Method of sludge pits reclamation without their backfilling on forest fund territory of russian federation in middle taiga subzone of western siberia
SUBSTANCE: method comprises arranging the sectional sludge pit with the double bonding, waterproofing the sludge pit walls and bottom, placing the drilling waste, pumping out the liquid phase followed by planting plants. Moreover, the sludge pit is divided into sections by jumpers of the trapezoidal shape, around the pit perimeter (except for the drilling rig side) the impervious trench is arranged, into which waterproofing film is laid, with the subsequent backfilling with soil and erecting the perimeter bonding with the height of at least 1.0 m above the sludge pit filling level, the sludge pit bottom and walls are insulated by clay solution with the thickness of not less than 0.1 m; drilling waste of the hazard class no higher than IV is placed in the sludge pit, the drilling waste surface in the sludge pit is not backfilled, but remains open to the ultraviolet sun radiation and air oxygen impact on the drilling waste. After the liquid phase clarification and the drilling waste consolidation, the liquid phase is pumped out, willow cuttings are planted on the shelves, bonding slopes and intersectional jumpers, cattail is planted on the water edge.
EFFECT: increased sludge pits reclamation efficiency.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the reclamation of sludge pits, production of artificial earth mixtures based on drilling sludge and can be used in the mining and oil-producing industries. The method consists in the subsequent collection of liquid oil, then, bituminised oil from water surface of the pit, pumping-out of a water phase from the pit, creation of cutting backfills, collection of the bituminised oil from the surface of the drilling sludge, collection of the bituminised oil, oil sludge and oil-contaminated soil from the diking surface of the drilling sludge pit, mixing of the obtained drilling sludge with peat and sand in the following ratio, vol %: drilling sludge not more than 75.0, peat not less than 18.0, sand not less than 7.0, at the total content of the components, which is equal to 100 vol % in the volumes providing the obtainment of soil performing a function of soil-forming rock, with further quality control of the soil, reinforcement of its surface, creation of a fertile layer and by planting; with that, the total volume value of the soil performing the function of the soil-forming rock, volume of a material for the creation of cutting strips, volume of a material for the reinforcement of the soil surface, volume of a material for the creation of the fertile layer is chosen based on the equality or non-exceedance of the volume of the drilling sludge pit.
EFFECT: obtaining the soil performing the function of the soil-forming rock - a component of natural environment, which has improved quality characteristics.
2 cl, 7 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: material for reclamation of solid domestic waste landfills and quarries comprises the natural soil and industrial wastes. As the industrial wastes it comprises final slag formed during the production of ferrovanadium using aluminium-silicothermal manner with the mass ratio of natural soil to the industrial wastes equal to 1:1.
EFFECT: expansion of range of technical means.
2 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method includes separate excavation, displacement and piling of soil layer and overburden rocks into separate band dumps, mining of a pit field, filling of the mined space with construction wastes to the border of the upper level of ground water, and the composition of the wastes is close to natural minerals with different size of fractions, in layers with subsequent compaction of each layer, laying of a draining layer with construction wastes having thickness of not more than 0.6 m and with fraction size of 150-200 mm. At the same time they first perform design and planning works for construction of roads, passages, hydraulic engineering and land reclamation structures, then above the draining layer they do primary fill of the mined space of the pit with a mixture made of overburden rocks and ground construction wastes with fraction size of the latter not more of 100 mm that are mixed in equal proportions. Fill is carried out to complete filling of the mined space of the pit, then a layer of soil mixture with seeds of perennial herbs of meadow-weed group is applied onto the surface planed with a bulldozer, and at least in one year they perform final planning, then ploughing of the planed surface with subsequent levelling, afterwards roads are connected, and hydraulic engineering and land reclamation structures are arranged, and the restored area is divided into sections to bury remains.
EFFECT: reduced volumes of soil excavation for creation of a fertile layer and improvement of environmental situation.
SUBSTANCE: in the river valley the dams of embankment are constructed for creation of fields of filtration and prevention of spreading of sewage water from the reclamated plot. At that the sewage water from the dredging water reservoir with a high content of suspended clay particles is fed through the hoses on the planned surface of the reclamated plot, and the place of pulp supply is periodically changed on the area of the reclamated plot.
