Method for laser marking of product surface of aluminium or its alloy with oxide outer layer
SUBSTANCE: formation of the marking visually observed by the human vision is carried out, different from the product surface areas adjacent to the marking, due to changes in the structure compared with the material in the areas adjacent to the marking by the action of laser radiation and subsequent cooling. It is effected by the laser radiation having a wavelength selected from the condition of the radiation absorption by the aluminium oxide without damaging the surface of aluminium or its alloy. Hardening the oxide outer layer is performed by providing the pore closure in the modified and unmodified areas of the oxide outer layer. The oxide layer structure is formed, different from the material in the areas adjacent to the marking in the process of cooling the melt and condensing the evaporated material of the oxide outer layer.
EFFECT: hardening the oxide coating of products of aluminium or its alloy, while maintaining the initial surface shape of aluminium or its alloy.
11 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: UHF quanta generation method consists in formation of an electron beam by means of an electronic gun with simultaneous modulation by its anode field of the electronic gun at the working frequency of the power supply system, the subsequent compression by electric field, for example, of a double electric layer for increase of beam energy and charge density and a further stop of electrons by means of the barrier consisting of dielectric and electroconductive layers during which electrons give up energy as electromagnetic quanta with the parameters depending on the value of the correcting voltage of the working frequency field which influence the compressed electron beam until stop of electrons. Then electrons are sent to the power supply system for obtaining of electric power of working frequency.
EFFECT: increase of energy of interaction of electrons in a beam, power of UHF generation and efficiency of the power supply system.
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to laser engineering. A pulsed two-mode solid-stage laser comprises a rotary dihedral rectangular prism for breaking the axis of a resonator, an active element having stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) conversion, a wedge compensator, second dihedral rectangular prism which constitutes, with an output mirror, a single end element of the resonator and a pumping lamp. The laser further includes plane-parallel plates capable of entering/exiting the beam area between the active element and the second dihedral prism at an angle of 90 degrees to each other and a passive laser shutter (PLS1) between the first rectangular prism and the active element. The input surfaces of the plane-parallel plates and the PLS1 are coated with a beam-splitting coating having minimal radiation reflection for operating wavelengths and maximum radiation reflection at non-operating wavelengths. The passive laser shutter PLS1 is inclined relative to the end of the active element at an angle α>d/L, where L is the distance from the active element to the PLS1, d is the diameter of the active element. The plane-parallel plates and the first PLS1 can exit from the resonator with simultaneous entry of a second passive laser shutter (PLS2) into the resonator.
EFFECT: enabling operation of the laser in both a wavelength range safe for the eyes and at basic transition radiation wavelength.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: optoelectronic transmitter consists of a power source, a laser, a turned semitransparent reflecting mirror, a correcting lens, an electrical modulator, a small-size photodetector and an automatic switch. The optical output of the laser is connected through the turned semitransparent reflecting mirror to the optical input of the correcting lens. The optical output of the correcting lens is connected to the optical input of the small-size photodetector, having an output which is connected through the electrical modulator to the first input of the automatic switch. The automatic switch has a second input and an output, respectively connected to the output of the power source and the input of the laser.
EFFECT: reduced size and power consumption of the device.
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to laser engineering. The optical system for a laser compressor for laser apparatus with a wide aperture of the laser beam is based on a pair of parallel diffraction gratings with the same period supplemented with at least one pair of parallel diffraction gratings with the same period. Along the optical axis in the direction of propagation of laser radiation, the pairs of parallel diffraction gratings are arranged such that laser radiation first successively passes through the first gratings of all pairs of diffraction gratings, starting with the first pair of gratings, and then successively second gratings of all pairs of diffraction gratings, starting with the last pair of gratings, wherein different pairs of diffraction gratings are oriented relative to each other at different angles, selected as a function of the maximum dimension, optical characteristics of the diffraction gratings used and parameters of the laser radiation.
