Catalytic process and apparatus for producing hydrocarbons from biooil
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for catalytic conversion material of biological origin into hydrocarbons, suitable as fuel components. Method of producing hydrocarbon or mixture of hydrocarbons includes: feeding raw materials from biological material into reactor, which includes at least two catalyst layers, containing hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and hydrodewaxing (HDW) catalysts, where fraction of HDW catalyst increases in direction towards bottom of reactor, wherein HDO catalyst is selected from a group consisting of NiMo, CoMo and mixture of NiMo and CoMo, and HDW catalyst used is NiW, treatment of raw material in reactor at temperature in range of 280–450 °C and pressure from 1 to 25 MPa (from 10 to 250 bars) to obtain at least one hydrocarbon and extraction of hydrocarbon or mixture of hydrocarbons. Also disclosed is apparatus for producing hydrocarbons, method of using hydrocarbon obtained using disclosed method, fuel.
EFFECT: technical result is production of hydrocarbon components suitable for use in fuel.
21 cl, 3 dwg, 9 tbl, 9 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of producing liquid hydrocarbon mixtures is carried out via hydroconversion of lignocellulose biomass in a solvent medium in the presence of a dispersed catalyst precursor. The method includes drying the biomass; grinding the biomass; preparing a paste from the ground biomass, solvent and dispersed catalyst precursor; hydroconversion of the prepared paste; separating the obtained products in a system of separators; the method is characterised by that the solvent used is an organic solvent having viscosity of 0.5-2.5 Pa·s at 60-90°C, which contains 2-5.5 wt % sulphur and 5-25 wt % polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and/or derivatives thereof, and grinding of the biomass and preparation of said paste is carried out via dispersion with mechanical activation of the biomass in a solvent medium containing a catalyst precursor, wherein the prepared paste is first heated in an inert atmosphere to temperature of 330-380°C and pressure of 0.2-0.5 MPa until removal of the basic amount of oxygen in the biomass in the form of CO, CO2 and H2O, followed by hydroconversion.
EFFECT: high output of liquid products of hydroconversion of the biomass, higher conversion of the biomass and simpler process.
10 cl, 10 tbl, 2 dwg, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of processing tall oil resin. The method of processing tall oil resin, which contains sterol alcohols, and, possibly, wood alcohols of fatty acids and resin acids, the source of which is tall oil, is characterised by the fact that, at least, a part of the fatty acids and resin acids is released from sterol ethers and ethers of wood alcohols and converted into lower alkyl ethers; alkyl ethers, obtained in he said way, are extracted by evaporation from resin, then condensed, with the further hydration of the obtained condensate. The product, obtained by the claimed method and the application of the method for fuel production are also claimed.
EFFECT: application of tall oil resin, which usually represents a waste product, for obtaining fuel or a fuel component.
17 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: claimed invention relates to a method of obtaining olefins, including a) steam cracking of an ethane-including raw material in the zone of cracking and under conditions of cracking with obtaining a flow discharged from the zone of cracking, which includes, at least, olefins and hydrogen; b) conversion of the oxygenated raw material in the zone of conversion of oxygenate to olefins in the presence of a catalyst with obtaining a flow, consisting of, at least, olefins and hydrogen, discharged from the oxygenate-to-olefins (OTO) flow; c) combination of, at least, a part of the flow, discharged from the zone of cracking and a part of the flow, discharged from the OTO zone with obtaining a combined output flow; and d) separation of hydrogen from the combined output flow, with the formation of, at least, a part of the oxygenated raw material due to the supply of hydrogen, obtained at stage d), and the raw material, containing carbon oxide and/or carbon dioxide, into the zone of oxygenates synthesis and obtaining oxygenates. The invention also relates to a combined system for the claimed method realisation.
EFFECT: claimed invention makes it possible to obtain target products by the improved combined method of ethane cracking and OTO technology.
8 cl, 1 dwg, 5 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the catalytic conversion of a renewable raw material - products of the biomass fermentation (ethanol, fusel alcohols) and their mixtures with vegetable oil into an alkane-aromatic fraction C3-C11+, which can be used for obtaining fuel components. The method of obtaining alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons from the products of the biomass processing for obtaining the hydrocarbon fuel components includes passing the products of the biomass processing through a layer of a preliminarily regenerated zeolite ZSM-based catalyst, containing Pd and Zn, in an inert atmosphere at an increased temperature. The method is characterised by the fact that as the catalyst used is the Pd-Zn/ZSM/Al2O3 catalyst of the general formula of 0.6 wt % Pd-1 Zn/Al2O3/ZSM, with the products of the biomass processing, which contain a mixture of organic fermentation products or fusel alcohols, being passed through the catalyst layer at a temperature of 280-500°C and volume rate of 0.3-6 h-1.