EFFECT: return of the clay material in the pore space of coarse-grained sediment dredging that leads to saturation of deposits with fine soil and to improvement of the hydrothermal regime and increase in soil fertility.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises the steps that follow. Top soil layer is removed to be preserves or to be transferred to territories to be reclaimed, loosening, loading and conveying stripped rock to make the waste dumps, dislodging, loading and coal transfer to storage and reclamation of dumps. Note here that seam weathered coal approaching the day surface is extracted and stored separately. Waste dumps are levelled to apply soil and weathered coal layers thereon. Produced layer is loosened with stripped rock and rolled.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: method includes separate mining, movement and piling of soil layer and stripping rocks into separate belt dumps, mining of a open-pit field, filling of the mined space to the border of the upper level of ground waters with construction wastes. Afterwards they perform design and planning works to construct roads, passages, hydraulic engineering and land reclamation structures. Then they start filling the mined space in two stages. At first they do the primary filling of the mined space of the pit with a mix made of stripping rocks and ground construction debris with fraction size of the latter of not more than 100 mm mixed in equal proportions. Filling is done until complete filling of the mined space of the pit, then along the surface planned by a bulldozer they apply on top a layer of a soil mixture with seeds of perennial herbs of meadow-weed group, and final planning is carried out not sooner than in one year. Then the planned surface is ploughed, with subsequent levelling and filling of the entire surface of the mined space with a layer of sand with thickness of at least 100 mm with subsequent light levelling. Afterwards roads are connected, hydraulic engineering and land reclamation structures are arranged, and the entire surface of the planned surface of the mined space is divided into sections, in each one they perform burials of certain years and for the standard depth of burial.
EFFECT: reduced labour inputs for restoration works, protection of soil against wind and water erosion.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining and may be used for recultivation of anthropogenic structures and strengthening of dust-producing surfaces. The method includes treatment of stored tailings with a binding compound, sowing of perennial herbs and compaction of the surface layer. At the same time previously, for formation of a pedogenic layer, they treat the surface of the tailing dump with a zeolite hydraulic mix at the ratio of zeolite-water equal to 1:2 and perform tillage of the surface layer. And treatment of soil with a binding compound, sowing of perennial herbs and compaction of the surface layer is carried out simultaneously, at the same time binding compounds are water-soluble polymers.
EFFECT: creation of a pedogenic layer due to application of zeolite tuffs onto the surface of the tailing dump, making it possible to exclude application of fertilisers, to strengthen development of herbal root systems, thus to increase efficiency of biological recultivation of a tailing dump.
2 cl, 2 ex, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: sowing of herbs and hard-shrub species is carried out in indents of uneven surface of mine dumps. Simultaneously with that Nitraria sibirika is sown into grooves cut on the tops of process crests of dumps.
EFFECT: reduced time for complete design coverage of anthropogenically damaged lands with plants.
SUBSTANCE: method includes filling of the mined space to the border of the upper level of ground water with construction wastes, arrangement of the drainage layer with construction wastes, formation of a hill in the centre of the pit by dumping of stripping rocks with subsequent terracing of hill slopes and arrangement of places for burial of remains, at the same time underground tomb structures are arranged on terraces, being designed for several graves, besides, each tomb structure is made with hydraulic insulation, drainage system, drainage and ventilation systems, at the same time the ventilation system is additionally equipped with a separate air duct installed with an angle of inclination of not more than 35 degrees and made in the form of a hollow vertical channel filled with stems of cane located in the ground in close proximity from the tomb structure with the possibility to connect each subsequent grace to it in the tomb structure.
EFFECT: reduced labour costs and costs of recovery works, rational usage of land.
SUBSTANCE: method includes filling of a mined-out space of a quarry to the border of the upper level of ground water with construction wastes, arrangement of a drainage layer with construction wastes, formation of a hill in the centre of the mined-out quarry from stripping rocks with terracing of its slopes, installation of a drainage system, retaining walls, and arrangement of places on terraces for burial of remains, at the same time retaining walls for terraces are made of reinforced concrete cylindrical piles by means of their submersion in soil, pile caps are rigidly connected to each other with the help of concrete mortar, and on terraces they arrange underground vault structures with hydraulic insulation, water disposal system, drainage and ventilation systems, at the same time the first burial is made for depth of more than three meters, and the distance from the cover of the last burial to the level of terrace surface ground shall make at least one meter.
EFFECT: rational use of restored land areas.
SUBSTANCE: method to prevent deformations of linear structures, erected on landslide slopes or manmade slopes on melting permafrost soils, includes erection of a working site, installation of piles into slope soil, combination of piles into a single grill. After submersion of piles into soil at the free end of each pile they install a reinforced concrete head, and combination of piles into a single grill is carried out by installation of a vertical geogrid, stiffly connected to heads of piles and layers of horizontal geogrids arranged above heads of piles. The working site from the bottom of the pile heads to the first layer of the horizontal geogrid and also gaps between layers of geogrids are filled with crushed stone and compacted. Horizontal geogrids are installed with the condition of their partial arrangement in a non-moving massif of the slope soil or natural slope.
EFFECT: prevention of deformations of motor and rail roads on slopes under conditions of melting permafrost soils in process of operation of structures, reduced material intensity, realisation of anti-landslide actions.
