Method of high environmental capacity antierosion piles mine technical reclamation
SUBSTANCE: method includes dumping the pile upper layer with potentially fertile soils and formation of basin uneven cell structure that provides a variety of potting soil mechanical composition and moisture regime for the successful natural vegetation overgrowing with various environmental requirements, and excluding the precipitation runoff. The number of extractions ensuring maximum water harvesting is calculated by a mathematical formula.
EFFECT: universal method of pile antierosion mine technical reclamation.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the reclamation of sludge pits, production of artificial earth mixtures based on drilling sludge and can be used in the mining and oil-producing industries. The method consists in the subsequent collection of liquid oil, then, bituminised oil from water surface of the pit, pumping-out of a water phase from the pit, creation of cutting backfills, collection of the bituminised oil from the surface of the drilling sludge, collection of the bituminised oil, oil sludge and oil-contaminated soil from the diking surface of the drilling sludge pit, mixing of the obtained drilling sludge with peat and sand in the following ratio, vol %: drilling sludge not more than 75.0, peat not less than 18.0, sand not less than 7.0, at the total content of the components, which is equal to 100 vol % in the volumes providing the obtainment of soil performing a function of soil-forming rock, with further quality control of the soil, reinforcement of its surface, creation of a fertile layer and by planting; with that, the total volume value of the soil performing the function of the soil-forming rock, volume of a material for the creation of cutting strips, volume of a material for the reinforcement of the soil surface, volume of a material for the creation of the fertile layer is chosen based on the equality or non-exceedance of the volume of the drilling sludge pit.
EFFECT: obtaining the soil performing the function of the soil-forming rock - a component of natural environment, which has improved quality characteristics.
2 cl, 7 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: material for reclamation of solid domestic waste landfills and quarries comprises the natural soil and industrial wastes. As the industrial wastes it comprises final slag formed during the production of ferrovanadium using aluminium-silicothermal manner with the mass ratio of natural soil to the industrial wastes equal to 1:1.
EFFECT: expansion of range of technical means.
2 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method includes separate excavation, displacement and piling of soil layer and overburden rocks into separate band dumps, mining of a pit field, filling of the mined space with construction wastes to the border of the upper level of ground water, and the composition of the wastes is close to natural minerals with different size of fractions, in layers with subsequent compaction of each layer, laying of a draining layer with construction wastes having thickness of not more than 0.6 m and with fraction size of 150-200 mm. At the same time they first perform design and planning works for construction of roads, passages, hydraulic engineering and land reclamation structures, then above the draining layer they do primary fill of the mined space of the pit with a mixture made of overburden rocks and ground construction wastes with fraction size of the latter not more of 100 mm that are mixed in equal proportions. Fill is carried out to complete filling of the mined space of the pit, then a layer of soil mixture with seeds of perennial herbs of meadow-weed group is applied onto the surface planed with a bulldozer, and at least in one year they perform final planning, then ploughing of the planed surface with subsequent levelling, afterwards roads are connected, and hydraulic engineering and land reclamation structures are arranged, and the restored area is divided into sections to bury remains.
EFFECT: reduced volumes of soil excavation for creation of a fertile layer and improvement of environmental situation.
SUBSTANCE: in the river valley the dams of embankment are constructed for creation of fields of filtration and prevention of spreading of sewage water from the reclamated plot. At that the sewage water from the dredging water reservoir with a high content of suspended clay particles is fed through the hoses on the planned surface of the reclamated plot, and the place of pulp supply is periodically changed on the area of the reclamated plot.
