Method of fire extinguishing with nanopowder, method of charging powder fire extinguishing means, powder fire extinguisher and microcapsulated fire extinguishing agent
FIELD: fire safety; nanotechnology.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nanotechnologies in the field of fire-fighting equipment. Proposed technical solution is easy in operation and can be used in a normal powder fire extinguisher using in its operation in series both the volumetric extinguishing method with the use of nanopowders with a considerable inhibitory action on the flame, and the method of extinguishing throughout the surface of burning materials and substances with the help of a powder fire-extinguishing substance made in the form of a coarse fire-extinguishing powder for final extinguishing of repeated combustion spots due to insulation of the burning surface and termination of the air oxygen access to the burning materials at all levels of combustion.
EFFECT: proposed technical solution can be used to feed powder fire-extinguishing substances of various dispersion to the fire source in zones with presence or absence of people.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method for determining a range of sizes of suspended nanoparticles consists in passage of gas (mixture of gases) containing analysed particles, through diffusion batteries of a meshed type and their introduction to supersaturated vapours of a low-volatile enlarging substance. Then, lighting of a flux of particles with a light beam and recording of parameters of light signals shaped by enlarged particles at their flying through the pointed-out area of the flux is performed. In order to improve accuracy of determination of the range of sizes, the main flux is separated into six parallel fluxes. With that, five of them are passed through five diffusion batteries with a different slip, and one of them is passed directly. Then, these fluxes pass through six devices of condensation growth and then to a field of vision of a charge-coupled device matrix and the obtained six areas of images of enlarged fluxes of particles are transmitted to a computer for an analysis of their range of sizes. Unlike known ones, the method allows performing simultaneous processing by means of a computer of six images of enlarged particles, which characterise different dimensional ranges of nanoparticles.
EFFECT: reducing the time required for measurements and improving their accuracy.
SUBSTANCE: semiconductor structure for photo converting and light emitting devices consists of semiconductor substrate (1) with face surface misaligned from plane (100) through (0.5-10) degrees and at least one p-n junction (2) including at least one active semiconductor ply (3) arranged between two barrier plies (4) with inhibited zone width Eg0. Active semiconductor ply (3) consists of 1st and 2nd type spatial areas (5, 6) abutting of barrier plies (3) and alternating in the plane of active semiconductor ply (3). 1st type spatial areas (5) feature inhibited zone width Eg1 < Eg0, while 2nd type areas have inhibited zone width Eg2 < Eg1.
EFFECT: higher efficiency owing to increased photo flux and higher level of photo generation and charge carrier separation, higher probability of photon generation and lower probability of radiation-free recombination.
11 cl, 11 dwg, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: first step includes obtaining low-hydroxylated insoluble fullerenols by reacting concentrated fullerene solution in o-xylene with aqueous ammonia solution in the presence of a tetrabutylammonium hydroxide phase-transfer catalyst at 35-40°C. At the second step, the obtained low-hydroxylated insoluble fullerenols are hydroxylated to transform them into a water-soluble form by mixing with 6-15% aqueous hydrogen peroxide solution and heating for 4-5 hours at 65°C. Water-soluble fullerenols are then precipitated from an alcohol-containing solution.
EFFECT: simplifying the method while preserving quality characteristics and full extraction of the end product.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 4 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to pharmaceutical industry, namely to selenium nanocomposites of natural hepatotrophic galactose-containing polysaccharide matrixes, representing water-soluble orange-red powders containing zerovalent selenium (Se0) nanoparticles sized 1-100 nm in the quantitative content of 0.5 - 60 wt %, possessing antioxidant activity for treating and preventing redox-related pathologies, particularly for treating toxic liver damage, to a method for producing and to an antioxidant agent containing the above nanocomposites.
EFFECT: invention provides the targeted agent delivery to liver cells, as well as higher agent accessibility and lower toxic action of selenium.