EFFECT: extension of the raw material base and method for obtaining alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons.
5 cl, 6 tbl, 26 ex
SUBSTANCE: described is catalyst for single-stage manufacturing of components for jet and Diesel fuels from oil and fat raw material, containing platinum or palladium, fixed on the surface of porous carrier, represented by borate-containing aluminium oxide, with the following component ratio, wt %: Pt or Pd 0,10-0.50; B2O3 5-25; Al2O3 - the remaining part. Catalyst can be prepared by granulation of mixture of aluminium oxide hydrate of pseudoboehmite structure with orthoboric acid with the following drying of granules at 120°C and annealing at 550-700°C for 16 h. Granules are soaked with solutions of hexachloroplatinic acid or palladium chloride, subjected to drying at 120°C and annealing at 500°C. Method of single-stage manufacturing of components for jet and Diesel fuels with improved low-temperature properties from oil and fat raw material in presence of claimed catalyst includes passing mixture of hydrogen and oil and fat raw material through immobile layer of catalyst at temperature 380°C, pressure 4.0 MPa, mass rate of raw material supply 1 h-1 and with volume ratio hydrogen:raw material, equal 1300.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of single-stage manufacturing of components for jet and Diesel fuels with improved low-temperature properties from oil and fat raw material due to simplification of catalyst composition, method of its preparation and reduction of catalyst cost.
3 cl, 4 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of producing pyrolysis oil. A method of producing biomass-derived pyrolysis oil (38) with low metal content includes steps of: filtering a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil (12) with a high-throughput filter unit (20) having throughput of 10 l/m2/h or higher to form biomass-derived pyrolysis oil (22) with low content of solid substances; filtering the biomass-derived pyrolysis oil (22) with low content of solid substances with a fine filter (28) having a pore diameter of 50 mcm or less to form biomass-derived pyrolysis oil (30) with very low content of solid substances; and contacting the biomass-derived pyrolysis oil (30) with very low content of solid substances with an ion-exchange resin to remove metal ions and form biomass-derived pyrolysis oil (38) with low metal content. A version of the method is also disclosed.
EFFECT: total metal content is reduced to concentration of 100 ppm or less.
10 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes producing synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas into methanol, producing a concentrate of aromatic hydrocarbons and water from the methanol in the presence of a catalyst, separating the water, blowing off hydrocarbon residues from the water, separating the formed concentrate of aromatic hydrocarbons and a hydrogen-containing gas, which is at least partially used when producing synthesis gas, to change the ratio H2:CO=1.8-2.3:1 therein. The production of aromatic hydrocarbons from methanol in the presence of a catalyst is carried out in two series-connected aromatic hydrocarbon synthesis reactors - a first low-temperature isothermic aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon synthesis reactor and a second high-temperature adiabatic reactor for synthesis of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons from the aliphatic hydrocarbons formed in the first reactor and subsequent stabilisation in a unit for stabilising the concentrate of aromatic hydrocarbons. At least part of the hydrogen-containing gas is fed into a synthesis gas production unit and used to obtain synthesis gas using an autothermal reforming technique with a pre-reforming or non-catalytic partial oxidation unit using oxygen or oxygen-air mixtures as the oxidising agent to change the ratio according to the relationship (m.f.H2-m.f.CO2)/(m.f.CO+m.f.CO2)≥2, where m.f. is the molar fraction of a component in synthesis gas. The invention also relates to an apparatus.
EFFECT: high efficiency of producing concentrates of aromatic hydrocarbons.
12 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for obtaining hydrocarbon products, which involves the following stages: (a) provision of synthesis gas containing hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide; (b) reaction of conversion of synthesis gas to an oxygenate mixture containing methanol and dimethyl ester, in presence of one or more catalysts, which simultaneously catalyse the reaction of conversion of hydrogen and carbon monoxide to oxygenates, at pressure of at least 4 MPa; (c) extraction from stage (b) of an oxygenate mixture containing quantities of methanol, dimethyl ester, carbon dioxide and water together with non-reacted synthesis gas, introduction of the whole amount of the oxygenate mixture without any additional treatment to a stage of catalytic conversion of oxygenates (d); (d) reaction of oxygenate mixture in presence of a catalyst, which is active in conversion of oxygenates to higher hydrocarbons; (e) extraction of the outlet flow from stage (d) and separation of the outlet flow into tail gas containing carbon dioxide occurring from synthesis gas and carbon dioxide formed at stage (b), liquid hydrocarbon phase containing the higher hydrocarbons obtained at stage (d) and liquid water phase where the pressure used at stages (c)-(e) is mainly the same as that used at stage (b); besides, some part of tail gas obtained at stage (e) is recirculated to stage (d), and the rest part of tail gas is discharged.
