Apparatus for generating solar energy and an external steam source of additional electric power

FIELD: energy.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electric energy generation system using ecologically clean energy-solar and external steam hybrid electric energy generation system. System comprises solar steam generator outlet end of which is connected to inlet (3) of high pressure steam of turbine (2) through first control valve (18), steam outlet end of external controller (15) of steam is connected to inlet (3) of high pressure steam of turbine (2) through second control valve (20) and second switching valve (19), outlet (4) of low pressure steam turbine unit (2) is connected to inlet end of condensation device (5), while its outlet end is connected to inlet end of deaerator (6), its outlet end is connected to inlet end of pump (7) for supply of water, its outlet end is connected to inlet end of return water of solar steam generator through first switching valve (16), and the outlet end of pump (7) is additionally connected with bypass (11) of return water of external steam through fourth switching valve (23). System further includes tank (9) for storage of soft water.

EFFECT: invention enables using waste heat of industrial production for elimination of dependence on weather and unstable and intermittent concentration of heat solar radiation.

6 cl, 4 dwg

 



 

Same patents:

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: set of inventions relates to flying vehicles driven by bearing gas lifting force. Airship with motor and replaceable passenger and cargo compartments are arranged at separate airship control cabin body secured from below of airship airframe. The latter is made of soft synthetic material. Inlet and outlet nozzles of a through wind channel for windmill feature diameter equal to that of airship airframe cross-section. Solar battery flexible photo elements are secured at soft airframe outer protective shell. Motors of propellers are supplied by DC-to-AC inverter connected with both power stations and storage batteries by conductors. Sealed control cabin incorporates: exit to fastening platform arranged under control cabin. Method of its operation consists in the use of a round takeoff-landing platform revolving about its axis, docking props at said takeoff-landing platform, platform lock rods and locks at replaceable compartments. Said compartments are disconnected by uncoupling rods fitted in through channels separated from internal rooms of compartments and landing hydraulic cylinders of takeoff-landing platform.

EFFECT: accelerated boarding and exiting of passengers.

2 cl

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: method for obtaining heat and electrical energy includes focusing of the sun rays by concentrator on the fixed heat-absorbing surface, and further focus movement over it in accordance with sun movement, the heating medium heating through the heat-absorbing surface, and transformation of the obtained heat energy in the electric energy. The concave mirror is used as concentrator, the mirror is moved by sun tracking, at that the heat-absorbing surface is arranged at crossing of the vertical and horizontal axes, around which the concentrator is rotated during tracking. For the concentrator rotation relatively the vertical axis the first motor is started, as result the worn screw 5 starts rotation and turning of the tooth-wheel 2 together with platform 1. When the concentrator achieves the required position (azimuth), the first motor shutdowns. For the concentrator rotation around the horizontal axis the second motor is started, resulting in rotation of the shaft 14 with worn screw 13, that by means of the tooth-wheel 12 and connected with its worn screw 10 the gear sector 9 with axle 6 and wheel 7 rotates. At that by means of the chain-drive 8 the driven wheel 15 with horizontal axles 17 and concentrator is rotated to the required position, then it is locked by the motor shutdown. At that on the bottom part of the heat-absorbing surface of the sphere 19 a light spot of the concentrated sun rays is created, the spot moves over this surface during the sun tracking during day time.

EFFECT: increased stability of the energy sources parameters, increased efficiency, improved operation characteristics.

10 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: all-season vertical hybrid power unit contains vertical shaft installed with possibility of rotation, it is in form of cylindrical pipe enclosing the fixed hollow axis. The fixed hollow axis is secured on base. On the vertical shaft coaxially between two protective domes the Savonius rotor and Darreus rotor are installed. The protective domes are covered with anti-icing layer. Savonius rotor is installed inside the Darreus rotor. The Darreus rotor blades are made in form of twisted straps coated with anti-icing layer. On the entire surface of the Savonius rotor blades made in form of the twisted plates from both sides photoelectric converters are installed. The photoelectric converter outputs are connected with power input of the control device. Shaft rotation speed transmitter is installed on the vertical shaft. Output of the shaft rotation speed transmitter is connected with signal input of the control device. The first power output of the control device is connected via the first key with input of the brushless DC motor. The second power output of the control device is connected via the second key with input of the induction energy transmitter. Output of the induction energy transmitter is connected via the charge controller with the first input of electric power accumulator. The second output of the induction energy transmitter is connected via the charge controller with output of the electromagnetic generator. The electromagnetic generator is secured in bottom part of the vertical shaft.