7 cl, 11 ex, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method includes forming a near-field mask on the surface of a dielectric substrate and irradiating the obtained structure with a femtosecond laser pulse. The laser radiation is first passed through a nonlinear optical crystal with a coefficient of transformation into a second harmonic equal to 5-7%. The dielectric substrate coated with the near-field mask is irradiated with the obtained bichromatic femtosecond pulse with energy density in the range of 25-40 mJ/cm2, which is less than the laser radiation energy density normally used in similar nanopatterning.
EFFECT: high resolution and low laser radiation energy consumption.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for hydroconversion of heavy oil fractions - feed stock, the method including a zero step and subsequent N steps. The zero step includes feeding, into a reactor, material, a catalyst precursor - aqueous solution of a Mo (VI) salt or salts of Mo and Ni, and hydrogen at pressure of 4-9 MPa under normal conditions; reacting the material and hydrogen at 420-450°C in the presence of a precursor of a suspended nanosize molybdenum or molybdenum-nickel catalyst formed in the reactor; atmospheric or atmospheric-vacuum distillation of the hydrogenation product; removing the low-boiling fraction with a boiling point not higher than 500°C as a product and returning the high-boiling fraction or part thereof into the reactor. The next steps include feeding, into the reactor, material, a catalyst precursor, the returned part of the high-boiling fraction and hydrogen; reaction thereof; said atmospheric distillation of the hydrogenation product; removing the low-boiling fraction as a product; returning part of the high-boiling fraction into the reactor; burning at 1000-1300°C or gasification of the remaining part of the high-boiling fraction, after which trapped ash-slag residues are subjected to further oxidising burning at 800-900°C and the obtained ash product, which is carbon-free, is used to regenerate the catalyst precursor and produce an industrial concentrate of vanadium and nickel. The number of steps N is determined using formulae:
EFFECT: high output of low-boiling fractions, low molybdenum consumption, high degree of extraction of molybdenum, vanadium and nickel from the solution, enabling calculation of the required reactor volume, obtaining an industrial concentrate of vanadium and nickel, low hydrogen consumption.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in obtaining coatings, reducing coefficient of secondary electronic emission, growing diamond films and glasses, elements, absorbing solar radiation. Colloidal solution of nano-sized carbon is obtained by supply of organic liquid - ethanol, into chamber with electrodes, injection of inert gas into inter-electrode space, formation of high-temperature plasma channel in gas bubbles, containing vapours of organic liquid. High-temperature plasma channel has the following parameters: temperature of heavy particles 4000-5000K, temperature of electrons 1.0-1.5 eV, concentration of charged particles (2-3)·1017 cm3, diameter of plasma channel hundreds of microns. After that, fast cooling within several microseconds is performed.
EFFECT: simplicity, possibility to obtain nanoparticles of different types.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of nanotechnologies and can be used for obtaining composite materials with high electric and heat conductivity, additives to concretes and ceramics, sorbents, catalysts. Carbon-containing material is evaporated in volume thermal plasma and condensed on target surface 9 and internal surface of collector 7. Plasma generator 3, which includes coaxially located electrodes: rod cathode 4 and nozzle-shaped output anode 5, are used. Gaseous carbon-containing material 6 is supplied with plasma-forming gas through vortex chamber with channels 2 and selected from the group, consisting of methane, propane, and butane. Bottom of collector is made with hole 8 for gas flow to pass.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce energy consumption of the process, extend types of applied hydrocarbon raw material, simplify device construction and provide continuity of the process and its high productivity.
2 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of obtaining a composite material includes the influence on a mixture of a carbon-containing material, filler and sulphur-containing compound by a pressure of 0.1-20 GPa and a temperature of 600-2000°C. As the sulphur-containing compound applied is carbon bisulphide, a compound from the mercaptan group or a product of its interaction with elementary sulphur. As the carbon-containing material applied is molecular fullerene C60 or fullerene-containing soot. As the filler applied are carbon fibres, or diamond, or nitrides, or carbides, or borides, or oxides in the quantity from 1 to 99 wt % of the weight of the carbon-containing material.
