Device for accelerated heating of positive displacement hydraulic drive of building machines
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building, namely to hydraulic drive of lifting-transport, construction, machines and equipment and other special equipment, hydraulic drive of which is operated at negative temperatures. Proposed preheating device of hydraulic drive comprises hydraulic tank and gas heat carrier circulation circuit, connected to the outlet pipeline of internal combustion engine by means of three-way valve, wherein the device is equipped with electromagnets fitted on walls of the hydraulic tank and metal granules located in working fluid, on the inlet and drain pipes there mesh filters are fitted.
EFFECT: invention ensures reduction of time of heat preparation of the hydraulic drive, reduction of costs for heating of working liquid, extension of lifetime of elements of hydraulic system.
1 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in pre-starting and auxiliary heat power plants of vehicles for simultaneous generation of heat and the electric power. Pre-starting heat power plant for vehicles contains an internal combustion engine (1), an electric generator (2), a waste heat exchanger (3) utilising the heat of exhaust gases, a mixing device (4) with an electric heater, a liquid pump (8) with the electric drive, a check valve (5) and hydraulic lines (9), (10), (11) with heat carrier. The plant is also contains the oil pump (15) with the electric drive, the recuperative heat exchanger (18) for heating of engine oil and the oil line which is built in the oil pan with the nozzles directed towards necks of the cranked shaft and towards the oil pump of the internal combustion engine, oil hydraulic lines. The recuperative heat exchanger (18) of heating of engine oil according to the series hydraulic circuit is connected by hydraulic lines of the heat carrier to the mixing device (4) with the electric heater. The oil pump (15) with the electric drive through oil hydraulic lines supplies engine oil to the recuperative heat exchanger (18) for heating of engine oil after which heated engine oil is supplied into the oil line which is built in the oil pan with the nozzles directed towards the necks of the cranked shaft and towards the oil pump of the internal combustion engine.
EFFECT: design simplification and reduction of dimensions.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in internal combustion engines. The invention proposes an electric heater of diesel oil or motor oil, which includes the following: outer casing (2), heating rods (1) and temperature control (3). Each of the heating rods (1) includes an electrode part, a heating part and a cover of the external coating, as well as it is connected to a mounting end of temperature control (3) by means of the electrode part and rigidly attached to outer casing (2) with one of its ends. Temperature control (3) is arranged inside outer casing (2); cavities of outer casing (2) are filled with a liquid sealant, and hole (5) is arranged on outer casing (2) for fixation of the heater in a set position.
EFFECT: heater has a low price; it is composed in the form of a structure; it is safe, reliable and serviceable.
6 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed heater comprises housing with coolant feed and discharge channels and cover tightly coupled with said housing, tubular electrical heater secured therein and motor-drive rotary pump Impeller is fitted on pump rotor shaft inside aforesaid housing Note here that said rotary pump is provided with jacket fitted in heater housing with secured by its one end in the latter in inlet channel zone Its opposite end is secured at housing cover in the area of rotor shaft with impeller exit so that said impeller is located inside aforesaid jacket Note here that said jacket in impeller zone has openings to communicate the jacket inside with heater housing inside Motor rotor is enclosed in cup-like case closed by cup cover on cover outer side and secured at cover inner side Note here that rotor shaft section with impeller fitted thereon extends through cup cover and heater housing cover inside the housing Tubular heater is composed of helical coil arranged around said jacket above its openings and secured at heater housing cover Coolant feed channel, pump jacket and rotor shaft with impeller are aligned.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, electric power saving.
11 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention claims autonomous device for diesel fuel heating in fuel tank 16, including heat exchanger 1 and heat carrier feed and control system 2. System 2 includes trolley 3 with gas heater 4 for heat carrier, pump 5, accumulator 6, control device 7 and gas cylinder 8 mounted on the trolley, heat exchanger is made in the form of rigid spiral tube mounted on handle 10 by a joint and connected to heater 4 with a flexible hose. Electric pump for heated diesel fuel stirring is installed inside spiral tube of the heat exchanger.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of diesel fuel heating in the whole volume of fuel tank.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: measured ambient air and coolant temperatures are used to define air heater operating interval to correct it by fuel mix temperature in combustion chamber at compression stroke end while fuel in nozzle is heated to maximum possible value. After engine start, fuel heating intensity is decreased while nozzle operating heat conditions are kept up with the help of thermal pickup built in the nozzle, heater and control unit and maintained at said level during the entire cycle of post-starting interval with allowance for engine heat conditions and ambient air temperature. Inlet fuel and air controlled heating subject to engine and ambient air temperature allows maintenance of optimum temperature of combustion mix in the engine combustion chamber at whatever operating conditions.