EFFECT: increased generated electric energy due to use of wind and solar energy all year round under variable weather conditions.

13 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: clip connection (1) for fixing on guiding beams (8) of plate-like structural elements (13), in particular solar modules, consists of the support (2) having (1) a stop beam oriented in the longitudinal direction of the clip connection (4) with lateral wing-shaped bars (5, 6) with adjoining surfaces (10, 11) for structural elements (13), and also a toe provided on the lower side (7) for fastening of the support (2) on the beam (8) and also - of the clipping cover (3) with the longitudinal groove (9) covering the top part of the stop beam (4) and with clipping surfaces (13, 14) covering the support (2) adjoining surfaces (10, 11), and with the holding connection (25, 28, 29) for fixing of the clipping cover (3) on the support (2), and the beam (8) has the guiding grooves with the edges (34) protruding inside a groove, and the toe (7) designed as T-shaped one by its cross-piece (36) is inserted into the guiding groove and after 90 turn it is engaged behind protruding edges (34). The support (2) has the pass (24) along the centre of which the spring washer (31) is located which with the power closing takes the pressed, connected with the clipping cover (3) the holding pin (30) and thus fixes a clipping cover (3) on the support (2).

EFFECT: increase of durability.

26 cl, 8 dwg

Solar power plant // 2548244

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to solar power engineering, namely to designs of solar power plants with a Sun tracking photoelectric sensor and systems of azimuthal and zenithal turns of the plane of the solar power plant. The power plant includes a solar energy receiving plane, a control system of drives of azimuthal and zenithal turns of the plane and its turn from west to east, shafts of drives and a Sun tracking system. The tracking system includes two photovoltaic modules fixed on an external platform that is installed parallel to the plane of the power plant, which receives solar energy. The first photovoltaic module represents a sensor of the Sun position as to azimuth, in the design of which there arranged are two Sun tracking photocells and a command photocell of the turn of the plane of the solar power plant, which receives solar energy, from west to east. The second photovoltaic module represents a sensor of the Sun position as to zenith, which includes two Sun tracking photocells. The design of each photovoltaic module includes a mounting platform, on the upper side of which two photocells are arranged, which are separated with a partition wall serving in its turn as a divider of illumination directions of the latter and a support for attachment of a mirror cylinder. The command photocell of the turn of the power plant plane from west to east is located on the lower side of the mounting platform of the photovoltaic module tracking the Sun position as to azimuth.

EFFECT: use of this invention provides for high tracking accuracy as to azimuth and zenith of the Sun position and improved operating reliability of a power plant.

3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: this module has protective glass coating and interconnected solar elements arranged between said glass and case with heat exchanger. Solar elements are electrically isolated from heat exchanger. Space between solar elements and heat exchanger and that between glass coating and heat exchanger are filled with the 0.5-5mm-deep ply of siloxane gel. Said protective glass coating is composed of evacuated glass stack of two glasses with vacuum gap of 0.1-0.2 mm with vacuum of 10-3-10-5 mm Hg. Heat exchanger is composed by sealed chamber with heat carrier circulation pipes. Total area of solar elements approximates to the area of heat exchanger case top base. Hybrid photoelectric module solar elements chains can be electrically connected in parallel by switching buses.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of solar energy conversion.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: mobile stand-alone solar power plant (MSAAPP) is intended to supply with electric energy battle positions and command posts of rocket artillery units, frontier pickets, check points and other remote field facilities of different purpose. MSAAPP is related to the sphere of renewable energy sources and, in particular, it is intended to generate electric energy from impact of solar radiation to photoelectronic modules (FEM). MSAAPP comprises the following: a two-wheeled trailer whereat a lightguide pipe square in cross section is placed; quadrihedral optically active dome; curved reflector of solar radiation beams; a rotating cylinder at which generatrix FEMs and a semicylindrical complex convex lens are placed; the cylinder shaft; bearings of the cylinder shaft; a micromotor; a fan; a temperature sensor; rechargeable battery pack (RBP); charge and discharge controller (CDC); inverter. Positive effect is reached due to collection of solar radiation beams by quadrihedral optically active dome notwithstanding solstice angle; additional concentration of beams by the curved reflector to surface of the quadrihedral optically active dome; transportation of solar radiation beams from the quadrihedral optically active dome through square lightguide pipe to semicylindrical complex convex lens; rotation of the cylinder at which generatrix there are FEMs receiving periodical concentration of solar radiation beams from the semicylindrical complex convex lens.

