Method of heating mars atmosphere
SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for experimental ground testing in an artificial environment. To warm up the atmosphere of Mars, locally heat the Martian deposit of natural carbonates by concentrating the sun rays on its surface. When natural carbonates are heated by concentrating the sun rays into the Martian atmosphere, carbon dioxide is released. The sun rays are concentrated by mirrors and optical devices.
EFFECT: increase of technological accessibility of heating in Martian conditions.
SUBSTANCE: ultrasonic drag head is designed for drilling of ground to the depth of up to 2 metres at the speed of up to 20 mm/min per passto take samples without changing the composition. Drag head consists of an ultrasonic oscillating system with a working tool, an ultrasonic generator and a control system. Ultrasonic generator and control system are fixed on a space lander. On a waveguide of ultrasonic oscillating system there installed is a frame on which heat-insulated containers to take ground samples with a turning opening/closing mechanism, heat accumulators and a passive temperature stabilisation system are fixed. Ultrasonic oscillating system is equipped with a temperature sensor of drag head containers, which is connected to the control system of drag head. Sizes of each next element of the ultrasonic oscillating system are chosen based on compliance with resonant frequency of piezoelectric converter.
EFFECT: invention is able to take ground samples without thermal destruction and evaporation of volatile components.
SUBSTANCE: drag head includes a drilling machine with a control system and a penetrator, which is fixed on a space lander. Heat insulated containers for soil sample excavation are fixed on the penetrator. The drilling machine is equipped with a temperature sensor of a penetrator tip, which is connected to the control system of the drilling machine.
EFFECT: invention allows improving quality of obtained soil samples.
4 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes erection of the main and auxiliary shafts with a drilling rig from a shelter building, installation of sealing and heat-insulating ramps in shaft collars. One of the auxiliary shafts is erected in the form of a microscope, drilled from an exploratory well by means of its expansion from an inner mine tunnel until reaching the surface of an nonterrestrial object and used as a saving shaft, which on the surface via a gate chamber contacts with a landing complex of a spacecraft. In the saving shaft in the area of its connection with the inner mine tunnel there is a sealing heat-insulation ramp installed, drilled solids are distributed into a crater of the nonterrestrial object.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to carry out salvage operations and to ensure the necessary ventilation in mines and pits, and also to establish a connection between the shafts on the nonterrestrial object surface.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to space engineering. Proposed device comprises pipeline 5, assembly to transfer container via pipeline and assembly to prepare and load container. The latter comprises rotary support 8 arranged on fixed support 7, bush 18 to accommodate container 17 and container cover 18. Transfer assembly comprises housing 19 accommodating gas-tight sleeve 20 representing, in initial position, a flat tape. Sleeve open end is tightly jointed with housing 19. Space 22 is communicated via air line 11 and start-and-shut-ff valve 12 with compressed gas source 10. Bush 16 has spring-loaded flange 24 and is locked by pyro cotter 27. Cover 18 is locked by pyro cotter 28. Support 8 is also locked by pyro cotter and provided with spring pusher 31 with rod 32 to displace transfer assembly, together with bush 16 and container 17, to under cover 18. Pyro cotter 27 operated, container 17 is closed by cover 18. Pyro cotter 28 and valve 12 operated, sleeve 20, straightening under gas pressure, displaces container 17 along pipeline 5. Delivery of container into autolander from any direction.
EFFECT: higher versatility of proposed device.
9 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining, particularly to methods of building of isolated sealed mines, grooves and mountain-drilling rooms, used for shelter of people, and also for introduction of exploration work and field development of minerals in geological material of nonterrestrial objects. Building method of mines and grooves on nonterrestrial objects includes opening of top horizons by one of shanks, opening of bottom horizon through main shank and delivering of rock from deepening of each shank and horizon by adjacent shank. Structure of main and auxiliary shanks is implemented by boring machine with headstock from building structure - shelter, connected to spacecraft. After spudding of one or other shank on its mouth there are installed sealing and heat insulating shelves. There is continued construction at the outset of auxiliary shank, opening top horizon, then it is continued construction of main shank, top horizon connects both shanks. Delivery of rock from passing of each shank and horizon is implemented by adjacent shank through building structure - shelter and chamber gate by means of carriage bogie. Top horizon is continued to construct up to inlet to lip of nonterrestrial object, outlet of horizon is equipped by chamber gate.