EFFECT: obtained composite material can be applied for manufacturing products with the characteristic size of 1-100 cm and is characterised by high strength, low density, solidity not less than 10 GPa and high heat resistance in the air.
11 cl, 3 dwg, 11 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to inorganic chemistry, namely to obtaining silicon-carbide materials and products, and can be applied as thermal-protective, chemically and erosion resistant materials, used in creation of aviation and rocket technology, carriers with developed surface of heterogeneous catalysis catalysts, materials of chemical sensorics, filters for filtering flows of incandescent gases and melts, as well as in nuclear power industry technologies. To obtain nanostructures SiC ceramics solution of phenolformaldehyde resin with weight content of carbon from 5 to 40% with tetraethoxysilane with concentration from 1·10-3 to 2 mol/l and acidic catalyst of tetraethoxysilane hydrolysis id prepared in organic solvent; hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane is carried out at temperature 0÷95°C with hydrolysing solutions, containing water and/or organic solvent, with formation of gel. Obtained gel is dried at temperature 0÷250°C and pressure 1·10-4÷1 atm until mass change stops, after which carbonisation is realised at temperature from 400 to 1000°C for 0.5÷12 hours in inert atmosphere or under reduced pressure with formation of highly-disperse initial mixture SiO2-C, from which ceramics is moulded by spark plasma sintering at temperature from 1300 to 2200°C and pressure 3.5÷6 kN for from 3 to 120 min under conditions of dynamic vacuum or in inert medium. Excessive carbon is burned in air at temperature 350÷800°C.
EFFECT: obtaining nanostructured silicon-carbide porous ceramics without accessory phases.
4 cl, 4 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: generator of fire-extinguishing aerosol contains pyrotechnical stick with ignition assembly, installed on bottom of one of two dish-shaped casing tanks coated from inside with the functional layer out of solidified material, that are opposite connected by flangings, creating output slot nozzle, at that the functional layer of the top tank is enclosed by the perforated shell, and above the open end of the stick a receiver is formed, it via the reverse ring channel is connected with output slot nozzle. According to the invention the reverse ring channel between the perforated shell and open part of the pyrotechnical stick is connected with the output slot nozzle and is limited by the end of the functional layer adjacent to the bottom tank flanging, that closes gap between the bottom tank and stick. The suggested technical solution determined automatic two-stage action of the generator during serial modes: initially intensive burning of the pyrotechnical stick over the developed open surface, with high delivery of the extinguishing liquid, and then slow make-up of the additional aerosol until achievement of the extinguishing concentration.
EFFECT: as result of the stage supply of the generated aerosol intensity of filling of the protected object reduced, resulting in abrupt decreasing of its losses via slits, clearances, plays in the room, and ensured long-term inhibition of the fire extinguishing.
FIELD: fire-prevention facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of fire fighting, namely to devices that generate gas-aerosol fire retardants designed for extinguishing fires in closed or semi-enclosed volumes. The extinguishing aerosol generator comprises a cylindrical housing and body with a lid and bottom, a mixing chamber, and also an activator and the pyrotechnic charge. The housing and the body are coaxially mounted with each with an annular gap for induced air. The mixing chamber is formed by the side walls of the housing. The pyrotechnic charge is set inside the body with provision of the possibility of formation of an ejecting aerosol chamber. Inside the body there is a layer of material cooling the aerosol. The generator is made with the ability of aerosol release to the protected area. The cylindrical housing and the body are interconnected coaxially. The bumper is installed parallel to the bottom which is fixed providing partial overlapping of the lateral surface of the body and forming around the body of an annular nozzle for ejecting aerosol release. The layer of the aerosol cooler is placed in series with respect to the pyrotechnic charge to form additional free volume with the function of combustion chamber. The ejecting aerosol chamber is formed between the bottom of the body and the bumper. The bottom is made perforated.