EFFECT: sustainable production of electric energy from solar radiation without use of sun tracking devices, improved reliability and efficiency of electric energy generation.

13 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: solar heat photoelectric module with the compound parabolic concentrator consisting of the paraboloidal concentrator "Focon" and the heat photoelectric receiver located in a focal plane with uniform distribution of the concentrated radiation, differing in that the solar heat photoelectric module contains the compound parabolic concentrator and the cylindrical heat photoelectric receiver with the cooling device installed in the focal plane area, the concentrator representing a rotation body with smooth internal reflection surface, consisting of several zones (a-b, b-c, c-d) is designed compound using the principle of collecting of the reflected beams in two focal plane areas from separate zones of the concentrator: - the form of the reflecting surface of the zones a-b, b-c of the concentrator X (Y) is determined by the system of equations corresponding to the condition of uniform illumination of a surface of photo-electric part of the heat photoelectric receiver designed in the cylinder shape from the commutated high-voltage FEP with the length ho and the radius ro, Yn=Rn2/4fo, Xn=Rn-(k-1)ro, Rn=2fo(tgαn+cosαn), Δα=αo/N, αn=Δα(n-N/2), X*=2f1Q[(1+1/Q2)l/2-1], Q=B/ro, B=ho+h, Y*=X*2/4f1, Y*n=ΔY*n, Xn=[4f1(Y*+Y*n)]1/2, ΔY=P[1±(1-4R/P2)1/2]/2, P=L+Yb, L=fo+h+ho/2, where αn is an angle (in the zone of the working profile of the concentrator a-c) between the ordinate level in the point of coordinates Xn, Yn and the beam reflected from the parabola surface with the focal length fo arriving to focal plane area with the width ho located on the radius r0 of the cylindrical photo-electric receiver in Δα=αo/N intervals where n is selected from a series of integers n=1, 2, 3…N, values of the parameters fo, f1, k are selected according to boundary conditions, and geometrical concentration of illumination of the photo-electric receiver Kn is equal in intervals of the concentrator radius ΔXn=Xn-Xn-1: Kn=(Rn+12-Rn2)n/do, - shape of the reflecting surface of the zone c-d of the concentrator X (Y) is determined by the system of equations corresponding to the condition of uniform illumination of the surface of thermal part of the heat photoelectric receiver designed in the form of the truncated cone with a lateral surface with the length d*, upper radius rob and the lower radius rb: Xc=2Yc(1/codβb-tgβb), tgβb=(Yc-Hb)(Rc-rob), fb=Yc-Xctgβb, rb=Xc-Rc, d*=h*/sinφo, d*n=d*n/N, Kn=(R2n+1-R2n)/(r*n+1+r*n)Δd*, Xbn=2fb(tgγbn+1/cosγbn), tgφo=h*/(ro-r*bo), where βb - an angle (in the zone of the working profile of the concentrator c-d) between the ordinate level in the point of coordinates of Xc, Yc, and the beam reflected from parabola surface with the focal length fb arriving to focal plane area of the truncated cone with the radius rb of the photo-electric receiver, γn - an angle (in the zone of the working profile of the concentrator c-d) between the ordinate level in the point of coordinates Xn, Yn and the beam reflected from the parabola surface with the focal length fb arriving to the focal plane area of the truncated cone with the width d* of the photo-electric receiver in the intervals Δd*=d*/N, where n is selected from a series of integers n=1, 2, 3…N. The values of the parameters fb, k are selected according to boundary conditions, φo is an angle of inclination of the lateral surface of the truncated cone of the photo-electric receiver, and the geometrical concentration of illumination of the photo-electric Kn receiver is equal in intervals of the concentrator radius ΔXn=Xn-Xn-1: Kn=(R=2n+1-R2n)/(r*n+1+r*n)Δd*.