EFFECT: return of the clay material in the pore space of coarse-grained sediment dredging that leads to saturation of deposits with fine soil and to improvement of the hydrothermal regime and increase in soil fertility.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises the steps that follow. Top soil layer is removed to be preserves or to be transferred to territories to be reclaimed, loosening, loading and conveying stripped rock to make the waste dumps, dislodging, loading and coal transfer to storage and reclamation of dumps. Note here that seam weathered coal approaching the day surface is extracted and stored separately. Waste dumps are levelled to apply soil and weathered coal layers thereon. Produced layer is loosened with stripped rock and rolled.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: method includes separate mining, movement and piling of soil layer and stripping rocks into separate belt dumps, mining of a open-pit field, filling of the mined space to the border of the upper level of ground waters with construction wastes. Afterwards they perform design and planning works to construct roads, passages, hydraulic engineering and land reclamation structures. Then they start filling the mined space in two stages. At first they do the primary filling of the mined space of the pit with a mix made of stripping rocks and ground construction debris with fraction size of the latter of not more than 100 mm mixed in equal proportions. Filling is done until complete filling of the mined space of the pit, then along the surface planned by a bulldozer they apply on top a layer of a soil mixture with seeds of perennial herbs of meadow-weed group, and final planning is carried out not sooner than in one year. Then the planned surface is ploughed, with subsequent levelling and filling of the entire surface of the mined space with a layer of sand with thickness of at least 100 mm with subsequent light levelling. Afterwards roads are connected, hydraulic engineering and land reclamation structures are arranged, and the entire surface of the planned surface of the mined space is divided into sections, in each one they perform burials of certain years and for the standard depth of burial.
EFFECT: reduced labour inputs for restoration works, protection of soil against wind and water erosion.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining and may be used for recultivation of anthropogenic structures and strengthening of dust-producing surfaces. The method includes treatment of stored tailings with a binding compound, sowing of perennial herbs and compaction of the surface layer. At the same time previously, for formation of a pedogenic layer, they treat the surface of the tailing dump with a zeolite hydraulic mix at the ratio of zeolite-water equal to 1:2 and perform tillage of the surface layer. And treatment of soil with a binding compound, sowing of perennial herbs and compaction of the surface layer is carried out simultaneously, at the same time binding compounds are water-soluble polymers.
EFFECT: creation of a pedogenic layer due to application of zeolite tuffs onto the surface of the tailing dump, making it possible to exclude application of fertilisers, to strengthen development of herbal root systems, thus to increase efficiency of biological recultivation of a tailing dump.
2 cl, 2 ex, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: sowing of herbs and hard-shrub species is carried out in indents of uneven surface of mine dumps. Simultaneously with that Nitraria sibirika is sown into grooves cut on the tops of process crests of dumps.
EFFECT: reduced time for complete design coverage of anthropogenically damaged lands with plants.
SUBSTANCE: method includes filling of the mined space to the border of the upper level of ground water with construction wastes, arrangement of the drainage layer with construction wastes, formation of a hill in the centre of the pit by dumping of stripping rocks with subsequent terracing of hill slopes and arrangement of places for burial of remains, at the same time underground tomb structures are arranged on terraces, being designed for several graves, besides, each tomb structure is made with hydraulic insulation, drainage system, drainage and ventilation systems, at the same time the ventilation system is additionally equipped with a separate air duct installed with an angle of inclination of not more than 35 degrees and made in the form of a hollow vertical channel filled with stems of cane located in the ground in close proximity from the tomb structure with the possibility to connect each subsequent grace to it in the tomb structure.
EFFECT: reduced labour costs and costs of recovery works, rational usage of land.
SUBSTANCE: method includes filling of a mined-out space of a quarry to the border of the upper level of ground water with construction wastes, arrangement of a drainage layer with construction wastes, formation of a hill in the centre of the mined-out quarry from stripping rocks with terracing of its slopes, installation of a drainage system, retaining walls, and arrangement of places on terraces for burial of remains, at the same time retaining walls for terraces are made of reinforced concrete cylindrical piles by means of their submersion in soil, pile caps are rigidly connected to each other with the help of concrete mortar, and on terraces they arrange underground vault structures with hydraulic insulation, water disposal system, drainage and ventilation systems, at the same time the first burial is made for depth of more than three meters, and the distance from the cover of the last burial to the level of terrace surface ground shall make at least one meter.