EFFECT: optimal combination of performances of extinguishing efficiency, temperature of gas-aerosol spray and the intensity of supply of the extinguishing aerosol to protected area with a low degree of tightness.
12 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: medicine, fire-fighting means.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to fire-fighting, namely extinguishing gas-aerosol mix generators actuated by pyrotechnic compound burning and spraying the mix into the protected space. A three-dimensional aerosol fire extinguishing apparatus comprises axially coupled cooling cylinder, and a generator body with a heat-insulating inner layer. The cylinder is provided with injection windows and mounted on a bearing arm with an angularly positioned longitudinal axis. The layer fixes a functional pyrotechnic stick connected with a central ignition cartridge represented in the form of a pyrotechnic tablet filled with a hermetic adhesive in an axial groove of the pyrotechnic stick. The ignition cartridge is wired with a hermetic switchboard of an external startup unit. The body is lidded with the lid comprising distributed outlets above a receiver wherein an isolating membrane is provided. The hermetic switchboard is mounted on the generator body by a threaded carrier sleeve with its flange attached in plaster of its heat-insulating layer which incorporates the wires to the central ignition cartridge.
EFFECT: invention provides enhanced technological capabilities of the use of the apparatus in the high atmospheric moisture and explosive environment.
1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: fire-fighting means.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to fire extinguishing, namely to systems working on the principle of using suspended fine solid particles of an aerosol generated by combustion stick of a pyrotechnic composition as fire retardants. The generator comprises a pyrotechnic stick equipped with a flame igniter electrically connected with an external starting arrangement and fastened by a layer made of a curing material with a body overlapped with a diaphragm; the body through an annular gap forms a reverse pathway to an outlet annular nozzle and is coaxially fixed in a thermally shielded case provided with a central projection and an axially clamped plate-type cover. The case is filled with liquid oil covering the body wherein the pyrotechnic stick supplied with the flame igniter is arranged; a combustible diaphragm adjoins the body diagram; and over the body, distributed transverse disks alternating with in-built bulkheads is axially clamped; the central projection of the case has radial holes and adjoins a bottom of the cover.
EFFECT: invention provides enhanced functional reliability of the generator.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: in a device for voluminous aerosol fire extinguishing, an initiation unit is realised as electric and thermochemical start-up initiators, installed on surface of an aerosol-forming substance (AFS) charge at the side of a receiver, outlet holes are located on a cylindrical metal casing near its metal cover and/or on it, and ratio of AFS charge burning area to the total area of outlet holes is 10-100.
EFFECT: improved quality of aerosol flow and convenience of use for various objects.
FIELD: fire fighting equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to fire prevention, more specifically to fire-extinguishing installations using gas-aerosol flame retardants generated by pyrotechnic block combustion and supplied to a protected space in an orderly way, preferentially by water crafts and transport vehicles. The generator contains coaxial case and pyrotechnical block fixed in flooring cement layers with an in-between annular reversible heat exchanger formed by two perforated metal envelopes with an internal one being matched with a receiver; and an ignition assembly adjoining a free end face of the block, and an outlet cover. The ignition assemble is integrated in a median slot from an open end face of the block which is enclosed in a polymer film casing and rests through a foam plastic spacer on a rod mounted in the diametrical perforations of an inferior envelope of the heat exchanger bearing longitudinal edges for the block diametre, while the case comprises a bearing bracket wherein ignition assembly telecommunication clamps are fixed.