EFFECT: improvement of efficiency, and decrease of cost of the generated energy.

5 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: electrical power unit is photovoltaic array (16); fail-safe power supply is provided with storage battery (21) and wind power generating installation (17), charging of battery (21) from them is performed through switch (20); heat sources are represented with a unit of solar collectors (10) and wind power generating installation (17) connected to electric heater (19) in heat accumulator (3); air flow heated in collector (10) transfers heat through circuit (12) to a room and/or to heat exchanger (13) in accumulator (3) with water; heat supply to heating apparatus of the room is controlled with valves (34) and (35), pump (25) and heating pump (1), which maintains temperature at the outlet of its capacitor, and heat carrier flow is controlled with pump (25) and globe valves (34) and (35); control of heat supply to consumers is performed with temperature sensors. All sensors of thermal and electrical loads, actuating mechanisms in thermal circuits of the system and their disconnecting fittings are connected to automatic control system (41) that processes signals, determines a behaviour algorithm of all elements and generates control signals.

EFFECT: improving reliability, operating efficiency of a heat pump and a system as a whole; increasing economy.

1 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: control/monitoring equipment includes a support assembly, a support seat located on one end of the support assembly; a load-carrying platform fixed on the support seat by means of a hinge rotation assembly with a possibility of being turned in two directions, at least one solar energy generation module located on the load-carrying platform for conversion of solar energy to electrical energy. At least one drive assembly is located between the support assembly and the load-carrying platform and serves for actuation of the load-carrying platform in compliance with the specified parameters stored in a control unit. The load-carrying platform itself is installed with a possibility of being inclined in different directions and through different inclination angles relative to the hinge rotation assembly. There is also a detecting/correcting module located on the load-carrying platform for detection and reception of actual parameters including an inclination direction and an inclination angle of the load-carrying platform and for transfer of actual parameters to the control unit. The control unit compares actual parameters to the specified parameters stored in it in order to obtain a comparative result, and according to the comparative result, the control unit modifies the inclination direction and the inclination angle of the load-carrying platform by means of the drive assembly.

EFFECT: automatic tracking of solar energy in a generation system.

21 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to wind power engineering. An energy generation method consists in the fact that energy generation is performed due to the rotation of working blades by means of wind accelerated by a structure made in the form of a converging-diverging nozzle in the upper part and representing a plane in the lower part, and due to solar batteries, as well as solar beams that fall on the battery, and due to their reflection from the inner plane of the converging-diverging nozzle. Energy generation can occur both due to the solar beams and wind flows; with that, a wind flow directs the station to capture it, and if there is no wind flow, the station is directed to capture solar beams.

EFFECT: invention is aimed at an improvement of the electric power station efficiency.

3 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: power unit is formed with an exhaust pipe made of a transparent material and equipped with a light-reflecting screen and two transparent wind traps activating an air flow inside a pipe, providing for continuous operation, and installed inside a pipe of wind turbines with electric generators.

EFFECT: helioaerobaric power unit may be efficiently used in open spaces in desert areas and arid lands to organise an electric station formed by a group of power units.

2 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: solar-air air-turbine electric power station, as a result of heating of compressed air (working medium) to high temperatures by using new spiral solar heaters covered with glass or equipped with glass lenses, allows accumulating and focusing solar radiation energy and providing the heating of working medium in series in each of three solar spiral heaters in all the three solar spirals simultaneously. Solar heaters can operate with lenses and without them. Heated air directed to spiral heater gives the heat to the working medium flowing in opposite directions, which is supplied to turbine by rotating it, and the turbine rotates electric generator, thus generating electric current. Station has two rows of cylinders of isothermal expansion and adiabatic compression of atmospheric air at one and the same time, thus heating it. Some portion of air is supplied via the pipe to spiral heater for water heating for domestic needs by means of partial use of the heat obtained from atmospheric air at its isothermal expansion in isothermal cylinders. In isothermal cylinders for air compression (working medium), owing to turbine power takeoff, vice versa, heat is given at compression to atmospheric air.