EFFECT: decreased time and power consumption by diesel preparation for starting.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: electric fuel heater comprising body in form of the bolt with cavity in its rod, input and output holes, agitator, ceramic heating element, nickel-chromium spiral connected in series with the ceramic heating element, and casing. The internal cavity of the fuel heater body is made with spiral groove. The fuel agitator installed in the internal cavity of the body is in form of the bolt containing guide part and agitating element in form of the ellipse with spiral groove direct opposite to the spiral groove of the body.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of heat transfer.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: heater comprises ICE, electrical generator, heat exchange offgas heat recovery unit, offgas main line, fluid lines, electrically drive fluid pump, check valve and tank with electric heater. In compliance with this invention incorporates extra recuperative heat exchanger for cooling of coolant with electrically driven blower and three-way valves with servo drive. Note here that fluid electrically driven pump is communicated via coolant fluid lines with ICE cooling system. Said system accommodates the tank with electric heater and heat exchanger-offgas heat recovery unit. Said heat exchanger is connected via fluid line with the first three-way valve with servo drive. The latter is arranged downstream of check valve in fluid line feeding coolant from ICE to carrier heater radiator lines and those of aforesaid recuperative heat exchanger. Second three-way salve with servo drive is arranged upstream of electrically driven fluid pump to communicate coolant feed and discharge lines with carrier ICE. Besides, ICE exhaust gases are fed via offgas main line to recuperative heat exchanger.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of pre-starting heating, higher thermal efficiency, decreased overall dimensions.
SUBSTANCE: engine prestart heating is performed by natural gas feed into prestart heater combustion chamber to heat carrier engine coolant by natural gas combustion heat. Natural gas is fed from low-pressure main line via distribution gas line and gas hose into prestart heater combustion chamber. Prestart heater control system power supply and that of actuators related therewith is performed by connection to power supply located outside the carrier.
EFFECT: higher reliability and efficiency at long stops.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: system to maintain availability for start-up of an internal combustion engine (7) of a diesel locomotive comprises a standard system (4) for cooling of an internal combustion engine (7), a liquid heater (1), connected to the main manifold of the standard cooling system (4), a standard fuel system (18) of an internal combustion engine with a standard fuel tank (23) and a standard injecting fuel pump (19), an additional fuel tank (20), equipped with an overflow pipeline (21), a drain pipeline (22) with a tap and a pipeline connecting the additional fuel tank (20) with the liquid heater (1). There is an additional fuel pump (17), installed in the standard fuel system (18) in parallel to the standard injecting fuel pump (19), an additional oil pump (11), connected in parallel to the standard injecting oil pump (43), a device (15) for booster charge of an accumulator battery (16) of a diesel locomotive, maintaining it in the condition of availability for start-up of the internal combustion engine, and cooling coolant temperature sensors (13) for control of system operation, connected into the pipeline (46) with the lowest coolant temperature in the cooling system of the internal combustion engine. The additional fuel tank (20) of the system is connected into the drain pipeline of the standard fuel system (18) for provision of its reliable filling with diesel fuel. Additional circulating water pumps (30) are installed on inlet pipelines of standard liquid heaters (28) of air in driver's cabins (29) for provision of conditions in them for start-up of the internal combustion engine (7). Supply of the liquid heater (1), circulating electric motors (8), oil (11) and fuel pumps (17), a device (15) for booster charge of the diesel locomotive accumulator battery (16) and elements of the control system (47) is arranged via a separate cabinet (48) of electric equipment from the external source of energy.
EFFECT: increased reliability of system operation and increased time for engine standing idle in cold time of the year as continuously available for start-up.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in gas feed into cylinders and cylinder antechamber, spark ignition of gas in antechambers, and feed of gas combustion product from antechamber into combustion chambers of engine cylinders. At starting gas engine at crankshaft cranking by starter to stable idling rpm, gas is forced into engine cylinder antechamber and/or gas engine cylinders, gas volumetric combustion heat exceeding that of natural bas by some 1.5-2 times and higher. At starting the gas engine, fuel gas can be fed into some cylinders of multicylinder gas engine.
EFFECT: higher reliability of starting and accelerated starting.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to construction machines. A construction machine comprises a workplace of an operator with a driver's seat (22), a support, on which the seat (22) is installed as capable of rotation around the vertical axis (A1), a bracket of a control organ, installed as capable of rotation around the specified axis (A1) relative both to the seat and the seat support, a contact element on the seat for engagement with the bracket of the control organ, a displacing element for displacement of the support bracket in direction of the contact element, a stop limiter of the seat support for limitation of displacement of the support bracket and a sensor of seat position for determination of the intermediate position of the seat. The seat may rotate around the vertical axis (A1) from the first working position into the second working position with transition over the intermediate position. When the seat moves between the first position and the intermediate position, the control organ forms the first configuration with the seat, in which the first control organ moves together with the seat so that it is in the working position in respect to the seat. When the seat rotates from the intermediate position into the second position, the control organ automatically moves into the second configuration, in which it is moved into the non-working position in respect to the seat.