EFFECT: this method is a method in which there is no recirculation of non-reacted synthesis gas to a synthesis stage of oxygenates and without any cooling of a conversion reaction of dimethyl ester to higher hydrocarbons.
6 cl, 2 ex, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: claimed invention relates to liquid fuel compositions. Invention deals with liquid fuel composition, containing, at least, one fuel component and from 0.1%(vil.) to 99.5% (vol.) of fraction of distillation of component, which contains, at least, one C4+ compound, derived from water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon. Method includes supply of water and water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon, including C1+O1+ hydrocarbon, in water liquid phase and/or vapour phase; supply of H2; carrying out catalytic reaction in liquid and/or vapour phase between oxygenated hydrocarbon and H2 in presence of deoxygenation catalyst at temperature of deoxygenation and pressure of deoxygenation to obtain oxygenate, which contains C1+O1-3 hydrocarbon in reaction flow; and carrying put catalytic reaction in liquid and/or vapour phase for oxygenate in presence of condensation catalyst at temperature of condensation and pressure of condensation to obtain C4+ compound, where C4+ compound includes representative, selected from the group, consisting of C4+ alcohol, C4+ ketone, C4+ alkane, C4+ alkene, C5+ cycloalkane, C5+ cycloalkene, aryl, condensed aryl and their mixture. Invention also relates to petrol composition, Diesel fuel composition, kerosene composition and methods of obtaining thereof.
EFFECT: improved characteristics of fuel composition, containing component, obtained from biomass.
9 cl, 19 dwg, 14 tbl, 59 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes stage of contact of pyrolysis oil, produced from biomass, with first catalyst of oxygen removal in presence of hydrogen under first, preliminarily set conditions of hydropurification with formation of first effluent stream of pyrolysis oil with low oxygen content. First catalyst of oxygen removal contains neutral catalytic carrier, nickel, cobalt and molybdenum. First catalyst of oxygen removal contains nickel in quantity from 0.1 to 1.5 wt % in terms of oxide. Version of method is also claimed.
EFFECT: extension of assortment of oxygen removal methods.
10 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: petroleum chemistry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves preparing synthesis gas, catalytic conversion of synthesis gas in reactor for synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) at enhanced temperature and pressure wherein synthesis gas is contacted with catalyst followed by cooling the gaseous mixture and its separation for liquid and gaseous phases. Dimethyl ether is isolated from the liquid phase that is fed into catalytic reactor for synthesis of gasoline and the gaseous phase containing unreacted components of synthesis gas is fed to repeated catalytic conversion into additional reactor for synthesis of DME being without the parent synthesis gas. Residue of gaseous phase containing components of synthesis gas not reacted to DME after repeated catalytic conversion in additional reactor for synthesis of DME are oxidized in reactor for synthesis of carbon dioxide. Then carbon dioxide is separated and mixed its with natural gas at increased temperature and pressure that results to preparing synthesis gas that is fed to the catalytic conversion into reactor for synthesis of DME. Invention provides increasing yield of gasoline fraction and decrease of carbon dioxide waste in atmosphere.
EFFECT: improved method of synthesis.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: organic chemistry, fuel production.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes feeding of heated hydrocarbon-containing and oxygen-containing gas in reaction unit, vapor phase oxidation of hydrocarbon-containing gas at 250-450°C and pressure of 2.0-10 MPa under near isothermal conditions; cooling of reaction mixture in heat exchangers, separation of gas and liquid phases of reaction mixture. separation of obtained methanol solution of formaldehyde, C2-C4-alcohols and methanol, methanol and gas phase after separation into reactors; catalytic methanol conversion on zeolite catalyst at 350-450°C and pressure of 3-8 MPa; cooling of produced reaction mixture in heat exchangers; separation of gas and liquid phases of reaction mixture; separation of aqueous fraction and synthetic diesel fuel liquid fractions, including fraction of liquid hydrocarbons, corresponding to motor gasoline having octane number of at least 92.