EFFECT: ensured higher functional reliability and efficacy of the generator of more simple and technological design and expanded range of use thereof.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: fire-fighting means.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fire-fighting equipment, in particular to devices generating gas-aerosol mixture of inhibitors of burning, and is intended for volumetric extinguishing of fire in closed premises by hand throwing of the device into fire centre. Device contains case consisting of two plate-shaped reservoirs, counter-fixed, with their flanges forming ring outlet nozzle for generated gas-aerosol mixture during burning of pyrotechnical charges, installed in each case reservoir through layer of construction gypsum, and unit of ignition, located under radial handle. Unit of ignition is installed in threaded bush of mounting clamp, fixed coaxially to through hole in reservoir, blocked with foam-plastic stopper and adjacent to fire-conducting inclined canal of communication with clearance between free butt ends of pyrotechnical charges, installed aflush with reservoir flanges. Both charges are autonomously packed in polymer film jackets, nozzle being formed by matching convexes, made on supporting surface of flanges and layers of construction gypsum being reinforced with metal mesh.
EFFECT: increase of action efficiency and reliability.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: fire-fighting equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to firefighting equipment, namely to equipment for volumatric firefighting. In method for volumatric fire fighting, in industrial premises, consisting in the fact, that in premises installed are elements for firefighting with charge of smoke-forming composition, which are connected to each other with fire conductive fuses, made from material, which provides transmission of burning, elements are placed in volume of premises in such way, that their axes cross in geometrical center of premises, which is defined as point of intersection of rectangular parallelepiped or cube diagonals, fire conductive fuses connecting elements for firefighting with charge of smoke-forming composition, and forming closed quadrilateral with apexes, in which said elements are installed, each of said elements for firefighting is made in form of body with bead and outlet, equipment with charge of smoke-forming composition with unit of initiating, and outlet of body is closed with discontinuous membrane.
EFFECT: increase of reliability and efficiency of volumatric firefighting system.
3 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device generates gas-aerosol fire inhibitors formed in combustion of pyrotechnical composition and directs them in structure to be protected. It can be used in both independent and automated fire fighting systems. Generator comprises igniting unit and pyrotechnical grain fitted, via heatproof layer in perforated case coupled with receiver communicated with reversing annular channel closed by cover. It has also outlet holes and is separated from the case by heatproof layer. Said grain is packed in polymer film jacket and locked in the case by lengthwise plates and crosswise rod arranged in receiver perforations under grain free end face. Note that the case heatproof layer has two bolts fixed therein to support bracket with terminals of igniting unit electric communication. Note also that reflecting tray is arranged under said receiver.
EFFECT: higher mobility and reliability.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: medicine, fire fighting equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to devices generating gas-aerosol fire retardants produced after pyrotechnic compound combustion and arranged to be delivered in a protected capacity, and is used both in stand-alone, and in automatic fire-control units for inflammable and combustible substances, hard materials and energised electric equipment. The device comprises a perforated cupped metal case with a gap filled with a binding substance, an aerosol-forming compound charge and an initiation unit to form at the opened end of the cup a receiver connected via communication openings with a reverse ring channel formed between the perforated metal body and perforated metal shell ring placed with a gap filled with the binding substance, in a cylindrical metal casing closed by a metal cover, a chamber mounted under the cover, and discharge openings formed on the cylindrical metal casing near to the metal cover and/or thereon; it is equipped with a limiter fixed on the casing above the cover, and the casing is provided with a protective wirecloth in its upper part under the discharge openings of the casing and/or the cover; and the relation of the combustion surface area of the aerosol-forming compound charge to the total area of the discharge openings is within 10-30.
EFFECT: higher reliability of the device, and improved quality of an aerosol flow when eliminating the liquid fraction (K-phase) and usability of the device on various fire-fighting objects.
FIELD: fire-fighting, particularly for extinguishing fires on transport and in rooms.
SUBSTANCE: plant comprises module with fire-extinguishing powder having partition installed along module body height. Partition serves as deflector and has concave shape. Orifices are formed along partition periphery. Plant has siphon tube with cuts oppositely formed at end thereof. Thermal jacket is connected to body portion. Container with gas-generation composition and heating member enclosed by insulation cup is arranged in body bottom.
EFFECT: possibility of extinguishing fire with the use of increased reliability and performance.
9 cl, 4 dwg