EFFECT: providing the required group dispersion of the given wide-aperture beam of optical radiation.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to laser physics and generation of high-power pulses of a CO2 laser. The invention enables to generate short, high-energy pulses, having minimal angular divergence, which enables to obtain high-intensity CO2 laser beams, particularly intended for producing a laser-plasma ion source. The device consists of a single-mode driving generator operating on a CO2 10 mcm band line P(20) , an optical matching system and a three-path CO2-amplifier formed by the wide-aperture active medium of a CO2 laser and a resonant-absorption cell SF6+N2 (air) at atmospheric pressure, which are arranged in series inside or on the axis of a confocal telescope, which includes a large concave or a small convex mirror. The invention is based on repeated passage a pulse of the driving generator successively through the resonant-amplification and resonant-absorption medium, which increases the rising slope of the initial pulse and leads to compression of the pulse on duration during nonlinear amplification, thereby effectively increasing the power thereof.
EFFECT: three-time passage of resonant media of the absorber and amplifier in an axially symmetric shape enables to repeatedly use the described method and also enables to use spatial effects of increasing the light field in corresponding points of the media through interference, which improves efficiency of pulse compression in the amplifier.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: SHF quantum generator based on electron beam generated by electron gun and electromagnetic pickup comprises arc plasmotron (1); two electron guns (2), which generate and modulate electron beams (3) by working frequency ωp (3); two operating cavities (5), electrodes (4) of correction voltage; electron barriers (6), SHF quantum channels (7), where electromagnetic pickups (8) for SHF quanta are placed in order to receive analogue data on generated SHF quanta, receiving and transmitting equipment (9) of SHF traffic, system for automatic regulation of parameters for generated SHF quanta that includes: analogue-to-digital converter (10), comparator (11), code programmer (12) for SHF quanta, digital-to-analogue converter (13); two resonance circuits (14), power converter transformer (16), which midpoint (15) of the primary circuit is connected to cathode of the arc plasmotron (1).
EFFECT: improved quality of data transmitted through SHF traffic due to improved signal-to-noise ratio, increased efficiency factor.
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: method relates to laser engineering and can be used to design a device for direct self-referential determination of the coefficient of quadratic phase modulation of an ultra-short optical pulse. The method of determining the coefficient of quadratic phase modulation of an ultra-short optical pulse includes directing a phase-modulated ultra-short pulse to be analysed onto a double-beam interferometer, wherein the time shift between interfering pulses in the interferometer is less than the duration thereof; using an autocorrelator to detect the generated sequence and determining the coefficient of quadratic phase modulation from the number of said sub-pulses and duration of the entire sequence.
EFFECT: easy determination of the coefficient of quadratic modulation.
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the source of pulsed laser radiation, which includes optically series-connected to each other laser with continuous radiation, optical switch, synchronizer unit, optical delay device, optical radiation summation device, focusing system. An optical key, controllable master pulse oscillator and pulse counting device with the configurable scaling ratio are added, and the information input of an optical key is connected to the output of the continuous radiation laser, and the output is connected to the information input of the optical switch, the first output of the controllable master pulse oscillator is electrically connected to the control input of the optical key, the second output is electrically connected to the first control input of the optical switch and, besides, the second output of the controllable master pulse oscillator through the pulse counting device with the configurable scaling ratio is connected to the second control input of the optical switch.
EFFECT: increase of output intensity of optical laser radiation at the expense of impulse interference.
SUBSTANCE: system comprises a laser beam source (1), a laser beam collimator (2) and a focusing device (3). An optical element (5) is placed between the collimator and the focusing device (3) and is designed to branch the system for distributing the laser beam power in a first direction at an angle to the axis of the collimated laser beam. In the system according to a first version, a bifocal element (6) is placed either between the optical element (5) and the collimator (2) or between the optical element (5) and the focusing device (3). In a second version, a bifocal element (6) is placed between the collimator (2) and the focusing device (3).
EFFECT: homogeneity of power distribution of laser radiation in the welded area.