FIELD: mining operations.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises the construction of three artificial elements: impervious screen, a protective berm, a protective coating. And the impervious screen is created by drilling of inclined wells of large diameter in the winter period from the upper site of the ledge nonworking edge side most affected to thawing, parallel to the slope surface at its full height followed by filling them with ice rock stones, chilled fresh water and freezing with natural cold, and the protective berm is erected over the mouth parts of the wells, starting from the upper edge of the ledge of the tapered section of calculated height, using layered freezing of overburden rocks, which in the summer period, including the surface of the ledge slope, to prevent thawing, covered with the protective coating, which is made in the form of removable flexible moisture-heat- and light-reflecting mat, removed with the onset of winter, the thickness of which is determined based on the mathematics.
EFFECT: prevention of thawing of frozen rocks of non-working ledge edges of pits.
SUBSTANCE: onto an earth strip directly adjacent to embankment foot, with width of 2.5-3.0 meters, fertile soil is moved in one-two trips of a grader from a strip located at the distance of 4.0-7.0 meters from the slope foot, to produce a layer of 15-20 cm. Then earth is ploughed up with full layer turnover for depth of 50 cm. At the same time it is tilled, and fertile layer is moved to the depth of 20-50 cm, and layer of low-fertility soil reaches the surface, further preventing intense development of weed plants. Then, using a tree planter, low-growing or trailing creeping-rooted shrubs are planted into the prepared soil, and its roots, getting during planting into fertile soil, which is periodically wetted with precipitation flowing off the road bed, develop intensively and produce root shoots, which populate the entire embankment slop to its border.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of motor road embankment slopes fixation due to soil strengthening with durable and strong branched roots of shrubs.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nature conservation arrangement of mountain and foothills landscapes and may be used as anchors for anti-erosion and anti-landslide structures, and also in case of emergencies. The method to install wire anchors is characterised by the fact that a device is screwed into soil for the required depth, and the device comprises doubled hollow pipes, the outer of which comprises evenly arranged ledges of permanent rectangular cross section, rigidly fixed along the side cylindrical surface along the helical line with permanent pitch. After the device reaches the required depth, the inner pipe together with cohesive soil is withdrawn from the outer pipe to form hollow space, and soil is removed from it. Then a wire anchor is inserted into the produced hollow space of the outer pipe, with a cylindrical head, and backfilling is done with soil for height h with subsequent putting of cylindrical attachments onto the anchor wire, and the outer pipe is screwed out with the help of a handle as the anchor is grown.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and reliability of installation of wire anchors on slopes and ravines.
4 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of soil reinforcement includes filling, levelling, compaction of a soil layer, arrangement of reinforcing elements on the surface of the soil layer and their filling with soil of the next layer. At the same time reinforcing elements arranged on the surface of the soil layer are made in the form of concrete slabs having vertical holes in their body in the form of cones truncated downwards, designed for provision of filtration processes and increased adhesion of concrete slabs with soil after embankment filling. Concrete slabs arranged on the surface of the soil layer of embankment are made by filling of the form with concrete mix with metal elements installed inside in the form of truncated cones, which provide for production of holes in the concrete slab. Besides, internal dimensions of the form correspond to external dimensions of the concrete slab, and the position of the concrete slab in the body of embankment, number and location of holes in the slab depend on the specified calculation. At the same time the concrete mix in the form of coarse filler and reinforcing material contains wastes of casting production in the form of slag.
EFFECT: increased stability and operational reliability of soil embankment due to increased forces of embankment soil adhesion to a reinforcing element.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to meshy reinforcing roll materials designed for creation of reinforced layers in various coatings, for instance, road, asphalt, concrete ones, etc. The reinforcing mesh with cells formed by crossing bundles of threads, fixed by impregnation and/or a coating, where bundles comprise several threads, separate threads are longer compared to other threads of this bundle, and longer threads stretch in a wave-like manner and form loops. Bundles in one of crossing directions are made as doubled with a gap between each other, making from 0.01 to 0.55 of the bundle width, bundles in the other crossing direction are made as doubled without a gap between each other. Bundles doubled without a gap comprise longer threads stretching in a wave-like manner, forming loops that fix bundles doubled without a gap with bundles doubled with a gap in crossing zones. Width of bundles doubled with a gap makes from 1.3 to 2.5 of width of bundles doubled without a gap. Impregnation and/or coating is arranged by bitumen produced from water emulsion of bitumen.
EFFECT: reduction of possibility of irreversible deformation and damage of a mesh under conditions of considerable deformations of the coating and preservation of reinforcing ability of the mesh even after significant deformations of the coating.