EFFECT: electric power station is intended to generate cheap electric energy for the people living in desert regions with large amount of solar radiation energy.

1 dwg

FIELD: heating systems.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to solar power engineering. At solar aero-pressure thermal power station (SAP TPS) there used is energy of direct and reflected sun beams, energy of wind, ambient air, phase water transformations and other solar power components. Solar aero-pressure thermal power station includes high temperature solar heat converting devices in which heat energy of solar beams is transferred to fluid heat carrier at temperature of 90 and more Celsius degrees, heat accumulator by using heat-insulated loose or liquid material and pipelines located in it, and solar hotbed generators of heat air flows with temperature of up to 90 Celsius degrees. There used are at least three energy-converting thermal aerodynamic modules in which a central power air flow bringing a wind turbine generator into rotation is energetically saturated and attains rotary-and-forward vortex motion path due to impact thereon of high-temperature liquid heat carrier in combination with appropriate aerodynamic surfaces, thermal air flows and some other process means used. Besides at solar aero-pressure thermal power station there installed is the second electric energy manufacturing circuit which includes independent pipe header arranged in heat accumulator whereto liquid with decreased boiling point is supplied, and the steam obtained in pipe header is directed to steam turbine connected to the second electric generator. Waste steam is supplied from steam turbine to cooler-condenser where it is changed into light-volatile liquid by means of condensation and directed with a pump to the above pipe header. Heat energy of steam condensation is supplied through heat converter, namely heat pump, to central energy air flow, due to which increase of electric energy with wind turbine generator is provided. In addition, in ambient air environment there installed along perimetre of solar aero-pressure thermal power station is moisture-condensing header to which the cooling working medium is supplied, owing to which ambient air moisture is condensed on it. This allows producing stock fresh water, and on the other hand it forms an additional source of thermal energy converting this component of solar energy into purposeful heat flows in solar aero-pressure thermal power station.

EFFECT: invention improves technical and economic efficiency of proposed solar aero-pressure thermal power station, which creates the possibility of wide-range construction of industrial solar power engineering objects.

10 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: heating systems.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to solar thermal power stations. Thermal power station with wind guide surfaces includes wind turbine with electric generator, controlled air discharge channel above wind turbine, channel of converting and increasing the power of central air flow, heat accumulator, beam guide surfaces and cylinder-shaped intake channel. Wind turbine is brought into rotation with central air flow. Controlled air discharge channel is made in the form of a draft tube and a controlled superstructure thereto of big height. Wind guide surfaces include vertical helium-absorbing surfaces. Channel converting and increasing the power of central air flow includes power-converting modules with built-in heat transfer elements and air guide aerodynamic elements. Intake channel is equipped with wind guide surfaces and connected to channel converting and increasing the power of central air flow by means of guide openings. Power-converting modules are located vertically one above the other and have common central symmetry axis together with wind turbine, air discharge and intake channels and central air flow. As power-converting modules, there used are vortex chambers. Controlled superstructure to draft tube is equipped with additional power-converting modules.

EFFECT: improving reliability and efficiency as well as decreasing noise level.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: heating systems.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to solar thermal power stations. Thermal power station with wind guide surfaces includes wind turbine with electric generator, air discharge channel, channel converting and increasing the power of central air flow, heat accumulator, beam guide surfaces and cylinder-shaped intake channel. Wind guide surfaces include vertical helium-absorbing surfaces. Channel converting and increasing the power of central air flow is made as pre-turbine acceleration pit and includes power-converting modules with built-in heat transfer elements and air guide aerodynamic elements. Cylinder-shaped intake channel is equipped with wind guide surfaces of intake channel and connected to channel converting and increasing the power of central air flow by means of guide openings. The first power-converting module is made as vortex chamber. The second power-converting module is made by using the second vortex chamber located along common vertical axis above the first one and containing two air-swirling inlets of air flow - the edge one and the side one. The third power-converting module in acceleration pit is made by installing air discharge swirling profiles along the periphery of acceleration pit.