22 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: compensator for thermally induced depolarisation γ0 includes a compensating optical element located on an optical axis and mounted on an absorbing optical element. The compensating optical element is made of material whose parameters satisfy at least one of the following conditions: the optical anisotropy parameter of the material is negative (ξ1<0), or the thermo-optical characteristic Q1 of the material has a sign opposite to that of the thermo-optical characteristic Q0 of the material of the absorbing optical element, wherein the length L1 of the compensating optical element and the position of the crystallographic axes thereof is defined by the choice of the material of the compensating optical element and the minimum condition of overall thermally induced depolarisation in the absorbing optical element - compensating optical element system.
EFFECT: enabling compensation of thermally induced depolarisation in an absorbing optical laser element using only one optical element, which simplifies manufacturing and adjustment of the designed compensator.
7 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metallurgy and machine building, particularly, to metal hardening and can be used in production of parts operated under conditions of wear and alternating stresses. Proposed method comprises application of dressing in part surface section including alloying elements, heating of said section with applied dressing to above its fusion point. Heating of alloyed part surface section with applied dressing at the rate of 180-220°C to 1200-1250°C with holding fro 2-3 minutes. Along with heating of alloyed section, part surface is subjected to forced cooling by fluid coolant to derive heat inward the part from adjoining area alloyed section. In compliance with some version, alloyed is the part surface shaped to plate. Note here that fluid cools the plate opposite surface. Hollow part outer surface can be alloyed with fluid cooling the part cavity wall.
EFFECT: increased depth of diffusion layer, prolong thermal diffusion of surface saturation at high hardness.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to passivation of oil processing equipment to reduce deposits of contaminants in the equipment.A method of passivating the surface of oil processing equipment includes a step of applying a first mixture on said surface at temperature of at least 100°C and applying a second mixture at temperature of at least 100°C after applying the first mixture, wherein the first mixture contains an acid phosphate ester which forms a complex polyphosphate layer, and the second mixture contains a metal salt. The metal salt is a carboxylate salt selected from a list consisting of zirconium octoate, titanium octoate, vanadium octoate, chromium octoate, niobium octoate, molybdenum octoate, hafnium octoate, tantalum octoate, tungsten octoate and any combination thereof.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain a modified metal phosphate coating on the metal surface of oil processing equipment, which prevents deposits of contaminants on the surface of said equipment.
8 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: nano-sized surface coating is produced by metal article surface processing by doping alloy in fine power form. Surface is irradiated with focused heat beam of high-energy quantum generator by displacing laser beam at spacing of 25 mcm and at power sufficient for point fusion of said alloy consisting of nano-composite systems. Doping alloy ply is fused in processed article. Then part surface is cooled by compressed airflow at 20°C and 8 kPa for crystallisation of doping alloy on metal surface for provision of extra adhesion between doing alloy and cooled surface without change in surface structure and with formation of alloying ply with nitride and/or carbide matrix of nano-composite structure. Note here that laser radiation power is defined by equation P=1*10-2*V*C*T/L, where P is laser radiation power, W, 1*10-2 - mathematical constant, V is beam displacement speed, mm/s, C is doping alloy capacity, J/K, T is alloy melting point, K, L - doping alloy depth, mm.
EFFECT: higher quality of surface coating, higher heat, corrosion and erosion resistance.
3 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: current-transmitting surface of dismountable contact connection (DCC) is cleaned and degreased. After application of liquid flux the surface is heated up to a temperature of 65-70°C. After mechanical treatment and removal of flux excess bismuth-based alloy with melting temperature of 47-60°C and thickness less than 0.1 mm is applied to the current-transmitting surface. In result of contact hybrid melting the coating is formed. In 3-4 minutes after application of the alloy to the current-transmitting surfaces they are cooled up to a temperature of 40°C.
EFFECT: reduction of transient electric resistance for DCC, stabilisation of its value at the level of initial assembly within the whole period of its service life, expansion of the scope of DCC efficient application.
3 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: on a steel plate of a bearing base arranged in an iron chill, the shape of the inner surface of which complies with the shape of a produced bearing, an antifriction alloy is applied by means of its extrusion. Preliminarily a layer of metal is applied onto the specified plate, producing oxides with a lower strength compared to strength of plate steel oxides. The anti-friction alloy is poured into an iron chill with a limited low melt temperature, and it is applied in a hardening manner by means of serial contact with the previously applied layer of metal to develop an adhesive link between them.