EFFECT: rational use of restored land areas.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to techniques of drainage of agricultural land of nonchernozem belt with closed drainage and the techniques of use of these lands. The method comprises loosening the drained soils to a depth of at least 60 m. In order to ensure the required by the plants of soil humidity conditions, preventing the possible damage to the pipes of closed drainage and providing industrial applicability of deep loosening, the deep loosening is carried out to a depth of hl, determined in each case from the condition of compliance with the following requirements: (hr)min ≤ hl ≤ (hr)max;(1), hl ≤ (hr)min - D - ΣΔhi , (2), where ΣΔhi = Δh1 + Δh2 + Δh3 + Δh4; (3), 60 ≤ hl ≤ ht , (4) where (hr)min and (hr)max are the minimum and maximum depth of penetration into the trench backfill of the closed drainage of the root system of cultivated culture, respectively, cm; (hd)min is the minimum depth of placement of closed drainage pipes of the project at the site where deep loosening is planned to be carried out, cm; D is the outer diameter of the closed drainage pipes at the site (cm); ΣΔhi is the sum of corrections (cm), including: the correction which depends on the accuracy of the topographic altitude survey of soil surface of the drained site, Δh1; the corrections taking into account the technogenic erosion of the soil surface during carrying out crop-engineering and land planning Δh2 and during ploughing Δh3; correction taking into account the depth of the gauge made by the tractor on the soil surface during deep loosening, Δh4; ht is the maximum possible depth of loosening soil due of the technology level and characterising the industrial feasibility of the inventive method; at that in each point of the drainage trench the thickness of the powdering layer of the drainage pipe over the bottom of the trench mp > hd - hl, where hd is the depth of placement of the closed drainage pipe. Prior to loosening the soil on the drained part the value of the set depth of deep loosening is set on the mechanism of the ripper when setting up, preparing it for work.
EFFECT: positive result is to obtain by a landholder of closed drainage durable and reliable in operation, providing design humidity conditions of soil during its operation for at least a normative term of service.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises deep loosening of soil, application of fertilizers and ferrous sulphate solution, and watering with increased irrigation rate. At that as the fertilizer the urea formaldehyde fertilizer is applied in the topsoil, which is saturated with ferrous sulphate solution and encrusted with phosphogypsum. After completion of washing the fertilizer is moved to the lower part of the ploughed horizon.
EFFECT: efficient desalination of irrigated saline soils with improvement of soil structure, increase in soil fertility and erosion resistance without damaging the surrounding area and plants.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises placing a potato on the predecessor, disking, fall-ploughing the soil, spring cultivation, preparation the seed material two weeks before planting by air-thermal heating to pipping of sprouts, cutting ridges, processing of tubers with microbiological preparation and planting tubers, inter-row treatment at finding weeds in the stage of "white string" with the gradual increase in the ridges. The first inter-row treatment is carried out after the emergence of potato sprouts, the subsequent second and third row treatments - with an interval of 10-12 days prior to the closing of potato tops. Protection of potato plants from pests is carried out using microbial agents by spraying the tops during the growing season in dry calm weather, pre-harvesting mechanical removal of the tops and harvesting potatoes is carried out. At that planting tubers is carried out on a smooth surface of soil after deep cultivation to a depth of 20-22 cm in rows with spacing between them of 90 cm to a depth of 4-6 cm with a planting density of 50000 tubers per hectare with simultaneous treatment of tubers and the bottom of the furrow with 5% solution of Phytosporin-M at the rate of its consumption of 10 litres per 1 ton of planting material by spraying with a nozzle. Cutting the ridges is carried out simultaneously with the first inter-row treatment, forming a ridge with the height of 25-30 cm and the width of 17-18 cm on top with the ridge-forming cutter with active working bodies. The second and third inter-row treatments are carried out with a simple ridge-forming cutter. In addition, protection of potato plants from pests is carried out once with 0.01% solution of Phytoverm-M at the rate of its consumption of 500 litres per 1 ha.
EFFECT: method enables to obtain the yield of food potato with high consumer properties against the background of complete elimination of chemical means of plant protection from diseases and pests by environmentally friendly methods and means of weed control, preventing pollution the environment and potato crop with toxic substances.
3 cl, 4 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method comprises ploughing, application into soil of water or liquid fertilizer, after harvesting the crop the field is prepared - decontaminated, neutralized and dehydrated sludge residue is scattered across the field, obtained during biological purification on the complex of livestock wastes, then before ploughing on the irrigated field soil disking is carried out to the depth of 5 cm, the passage is made in two directions, longitudinal and transverse, and ploughing is carried out not on the slope of the field, but perpendicular to the horizontals in direction of the slope, followed by application into the soil of liquid effluent across the width of the arable field with the sprinkler unit with the sprinklers equipped with the closed pipelines to transport the said effluent from the storage pond, after application of the liquid effluent and drying the sludge remaining after application of liquid effluent in the ploughed field, soil disking or cultivating is carried out, its smoothing and compacting is carried out with smooth water-filled rollers. The effluent through the ploughing and depth of the soil enters the drainage pipes, which communicate with the open collector.