EFFECT: group of inventions provides for ergonomic layout of a construction machine operator's cabin.
17 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to self-propelled working machine, for example, soil cutter, asphalt cutter, snow-plough with cutter, etc. Proposed cutter machine comprises main working assy composed of cutter drum running about horizontal axis and provided with cutting tools arranged in its circumference. Note here that main working tool can run in stationary mode and is actuated by the drive motor. Note here that said drive motor incorporates starting circuit for starting current limitation that comprises at least one frequency inverter. Besides, it incorporates working circuit (19) for stationary mode with bridge to shunt frequency inverter after start or reaching of stationary mode. Note here that working circuit (19) comprises the device to deactivate said bridge (9) and power supply of motor (M) from electric power source via frequency inverter (FU) at cutter drum working rpm lower than preset one and to activate said bridge (9) to shunt said inverter (FU and to supply motor (M) directly from power source at working rpm higher than preset one.
EFFECT: reliable starting, higher efficiency, lower operating costs.
19 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a device for soil material excavation under water. The device comprises a pontoon equipped with an excavator made as capable of digging soil under water, actuating elements made as capable of pontoon and/or excavator movement control, the first controlling facility made as capable of tracking excavator position. At the same time the floating excavator with a back shovel also comprises the second controlling facility made as capable to track load experienced by the excavator, and the third controlling facility made as capable to track pontoon position, a computer made as capable to calculate control signals for actuating facilities on the basis of data received from the first, second and third controlling facilities.
EFFECT: technical result is increased efficiency of bottom-dredging works performance.
15 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed invention relates to self-propelled surface rotor excavator, preferably in the form of road hoe, screw-rotor snow plough or open-cut combine, with cutter-drum capable to rotate around horizontal axis and with cutter-drum drive containing at least one electric motor installed inside the cutter-drum where electric motor stator and rotor are installed inside air- and/or dust-tight motor housing. It is proposed to provide cutter-drum drive motor located inside cutter-drum body with cooling device having closed liquid cooling circuit. Due to high heating capacity of suitable cooling liquid such as oil or water and glycol mixture, small volume flows are enough for liquid cooling circuit thus allowing small pipeline cross-sections. On the other hand, due to closed structure of liquid cooling circuit, it is possible to avoid any dust entering into cutter-drum drive as well as dust generation by exhaust air.
EFFECT: lower thermal load on cutter-drum drive without increase in dust load.
14 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of control of dragline excavator bucket comprising the setting of control signals by the rotation speed of lifting, traction and rotation drives, regulation of rotation speed of these drives, formation by the pre-set and current values of tension forces in lifting and traction ropes of control signals by forces in these ropes is offered, then these signals are compared by the force with the corresponding signals by the rotation speed of lifting and traction drives with the subsequent separation from the compared signals of the maximum signals, the separated control signal of the lifting drive is fed to the input of the unit of control of rotation speed of the lifting drive directly, the separated control signal of the traction drive is fed to the input of the unit of control of rotation speed of the traction drive through the first main operated key, a control signal of the rotation drive is fed to the input of the unit of control of rotation speed of the rotation drive through the second the main operated key. Besides, the current lengths of lifting and traction ropes are measured, in addition the distances to two boundaries of the bucket position of in a face with reference to face brow are measured. The lengths of traction ropes corresponding to the bucket position on the named boundaries, and the length of lifting ropes corresponding to the bucket position on the boundary of bucket braking are pre-set; the level of limitation of a control signal of the traction drive at the bucket position on the boundary of restriction of bucket speed and additional force of tension of lifting ropes at the bucket position on the boundary of bucket braking. During excavation the current lengths of lifting and traction ropes are compared with their preset values to the named boundaries. Also the device for control of movement of dragline excavator bucket comprising the units of control of rotation speed of lifting, traction and rotation drives, units of separation of control signals of lifting and traction drives, the inputs of which are connected to outputs of the corresponding setting device of rotation speed of these drives and regulators of tension forces of lifting and traction ropes is offered, the first input of each of the latter is connected to an output of the corresponding setting device of tension force of ropes, and the second - to an output of the corresponding converter of tension force of ropes, meanwhile the input of the unit of control of rotation speed of the lifting drive is connected directly to an output of the unit of separation of control signal of the lifting drive, the input of the unit of control of rotation speed of the traction drive is connected to an output of the first main operated key, and the input of the unit of control of rotation speed of the rotation drive is connected through the second operated key to an output of the setting device of rotation speed of this drive, and also converters of length of lifting and traction ropes. The device is additionally fitted with three nonlinear elements, four additional operated keys, an element of limitation of a control signal of the traction drive and a setting device of additional tension of lifting ropes. Meanwhile the input of the first nonlinear element is connected to an output of the converter of length of lifting ropes, and inputs of the second and third nonlinear elements - to an output of the converter of length of traction ropes, the output of the first nonlinear element is connected to the operating input of the first additional key, the output of the second nonlinear element is connected to the operating inputs of the second and third additional keys, the output of the third nonlinear element is connected to the operating input of the first and second main keys and the fourth additional key. The input of the first main key is connected to an output of the unit of allocation of control signal of the traction drive through the first and second additional keys, and also through the first additional key, an element of limitation of control signal of the traction drive and the third additional key. The fourth additional key is included between an output of a setting device of an additional tension of lifting ropes and the third input of the regulator of a tension of lifting ropes.