EFFECT: method provides for required strength of adhesion between coupled metals.
SUBSTANCE: steel tool or carbide tool treatment method involves application of diffusion coating by saturation of steel or carbide tool in eutectic lead-lithium melt with addition of copper and nickel so that the coating is obtained. After application of coating the tool is strengthened by its being aged on material with hardness of 10 to 18 HRCe at value of contact stresses of 2000 to 5000 MPa during 2-5 minutes.
EFFECT: obtaining the coating having high stability to adhesion hardness, mechanical abrasion and deformation at maintaining positive operating properties of nickel-copper coating.
2 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes treatment of contact surfaces to remove oxide film, heating of contact surfaces and application of metal coating from gallium alloy by local contact melting. Removal of oxide film is made by chemical treatment of contact surfaces with the first etching solution with its subsequent neutralisation and cleaning of contact surfaces from etching results. Then mechanical cleaning of contact surfaces is carried out by polishing, afterwards contact surfaces are heated, metal coating of gallium alloy is applied in the medium of the second etching solution, and subsequent neutralisation of remains of the second etching solution is carried out.
EFFECT: improved loading capacity of knock-down electric contact joint during transfer of electric energy without change in design of contact joint, while the temperature mode of operation is within the permissible limit.
8 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of coating on steel strip. Steel strip allows following composition, wt % C≤1.6, Mn 6-30, Al≤10, Ni≤10, Cr≤10, Si≤8, Cu≤3, Nb≤0.6, Ti≤0.3, V≤0.3, P≤0.1, B≤0.01, N≤1.0, iron and unavoidable admixtures - the rest. Primarily on steel strip it is applied aluminium layer, then it is implemented annealing, in process of which it is formed interlayer, consisting, mainly, from aluminium and iron, and it is coated molten metal, consisting of Al/Si-alloy, aluminium, zinc or zinc alloy.
EFFECT: obtaining steel strips with metallic coating, allowing high corrosion stability and well welding characteristics.
10 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns method of operating layers receiving on surfaces of hollow barrels and can be used for bimetallic sleeves manufacturing with coating simultaneously on internal and external surfaces or only on external surface, and also for such details recovery. In detail wall there are implemented radial canals, then sintered batch is placed in its chamber. Detail is implemented lengthwise less than matrix length and installed with specified radial clearance into matrix by means of end cover with forming of end air clearances. Assembly is rotated about axis with simultaneous heating till mixture melting temperature. In covers there is implemented at least one hole connecting matrix chamber to atmosphere on radius equal to difference between external detail surface and hole. Heating is ended as only from hole it is start splash of melted metal.
EFFECT: covering refining at the expense of probable air inclusion formation in working layer of weld removal and discard is eliminated.
FIELD: electron-beam surfacing of flat and cylindrical surfaces, possibly manufacture of new parts and restoration of worn surfaces of parts operating at condition of intensified abrasive wear in combination with impact loads.
SUBSTANCE: in order to enlarge manufacturing possibilities of method, on surface of welded-on article melting zone by means of electron beam is created. Powder composition material for surfacing is fed to melting zone. Surfaced article is moved and powder material for surfacing is fed normally relative to motion direction of article. As coating is applied unfocused electron beam is used for acting upon surface of said coating without supply of material for surfacing. It provides separation of dispersed particles of strengthener from solid solution and formation of multimodal structure of surfacing along its whole thickness.
EFFECT: enlarged manufacturing possibilities of method.
1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates for surface processing to get glossy and dull sections. In compliance with this process, surface pre-coated with first copper ply and second ply including bottom nickel ply and top chromium ply is subjected to selective removal of chromium ply on sections to be frosted. Selective removal is performed by laser displaced above the surface. Note here that laser exposure and power are adjusted to get various texture. Then, ply of noncorrosive metal containing zirconium and chromium is evaporated from vapour phase on said surface.
EFFECT: production of glossy and frosted surface sections.