EFFECT: increase in soil fertility.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises alternate strip broadcast sowing seeds with loosening the soil to a depth of sowing on the whole working width. Continuous sowing seeds is carried out through a strip with intermittent sowing seeds on the strip sections with the length of 22.5-30 cm with unsown gaps of the same length within a given general seeding rate. The width of the space between the continuously sown strips is Lc=(2×lm-ls)>30 cm, and the width of the gap between the adjacent strips is la=(lm-ls)>22.5/2, where lm is row middle; ls is a strip width.
EFFECT: use of the invention enables to improve the harvesting capacity and quality of grain, as well as the level of profitability of grain production while reducing costs.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes adding biopreparations and sowing high sorption capacity plant seeds. Contaminated areas are irrigated with p-aminobenzoic acid in concentration of 0.1-0.2%. When dissolving p-aminobenzoic acid, stevia leaves are added to the hot solution in amount of 0.2%. After cooling the solution to 20-25°C, biopreparation Baikal - EM-1 is added in concentration of 1:100. Amaranth is then planted 2-3 weeks after irrigation. Repeated irrigation in the same concentration is carried out at the branching phase of the amaranth.
EFFECT: high efficiency of the method.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and can be used as a protective measure in pest control. The method comprises post-harvesting shelling, fall ploughing and pre-sowing soil treatment. At that, on the field two varieties of winter wheat are sown. Along the perimeter of the field of the main variety the pest-resistant winter wheat variety Kuma is sown with the width not less than 50-55 m, and both varieties should be similar in terms of ripening, and harvesting of both varieties is carried out simultaneously.
EFFECT: method provides reduction of the pesticide load and increase in efficiency.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method comprises ploughing, disking, subsurface treatment and combing. At that in July the fallow field is ploughed along the perimeter to the depth of 0.15 m, the width of the band is 10-15 m. The fallow soil of the entire field is cut to the depth of 0.06 m, and the plants are pressed to the ground. The aboveground mass is dried and burned, and the roots in the soil loosened to a depth of 0.15 m are removed to the surface of the soil and dried to lethal outcome.
EFFECT: method enables to improve the quality of cleaning fallow soil from hardly-exterminable weeds.
SUBSTANCE: method of enhancing the drying action of close collectors consists in supplementing them with deep loosening of soil, comprising periodic deep loosening at an angle to the direction of drainage pipes. Each subsequent periodic deep loosening is carried out in the direction opposite to the previous one. Continuous deep loosening of soil is carried out each time with the ripper with the V-shaped working body necessarily in two directions: the first direction - at an angle of 90° to the direction of the drainage pipe of the collector, the second direction - at an angle of 150° to the first one.
EFFECT: accelerated drainage of surface water and temporary water from the plough layer, obtaining by the landholder of the closed collector durable and reliable in operation, providing the design intensity of soil drying and its moisture regime required to grow plants, during the minimum standard service life of the drainage system.
SUBSTANCE: method includes area treatment, beds forming, potato tubers planting, scraping, fertilizers addition, irrigation and crop gathering. To receive second crop the tubers are planted at the area where previously grain, legume crops or even annual or perennial grasses wer cultured. The potato tubers with sprouts of the previous crop are used as planting material. At that the tubers are planted during last ten days of July till first ten days of August. Second crop tubers are irrigated during sprout appearance. Crops is gathered from last ten days of October to first ten days of November.
EFFECT: method ensures high quality planting material for next year.
FIELD: environment protection.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mechanical removal of excessive contaminants from surface and reducing toxicity of contaminated soil; sowing green manure crops and perennial grasses; preliminarily removing taking soil samples from contaminated surface and separating native contaminant destructors therefrom; after mechanical removal of contaminant from soil surface, providing sequential treatment of plot soil with water-soluble humates and at least double treatment with native contaminant destructors; mellowing soil; applying lime with mineral fertilizers such as saltpeter, double superphosphate and calcium chloride. Green manure crops are sown after application of fertilizers. Method further involves grinding green manure crops, plowing into soil and covering with soil by means of covering roll.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, reliable ecologically clean restoration of soil after contamination thereof.