EFFECT: increasing efficiency of conversion of heat energy into electric one, and decreasing noise level.

2 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to space engineering and is intended mostly for generation of electric energy on Moon. In space power generator mostly for use on Moon surface, which contains the following components combined into closed system: boiler for evaporation of actuating medium, which has inlet and outlet nozzles, steam turbine connected to electric generator, condenser, pump for condensate connected to inlet nozzle, condenser is arranged in the form of jacket separated into the first and second sections with the help of partition, which has channel for spent steam, at that turbine is installed in the first section, which is connected to the outlet nozzle of boiler, and pump is connected to the second section installed in deepening provided in moon soil with the possibility of heat exchange with cold soil, which has temperature lower than the temperature of actuating medium condensation.

EFFECT: increase of generator efficiency with simplification of design.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: solar radiation plant is designed to generate electric power. The said plant comprises a stack with a turbogenerator and solar collectors arranged at the stack base and differs in that it incorporates additional solar collectors arranged at the stack outer surface and made in heat-conducting material, reflecting panels arranged along the stack at an angle to each other and making a system of Winston concentrators. Incorporating the aforesaid new components into the plant transforms the aforesaid stack into an active structural element whereat air is heated bringing about an increase in the air flow velocity and, hence, in the plant efficiency especially in sunrise and sunset. Note also that air heating in the stack allows decreasing the stack height without reducing the plant output which notably reduces the plant cost, since the stack is the main money consumer of the structure.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 dwg

Solar power plant // 2141606
The invention relates to the conversion of solar radiation into electrical energy required to power a variety of customers: space ships, farms and individual farmers individual buildings, vehicles for various purposes, etc

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the field of industry and ship power engineering, predominantly to transport and stationary steam-turbine plants. The design layout of turbine sets and exhausted steam condensing plant includes the main turbine, isolated generator turbines, transonic jet condensing plants of mixing type - condensate transonic jet pimps built in housings of devices for exhaust stem bleeding from turbine sets, and combined remote condensate collector.

EFFECT: invention makes possible, while keeping constant steam turbine power, to exclude conventional stem components of the main condenser with piping for turbine sets exhaust stem condensing from design layout, to lower weight of unit equipment, reduce its volume by (36÷50) % and to improve reliability of exhaust stem condensing system.

4 dwg

FIELD: the invention refers to the field of heating engineering namely to power installations.

SUBSTANCE: According to the first variant the engine of boiling has a furnace chamber, a drum, a batcher, a collector switched to the drum. At that the furnace chamber with the drum are united in a common metallic body fulfilled with one removable wall, at that the axis of the drum is located horizontally, inside the drum there is a working member in the shape of a shaft leaning with its ends on the bearings installed in the center of each wall of the body from the inner side along the horizontal axis, on the shaft there are firmly fastened in parallel with the axis the planes of blades and a cog-wheel, at that the blades are fulfilled in the shape of metallic plates between which there are mounted metallic partitions forming a ring capacity filled with air and symmetrical to the axis, the steam collector is located outside of the drum. According to the second variant the engine of boiling has a furnace chamber, a drum, a batcher switched to the drum, a collector, at that the furnace chamber with the drum are united in a common metallic body, at that the axis of the drum is located vertically in the center of the bottom and bearings are installed from the inner side of the lid, inside the drum there is a working member in the shape of a shaft whose ends lean on the bearings, on the shaft axis there firmly fastened under an angle to the axis the plates of the blades in the shape of a screw, around the shaft symmetrically to its axis there is a ring capacity filled with air. near the drum there is a hot water collector communicating with it through a launder in the upper part and through the collector in the low part. The working medium in the engine of boiling is water-steam mixture.

EFFECT: the invention allows use kinetic energy of boiling water for fulfillment of mechanical work.

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