EFFECT: invention provides safe of drilling activities implementation and to reduce material expenses.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to processing lunar soil and production of helium-3 (He3) on the Moon, including its back side. The complex of facilities for production of (He3) from the lunar soil consists of a source of micro-waves of super-high frequency installed on the lunar surface, and also of control equipment. The source of micro-waves of super-high frequency radiates waves onto a section of lunar soil surface covered with transparent for radiation elastic pressurised jacket; further He is withdrawn from the zone covered with the jacket, is liquefied and collected. The control equipment is installed in points of libration (Lagrange points) of system the Earth-the Moon and is designed to re-translate a control signal to the back side of the Moon.
EFFECT: simplification of process and equipment for production of helium-3 (He3), and also possibility to produce helium-3 (He3) not only on visible side of the Moon, but on its back side.
SUBSTANCE: complex of development tools fro obtaining He3 from lunar soil includes draft gear, drag head, transporter, and receiving and processing unit. Draft gear is made in the form of two similar devices with removable ground traction boosters attached symmetrically at the opposite sides of the draft gear. Receiving and processing unit is placed beyond excavation zone. Receiving tool comprises a number of lunar soil banks obtained by soil casting from excavation zone to the processing unit. At that, the complex includes receiver-emitter device mounted at the draft gear for preliminary soil heating.
EFFECT: improved equipment operation efficiency and energy savings.
FIELD: aircraft engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises thermostating gas injection holes arranged at head cowl and adapter compartment. Besides, its comprises thermostating gas efflux holes and one-way valves of thermostating gas injection and efflux. Thermostating has injector is composed of a flute with one-way valves as sealing covers arranged at injection hole shaping strips. There are extra thermostating gas injection holes. One-way valves are composed of a flap with counterweight between inlet with protective screen and outlet. There are also heat insulating and heat control coatings.
EFFECT: higher purity and efficiency of thermostating.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a temperature control system (TCS) of the on-board equipment of the spacecraft. TCS is made on the basis of a two-stage heat pump. The on-board instruments are mounted on temperature-controlled panels (1) and give up heat through the steam chambers of the panels to the evaporators (5) of the working body (WB) of the lower cascade (freon). The WB enters to the input of the compressor (2), then - to the intermediate heat exchanger (3) and through the expander (4) to the evaporator (5). In the heat exchanger (3) WB condenses and gives up heat to WB of the upper cascade (a mixture of gases He and Xe). The latter is heated in the regenerator (9) and passes to the input of the compressor (7). After that WB of the upper cascade enters the end heat exchanger (8), where transmits heat to the circuit of radiation heat exchanger (13), then enters to the regenerator (9) and through the expander (10) to the condenser (3). WB of the radiator circuit is a liquid metal coolant pumped by electromagnetic pump (12). After receiving heat in the exchanger (8) from WB of the upper cascade, this coolant gives it to vaporisation zones of heat pipes - the main radiating elements of the heat exchanger (13). Cooling of the compressor-expander turbine unit of each cascade is performed by WB of this cascade through the tubes wound on the walls of the turbine unit casing.
EFFECT: increasing the temperature of the radiation heat exchanger (13), and thus - the improvement of its weight and size characteristics.
SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for thermal control of long-term orbital station modules. Thermal control system includes heat transfer means, electric heaters with control devices, and sensor devices on internal surface of module body surface. Heat transfer means are represented by thermal pipes running along external surface of docking module body symmetrically to each docking aggregate. Thermal pipe strings divide module body into two zones containing at least two docking aggregates each. Each zone includes two circular strings formed by two groups of thermal pipes duplicating each other, and two pairs of S-shaped strings with their heads and ends oriented in the same direction with respective circular string and lying at most two thermal piper diameters apart from the circular string. S-shaped string is formed by a pair of thermal pipes duplicating each other. Electric heaters are installed opposite to each thermal pipe pair in condensation zone.
EFFECT: prolonged operation life and reduced power consumption, weight and dimensions of system.
SUBSTANCE: set of inventions relates to methods and means of environment parameter control in rocket-and-space engineering products, in particular during pre-launch preparation of modern carrier rockets (CR) for payload (PL). These CRs are equipped with systems for preconditioning and feeding thermostating gas component (GC) with high degree of purification over on-board gas lines of CR units. The method includes GC delivery and feeding to payload fairing (PLF) through upper and lower atomizers at the same time. Delivery is performed over single trunk gas passage in direction from bottom to top. Splitters of variable cross-section of the upper atomizer are placed mutually opposite so that when GC is blown jets could collide with each other over PL and be reflected by PLF thus equalizing field of GC speeds. This creates GC uniform flow in space between PL and PLF. In the lower cavity of PLF, GC is directed onto PL creating in PLF excess pressure due to which GC is discharged through special holes. In method implementing devices, atomizers are made as opposed splitters of variable cross-section which are blinded off on one end and combined by manifold of variable cross-section on the other end.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of thermal conditions and cleanliness of environment for PL installed on CR under PLF provisioning.
3 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: aircraft engineering.
SUBSTANCE: spacecraft comprises target hardware module, service systems module with power supply incorporates solar cells, ACS module, storage batteries, thermal control system integrating control unit, hydraulic units, panes of suspended composed of separate assembly units with thermal control end heat exchanger with fluid heart carrier and heat pipe, thermal boards with fluid heat carrier, heat tube with flat shelves and heat lines with hydraulic valves. Thermal control end heat exchanger consists of units tightly connected by inlets-outlets composed of hollow body of revolution and solid coil with central part shaped to truncated cone. Material and sizes of heat pipe and thermal control end heat exchanges, spacing between heat pipes are selected subject to maximum transferred thermal power transferred from heat carrier to heat pipe and minimum vulnerability to meter and man-made particles, and thermal control end heat exchanger surface area.
EFFECT: improved multifunctionality.
FIELD: aircraft engineering.
SUBSTANCE: instruments of service system and payload modules are mounted at inner surfaces of three-ply cellular panels with built-in heat pipes and circulation manifolds with liquid heat carrier. Two extra unfolding radiator panels are fitted in service system module and provided with built-in fluid manifolds with double-sided radiation. Storage batteries are mounted outside said radiator panels. High-heat capacity and wide operating range instruments are fitted at inner skin of radiator panels with built-in heat pipes. Tanks with fuel of correction system are fitted inside airframe bearing structure and at lower panel. Other instruments are arranged at panels with built-in fluid manifolds. Payload module instruments and fluid manifolds are fitted on inner skin of radiator panels with built-in heat pipes and built-in fluid manifolds. Closed duplicated fluid circuits are executed in parallel circuit of connection of fluid manifolds.
EFFECT: operation of spacecraft at variation if instrumentation operating temperature range.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environment parameter control in rocket-and-space engineering products during their preparation on launch installation and in flight. The device includes installed on adapter module (4) payload fairing (PLF) (3) of payload (PL) (1) brought out by space-mission missile (2). In the top part of PLF (3), splitter (5) of gas flow supplied via transit line (6) is installed. In the bottom part of PLF (3) the hatch (7) for gas component discharge is made. On the inner surface of PLF (3), noise, moisture and metal antistatic protective coatings are installed. In the hatch cover (7), a hole is made, and on the inner side of the cover, flat lattice acoustic muffler is installed. From the other side of cover (7) hole, local fairing is mounted (in the form of subsonic diffuser). On the adapter module (AM) (4), additional hole with filter (screen) and with similar local fairing is made (pos. D). Cavities of AM (4) and PLF (3) are communicated by holes (pos. E) made in ring of AM and by holes (22) in adapter (21). During liftoff and flight of missile (2) with PL (1) the level of acoustical action on them is lowered due to use of the mentioned protective coating, muffler and local fairings. Thus possibility of contaminants formation and entering into PLF cavities and hitting PL surface (in dead zones) is lowered.