SUBSTANCE: engineering-geological and hydrogeological survey is carried out to detect available landslide bodies. Then biolocation survey is performed, using the results of which they detect underground watercourses and discover their characteristics for detection of quantity and location of through filters. Afterwards on the surface of a ledge or a slope or a hillside outside the landslide body a header is arranged for collection of surface waters and some shallow watercourses. Afterwards from the foot of the ledge or the slope or the hillside they arrange a drainage mine deep into the ledge or the slope or the hillside outside the landslide body, from the surface of the ledge or the slope or the hillside they drill vertical wells until coupling with the drainage mine for through filers, couplings are arranged with connection chambers, through filters are lowered into vertical wells from the surface, and through filters are made in the form of pipes with perforated sections of holes and filtering elements made at the coupling level with underground watercourses. The header and the drainage mine are arranged with an inclination of i=0.005 towards the drain for self-flow of captured water.
EFFECT: provision of reliable prevention of landslide formation due to complete drainage of surface and underground waters from a landslide body.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method consists in drilling of wells, damage of highly icy fragments via drilled wells with subsequent formation of reinforcing elements in the base under the structure in the form of piles by means of filling of the produced cavities with a soil and cement pulp. Piles are formed by formation of a soil and cement body simultaneously with drilling of wells by injection of cement mortar under high pressure with soil mixing at reverse movement of a drilling tool. Simultaneously with formation of the soil and cement body they thaw permafrost soil by addition of a concrete strength gain accelerator into the injected cement mortar for activation of concrete hydration and increased heat evolution in the process. The concrete strength gain accelerator in the injected cement mortar is burned anhydrous lime in the amount of 10-15% and hydrochloric acid in the amount of 1-2%.
EFFECT: reduced time for erection of reinforcing piles and accelerated strength gain by erected piles.
2 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the road and railway construction, construction of aerodromes, objects and structures for various purposes, landscape construction and can be used to organize the storage and use of bulk geogrid when developing the base of the road pavement. Method of preparation for storage and usage of bulk geogrid manufactured from the flexible strips stacked on each other and connected inter se in transverse direction in staggered order, consists in forming of package for its placing on the prepared surface. Formation of package is carried out by continuous zigzag laying on the prepared surface of indicated interconnected flexible strips at least in one horizontal row, at that the loops of zigzags have the same geometric dimensions.
EFFECT: technical result consists in providing the compact arrangement of bulk geogrid on the support surface while simplifying the process of geogrid usage.
6 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in a landslide protection structure on the basis of a collapsed slope there is a bed of flexible mats, which are made of tight rows of light fascines laid normally to the line of slope inclination. On top of flexible mats there is a fixture of gabion mats with drainage devices made of light fascines and perforated pipes laid by alternating rows and wrapped into a gabion net. Flexible mats in the base and gabion mats on top of them are connected to each other by a galvanised metal wire with diameter of 2.5-3 mm. A drainage prism from rock filling is arranged along the foot of the collapsed slope. Above the slope fixture from flexible and gabion mats there is an additional fixture with low inclination from similar gabion mats with drainage devices. Gabion mats of slope and additional fixtures are tightly tied with the help of reinforcement wire and are fixed to reinforced concrete anchors arranged at a certain distance from each other in stable soil behind collapsed massif of the slope.
EFFECT: reliable protection of different objects located under slopes, where landslides and collapses of soil massifs are possible.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly hydraulic structure reinforcement.
SUBSTANCE: method is performed in two-stages. The first stage involves forming vertical elongated flat ground massifs secured by hardening material. Massifs are created in crest embankment area and in upper area of embankment slope so that massifs are spaced minimal available distance from crest and pass through embankment body, including land-sliding upper embankment slope area. Massifs are anchored in mineral bottom by lower edges thereof and are arranged at least in three rows and there are at least three massifs in each row. Method for massifs forming involves driving double-slotted injectors directly in embankment ground or in wells formed in embankment and having plugged wellhead; orienting injector slots perpendicular to hydraulic pressure head vector direction in embankment area to be reinforced; injecting hardening material under increased pressure across horizons from top to bottom or in reverse direction, wherein injection is initially performed under 5-15 atm pressure and at minimal rate in each second injector of one outermost row beginning from extreme ones; feeding hardening material in previously missed injectors in this row; supplying injectors of another extreme row with hardening material in the same way; feeding hardening material to ejectors of medium rows under 10-20 atm pressure; performing the second reinforcement stage as material hardens to obtain 70% strength. The second reinforcement stage involves forming vertical elongated flat massifs of secured ground anchored in mineral bottom by lower edges thereof and arranged at least in three rows, wherein each one includes at least three massifs. Massifs extend at the angle exceeding embankment slope angle to horizontal line. Massifs are formed with the use of double-slotted injectors in remainder embankment area. Injector slots are directed perpendicular to hydraulic pressure head vector direction in embankment area to be reinforced. Hardening material is ejected in above succession, wherein hardening material pressure is equal to design process pressure enough for direction of feeding hardening material through injector slots and lesser than hardening material injection pressure of the first reinforcement stage.
EFFECT: increased reliability of structure reinforcement; prevention of land-slide on structure slopes.
3 cl, 3 dwg