EFFECT: products of high quality; simplified technology; decreased energy consumption.
5 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns method of obtaining hydrocarbons with forked chains from methanol and/or dimethyl ether, involving contact of methanol and/or dimethyl ether to a catalyst including indium halogenide in reactor.
EFFECT: method of hydrocarbon obtainment involving contact of methanol and/or dimethyl ether to a catalyst including indium halogenide in reactor.
17 cl, 7 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns fuel composition for diesel motors. Composition includes: a) 0.1-99 volume % of component or component mix obtained from biological materials of animal and/or fish origin by hydration and decomposition of fatty acids and/or fatty acid ethers, obtaining hydrocarbons which are further isomerised; b) 0-20 volume % of oxygen-containing components. Both components are mixed in emulsion form or dissolved in diesel fuel based on crude oil and/or Fischer-Tropsch process fractions. Component b) is preferably selected out of group including aliphatic alcohols, simple ethers, fatty acid ethers, water and mixes containing these components.
EFFECT: improved low-temperature performance (lower turbidity and pour point).
7 cl, 6 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the method for preparation of aromatic hydrocarbons accompanied with simultaneous obtaining of hydrogen, methanol, motor oils and fresh water from the unstable hydrocarbon gas condensate obtained from gas condensate and oil fields including if necessary its desulphurisation, following obtaining of synthesis gas by one-stage oxidising with air oxygen, its conversion to methanol, following catalytic conversion of methanol to motor oils, separation of the water formed on all process stages, evaporation of the hydrocarbons residues including methanol and fatty hydrocarbons from the water (united and formed on all process stages), water bioremediation and mineralisation. The initial hydrocarbon gas is unstable hydrocarbon gas condensate without preliminary separation of methane and ethane from propane and butane, the said initial gas before its conversion to synthesis gas undergoes the catalytic aromatisation during heating. Then the obtained aromatic hydrocarbon and hydrogen are separated, hydrogen is at least partially used for synthesis gas obtaining in order to change the ratio H2:CO 1.8-2.3:1), and if necessary it is partially used on the stage of desulphurisation with synthesis gas obtaining from hydrocarbon gases (unreacted and formed on the aromatisation stage). The invention refers also to the device for implementation of the method described above.
EFFECT: increasing of the processing of the efficiency of unstable hydrocarbon gas condensate with enhanced obtaining of target products, to make the process more environmentally safe, to increase the quantity and quality of the obtained fresh water.
2 cl, 5 ex, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: catalysts for preparation of biofuel by reesterification of vegetable oil with alcohol represent composition based on hexaaluminate (MAl12O19) having magnetoplumbite or β-Al2O3 whereat: M - Ba or Sr, or La, or having spinel structure (MR2O4) whereat: M - Ca or Sr, or Ba, whereat R contains Y or La, or composition based on MgO+R2O3+solid solution R2-xMgxO3 with hexagonal structure whereat R contains Y or La, x=0.05÷0.12. The method for catalysts preparation includes precipitation of mixed solution of M and Al nitrates whereat M contains Ba or Sr, or La at constant values of pH 7.5-8.0 and temperature with water solution of NH4HCO3, or precipitation of mixed solution of M and R whereat M = Ca or Sr, or Ba, R contains Y or La at constant values pH equal to 9.9÷11.9 and temperature with water solution of KOH, or precipitation mixed solution of Mg and R nitrates at constant values of pH equal to 9.0-9.5 and temperature with water solution of KOH followed with stages of filtration, washing, drying and calcination. The method of biofuel preparation involves the reesterification of vegetable oil with alcohol implemented in the presence of the catalyst described above.
EFFECT: high level of the vegetable oil conversion.