EFFECT: high quality of cleanliness of PLF intracavity where PL is accommodated.
FIELD: test equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers mainly to land tests and drills of spacecraft thermal control system. According to invention, heat carrier deficiency in the system of thermal control system simulator and payload module is determined in advance. For that purpose, heat carrier temperature is measured regularly in fluid paths of the simulator and payload module before payload module test. Gas pressure in gas cavity of pressuriser of thermal control system simulator is measured at mean measured temperature below temperature of heat carrier and gas loading to the simulator. The pressure is compared to acceptable minimum value determined by a certain relation. If the pressure measured is below acceptable minimum then a heat carrier amount missing is added to the simulator fluid path from separate small compensation device.
EFFECT: improved long-term operation reliability of thermal control system simulator.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to thermal engineering predominantly geostationary telecommunications satellites with thermal load about 4.5-5.5 kW. Satellite is made of two modules: payload (PL) module and service system (SS) module. Instruments of SS module and part of PL modules are installed on inner surfaces of mutually opposite cellular panels "+Z" and "-Z". The latter execute functions of radiators and include heat transfer tubes parallel to satellite +Y, -Y axes. Other instruments of PL modules are placed on cellular panel perpendicular to "+Z" and "-Z" panels. SS module instruments with most narrow temperature range are installed on inner skins of their radiator panels "-Z" and "+Z". Instruments with high thermal capacity and wide temperature range are placed inside body load-carrying structure and on the lower panel. Other instruments are installed on "+X" panel and inner panel with built-in liquid manifolds. Elements of closed doubled liquid loops are connected with electric motor hydraulic pump package of temperature-control system according to certain sequential scheme.
EFFECT: mass reduction and simplification of given class satellite manufacturing process.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to thermal control systems (TCS) of spacecrafts (SC), predominantly telecommunication satellites. TCS comprises two independent on-board circulation paths identical in composition with heat carrier, which are arranged next to each other in honeycomb panels (or on them). Each one of paths comprises inlet and outlet fluid connectors for connection with fluid connectors of detachable TCS unit. In the latter, liquid-liquid heat exchanger is installed which has cooling capacity exceeding its required value for one path not less than by 2.1-2.2 times. During SC electric testing the detachable unit is connected to one of circulation paths according to SC testing program. At the same time the other path is looped back by liquid path having the same hydraulic resistance as liquid path of detachable unit.
EFFECT: simplification of TCS detachable unit design, reducing its dimensions and mass which simplifies mounting and dismantling detachable unit on SC board.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to regenerative physical-chemical maximum closed life support systems of crews of durable spacecraft. Regenerative system comprises habitable module, system to remove harmful impurities, system to remove carbon dioxide including adsorbent and heaters, carbon dioxide concentrator including adsorbent, and carbon dioxide and hydrogen processing system including heaters. Besides it comprises water electrolytic decomposition unit, solid and liquid wastes recovery unit, metabolic water collector and wastes collector. Note here that carbon dioxide afterburner with palladium catalyst is arranged downstream of carbon dioxide and hydrogen processing system. Hydrogen adsorber with intermetallide is arranged downstream of carbon dioxide after burner. Hydrogen accumulator with intermetallide is arranged between water electrolytic decomposition unit and carbon dioxide and hydrogen processing system. Said water electrolytic decomposition unit and carbon dioxide afterburner are communicated via oxygen adsorber.
EFFECT: maximum independence of life support system.
3 cl, 1 dwg