficient generation of mechanical energy, heat and cold.
13 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to the power engineering industry. To extract heat from a cold medium and transmit it to a hot medium, heat of dissolution is used as well as separation from the solution, two or more substances or two or more groups of soluble or absorbable substances with different thermodynamic properties on their saturation lines or beyond these lines. For this purpose, in the cold part of the cycle, through a selective membrane or membrane, a solvent is moved from one solution to the other such that, one of the substances or one of the groups of substances separates from the solution or is absorbed, with heat release or heat absorption or no thermal effect. The second substance or group of substances is dissolved or separated by an absorber, with absorption of a large amount of heat. As a result, in the cold part of the cycle, heat is taken off the cooled medium. The obtained solution and separated substance or substances are channelled to the hot part of the cycle, heating them with oncoming heat exchanger. In the hot part of the cycle, there is oppositely directed movement of solvent through the selective membrane or membrane. As a result, a reverse thermal effect is achieved and heat is transferred to the hot medium. The obtained solution and separated substance are returned to the cold part of the cycle, cooling them with oncoming heat exchanger. Use of the invention increases efficiency of a refrigerator or heat pump.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of a refrigerator or heat pump.
FIELD: refrigeration industry; heat-and-power engineering; other industries; production of the absorption- membrane installations.
SUBSTANCE: the invention presents the absorption- membrane installation, which ensures production of cold and heat energy working as the thermal pump by extraction from the strong solution of the refrigerant through the semi-permeable membrane under the pressure exceeding the osmotic pressure formed by the pump, the boiling of the refrigerant heated from the external source of the low-potential power at the low pressure with production of the refrigerating effect and absorption of the formed vapors by the weak solution of the refrigerant with production of the heat energy of the condensation and dissolution. The pressure under the membrane is maintained above the pressure of the refrigerant boiling at the environmental temperature. The expansion refrigerator is installed streamwise the refrigerant weak solution and behind the membrane block with usage of the mechanical power of the expansion refrigerator onto the drive of the pump and (or) on the drive of the booster-compressor compressing the vapors of the refrigerant till their mixing with the refrigerant weak solution and absorption. The invention usage will allow to expand the capabilities of the installation.
EFFECT: the invention ensures expansion of the capabilities of the installation.
5 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: food-processing, microbiological and chemical industry, in particular, removal of liquid or frozen agent from product, more particular, sublimation concentration and drying of frozen solutions or suspensions, sublimation drying of frozen food products, and also concentration or drying of liquid solutions and suspensions.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing reaction of product with absorbing solution in vacuumizer by mass exchange through gaseous phase; providing heating of product to be dried using absorption heat of vapors of agent to be removed, said absorption being provided by means of absorbing solution and said heat being transmitted through heat transmitting device or through heat conducting walls which separate product to be dried from absorbing solution. In order to heat said product, heat of condensation vapors of agent removable from absorbing solution during regeneration thereof may be also utilized. Freezing of product and keeping of temperature mode in drying chamber are provided by means of refrigerating unit. Utilization of absorbing solution for creating hydraulic gates in processing pipelines provides for increased pressurization of vacuumizer and reduced loading of vacuum pump.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of power for sublimation or evaporation of agent to be removed from product by drying procedure.
13 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: gas turbine expansion power plant of gas-distributing station contains a turbine expander with adjustable nozzle device, a gas-turbine plant with a low pressure compressor, a combustion chamber and a gas turbine, an electric generator, a fuel gas pipeline, an outlet gas main line, a bypass main line with a reducing unit, a control system, a heat exchanger for high pressure gas pre-heating, a heat exchanger for pre-heating of gas from the output main gas line. The main high pressure gas line through the heat exchanger of high pressure gas pre-heating is connected with the input of the turbine expander with the adjustable nozzle device, and through the bypass main line fitted with the reducing unit - with the output gas main line. The gas turbine expansion power plant is also fitted with a high pressure compressor, a regenerator, an air duct and an additional turbine expander connected through an intermediate gas heater - air cooler, with the turbine expander output with the adjustable nozzle device. The heat exchanger of high pressure gas pre-heating and the heat exchanger for pre-heating of gas from the output main gas line are designed as waste ones. The outlet of the low pressure compressor is connected by air duct through the intermediate gas heater - air cooler with the high pressure compressor inlet. The high pressure compressor outlet through the regenerator and the combustion chamber is connected with the inlet the gas turbine the outlet of which through the exhaust gas flue containing a regenerator, waste heat exchangers for pre-heating of high pressure gas and the waste heat exchanger for heating of gas of the output gas main line is connected with the atmosphere. The inlet of the additional turbine expander is connected by the fuel gas pipeline with the combustion chamber, and its outlet - with the outlet gas main line.