13 cl, 1 tbl, 18 ex
SUBSTANCE: oxygen compounds are oxygen-substituted aliphatic compounds, which contain 1 to 4 carbon atoms and include alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, or their mixture, into olefins using a fluidised conversion zone and a catalyst which contains molecular sieve ELAPO, with extraction and recycling contaminating catalyst particles from the stream of the product, coming out from the conversion zone, wherein this method involves the following steps: a) bringing the supply stream into contact with a fluid catalyst in a fluidised conversion zone in conversion conditions, which are sufficient for formation of a mixture of particles of deactivated catalyst and olefin products of the reaction; b) extraction of at least part of the particles of deactivated catalyst from the formed mixture in the zone for separating vapour and solid substances, containing at least one medium for cyclone separation of vapour and solid substance, with formation a stream of particles of deactivated catalyst and a stream coming out of the conversion zone, containing light olefins, unreacted oxygen-containing compounds, water, other reaction products and undesired amount of contaminating particles of catalyst; c) feeding the stream of products, coming out of the conversion zone, into the wet washing zone, where this stream is brought into contact with water in washing conditions, sufficient for formation of an upper vapour stream, which virtually does not contain catalyst and contains light olefins, and the given liquid stream, containing a mixture of contaminating particles of catalyst and water; d) feeding at least part of the stream of particles of deactivated catalyst, formed at step (b), into the regeneration zone, where particles of deactivated catalyst are brought into contact with a stream of oxidising gas in oxidation conditions, which are sufficient for formation of a stream of particles of regenerated catalyst; e) recycling at least part of the given liquid stream, formed at step (c), to step (a) or step (d); and f) feeding at least part of the stream of particles of regenerated catalyst from step (d) to step (a).
EFFECT: significant improvement of cost effectiveness of catalytic process, described as a method of catalytic conversion of a supply stream, containing oxygen compounds.
9 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing engine fuel, more specifically to a catalyst process of producing diesel fuel with improved temperature characteristics from crude oil. A method is described for preparing a catalyst for producing diesel fuel from natural raw material based on crystalline silico aluminophosphates with zeolite-like structure of the SAPO-31 type by preparing an aqeous reaction mixture which contains an aluminium source, phosphoric acid and a silicon source, as well as an organic structure forming compound, and with total composition expressed in molar ratios: R/Al2O3=0.5-2.0, P2O5/Al2O3=0.8-1.2, SiO2/Al2O3=0.05-1.5, H2O/Al2O3=15-200, where: R is an organic structure forming compound, which is a separate di-n-butylamine or a mixture of di-n-butylamine with di-n-propylamine, taken in molar ratio of 1:2, with subsequent crystallisation of the prepared mixture in hydrothermal conditions, necessary for formation of zeolite-like crystals with SAPO-31 structure, filtration, washing, drying, calcination and further introduction of a modifying group VIII metal. Also described is a method of producing diesel fuel from natural raw material at high temperature and hydrogen pressure in the presence of a catalyst, where the process is carried out in a single step and the catalyst used is crystalline silico aluminiumphosphate with a zeolite-like SAPO-31 structure, modified by a group VIII metal, obtained using the above described method.
EFFECT: high catalyst activity during hydrogenation of unsaturated hydrocarbons and ether bonds, as well as in decarbonation reactions and isomerisation formed paraffins with normal structure with high selectivity towards isomer products and with reduced formation of heavy compounds and cracking starting material; process of producing diesel fuel is carried out in a single step.
5 cl, 9 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of obtaining high-quality saturated base oil or a base oil component based on hydrocarbons. The method of obtaining a saturated hydrocarbon component for use as petrol, base oil, diesel components and/or solvent fractions involves oligomerisation of starting material which contains one or more components selected from a group comprising carboxylic acids having 4-38 carbon atoms, C4-C38 carboxylic acid esters and C1-C11 alcohols, C4-C38 carboxylic acid anhydrides and C4-C38 alcohols, in the presence of a cationic clay-based catalyst and deoxygenation. The starting material contains at least 50 wt % unsaturated and/or polyunsaturated compounds. The invention also relates to base oil obtained using the method given above, which is distinguished by that the base oil contains at least 90 wt % saturated hydrocarbons, 20-90 % mono-naphthenes, less than 3.0% polycyclic naphthenes, not more than 20 wt % linear parafins and at least 50 wt % saturated hydrocarbons have carbon number value interval not greater than 9 carbon atoms. The base oil is a biological product and has kinematic viscosity at 100°C ranging from 3 cS to 8 Cs.
EFFECT: obtaining saturated base oil which does not contain heteroatoms from biological starting material, which satisfies group III API requirements.
23 cl, 7 ex, 5 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of preparing a mixture of branched saturated hydrocarbons, characterised by that the raw material, which contains at least 20 wt % unsaturated fatty acids or fatty acid esters with C1-C5 alcohols, where the said esters have a total of 8-26 carbon atoms, or their mixture, is subjected to skeletal isomerisation followed by a deoxygenation step.
EFFECT: use of the method enables to obtain branched saturated hydrocarbons from renewable sources of raw materials.
16 cl, 4 ex, 3 tbl