EFFECT: increase of power and profitability of the gas turbine expansion power plant of gas-distributing station.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to power industry. Pressure relief system for pressurized fluid medium in pipeline includes at least one pressure relief device for fluid expansions in pipeline in order to reduce pressure, and transcritical heat pump maintaining supercritical fluid circulation where supercritical fluid is cooled to remove and transfer heat to pressurised fluid in pipeline before at least one expansion of the pressurised fluid.
EFFECT: possible useful power generation without liquefaction, solidification or inadmissible temperature drop in fluid medium, and pressure relief in HP pipelines in energy-efficient way along with useful power generation.
15 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method is intended for the distribution of low-pressure natural gas to consumers with the production of liquefied gas. The method lies in the extraction of a gas flow from the high-pressure main pipeline, its expansion in a multistage turbine with the production of mechanical energy, heat exchange in a heat exchanger and distribution of the received low-pressure gas to the consumer, at that the gas from the high-pressure main pipeline is directed to an input of a heat carrier loop in a heat exchanger and cooled, while at the loop output it is directed to a multistage turbine where the cooled gas flow is expanded up to a pressure less than the preset distribution pressure in the low-pressure pipeline, at which the fed flow of the liquefied natural gas changes its parameters and aggregative state, transiting from a single-phase state at the multistage turbine input to a double-phase state at the turbine output; at that a liquid phase is separated from the latter and sent for distribution to the liquefied gas pipeline while the remaining part upon separation is sent to the input of the cold carrier loop in the heat exchanger to heat it up for heat exchange with the flow of the liquefied natural gas fed from the high-pressure main pipeline, and further this part is compressed in a bootstrap system up to a pressure equal to the pressure in the low-pressure pipeline, heating it up simultaneously up to positive temperature values, and then it is sent for distribution to the low-pressure pipeline; at that for the compression of this gas part in the compressor mechanical expansion energy is used, which is received at the multistage turbine; moreover, the separation of the liquefied natural gas part takes place after each stage of the turbine.
EFFECT: development of a highly-efficient method of natural gas distribution with simultaneous maximum output of liquefied gas due to mechanical energy produced in result of expansion when pressure drop occurs in the high-pressure main pipeline and low-pressure pipeline.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an expander-generator units. The expander-generator unit comprises a first stage of the expander to drive an electric generator, the second stage of the expander to drive the compressor, the heat exchanger, the throttle, the evaporator, gas pipelines of high and low pressure, the first, the second and bypass adjustment and shut-off electrically driven valves, the pump with frequency-variable drive to supply low-grade coolant to the evaporator, the control unit, the temperature and pressure sensors. The compressor is connected to the output of the evaporator. The input of the evaporator through the throttle is connected to the output of the heat exchanger. The input of the heat exchanger is connected to the compressor output. The output of the first stage of the expander through the first valve is connected to the low pressure gas pipeline. The output of the second stage of the expander is connected to the input of first stage of the expander. The input of the second stage of the expander through the second valve is connected to the high pressure gas pipeline. The control unit comprises an application software program package and is made with the ability to influence the degree of opening of the bypass, the first and second valves, as well as with the ability to control the speed of rotation of the electric motor of the pump drive.
EFFECT: invention is aimed at maintaining the optimum temperature and the required pressure of the fuel gas prior to the burners depending on the performance of the boiler and the temperature of the low-grade coolant.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to power engineering. A turbine aggregate comprises a body with a shaft supported by bearings. At least one expander impeller is fixed on the shaft. The bearings are dry ones and are made of polymer composites. The expander impeller and the shaft have canals. The formed canals connect the flow part of the expander impeller with gaps formed by the shaft and bearings.
EFFECT: simplified design and reduced size weight-and-dimensional characteristics of the turbine aggregate.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: ring (2') of a support bearing is arranged in the form of a V-belt pulley. At the same time the ring (2') of a thrust bearing shall be arranged mainly in the middle of the total length of a shaft (1) of a turbine expansion engine.
EFFECT: higher load-carrying capacity of a thrust bearing.
2 cl, 4 dwg