EFFECT: improved characteristics.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises control lever 3 to be actuated by operator to turn about pivot point H that has free end 5. Note here that control lever 3 can displace in vehicle lengthwise direction between near position P5 of operator and far position P1 for control over vehicle starting clutch. Besides, control lever 2 comprises extra support 4 to be attached to vehicle body for support of operator hand when its acts on control lever 3. Note also that control lever 3 has mid part 7 arranged between free end 5 and support point H and shaped to partially cover said support element 4 at near position P5.
EFFECT: safe and friendly control.
14 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: system contains electronic control unit to control attachments, transmission, engine and machine steering mechanisms, facility for measuring parameters of its motion (actual and ideal speed, slippage, etc.), control instruments and display. Machine motion parameter measurement is performed using micromechanical gyroscopes and accelerometers. In the system, prediction of running forward machine board slippage amount is performed with subsequent optimisation of machine turning radius. Following is implemented in the system: automatic adjustment of machine motion speed depending on motion route irregularities identified during previous machine run, as well as attachment control from condition that irregularities of ground surface formed by its cutting edge does not result in necessity to decrease rollback speed. Machine control is optimised for works on slopes and sidehills, on loosened rocky materials, in confined areas, when electric cables and metal objects are present in processed ground. Various types of machine motion programmed control are implemented including control over curved routes and over previous machine trace. Automated control of brakes and machine engine fuel feed is implemented.
EFFECT: higher productivity of excavatory-transport machine and improvement of operator working conditions.
12 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining particularly to openworking of rocks. Proposed method comprises setting of the drive operating and maximum possible speeds, measurement of current force and its comparison with preset magnitude. Note here that two types of zones in excavation face are localised by coordinates of gotten blast wells and actual parameters of drilling-and blasting jobs that differ in probability of maximum dynamic load expectation. At the first zone, that of probable expectation of maximum dynamic loads, located around gotten blast wells with accrual parameters of drilling-and blasting jobs not complying with design values, drive speed is changed from maximum to operating magnitude. At second zone, that of probable expectation of maximum dynamic loads and localised by the position of gotten well spacing with actual parameters of drilling-and blasting jobs, after confirmation of maximum preset digging forces, drive operating speed is set. If maximum loads are not confirmed in the next excavation cycles, drive speed is changed to maximum value. Drive maximum speed is used beyond the zones of maximum dynamic load expectation.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of excavation.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to earth mover control systems. Shovel penetration drive control device incorporates the drive and the controller to generate output signal to vary shovel penetration rate. Note here that said controller can detect drive rpm range wherein actuator output signal increase at increase in drive rpm and, on the contrary, decrease at its decrease. Besides, proposed system comprises user's interface for manual control over drive rpm.
EFFECT: higher efficiency owing to better adaptability to varying conditions.
11 cl, 28 dwg
SUBSTANCE: maximum electric capacity taken by a mine excavator comprising electric motors, from a source of electric power, is reduced by supplying additional electric capacity from a device of electric energy storage. At the same time the input electric power taken by the mine excavator is cyclic. For electric power taken from the source of electric power, the upper limit is set. When input electric capacity taken by the mine excavator exceeds the upper limit, the electric energy storage device, in particular, a bank of ultracapacitors, supplies electric power. Besides, the bank of ultracapacitors may be charged by the source of electric capacity during intervals between peaks of consumption. And electric capacity generated by electric motors operating in generator interval may also be collected and accumulated in the electric energy storage device.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and reliability of operation of an excavator due to limitation of peak takeoff of electric energy by mine excavators from a source of energy.
30 cl, 18 dwg
FIELD: earth moving equipment; mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to control of dc electric drive of main mechanisms of single-bucket excavator and it can be used in other dc drives of mining machines and mechanisms operating at low temperatures and wind loads. Method comes to control motor stopping by control of field current simultaneously and in inverse proportion to value of motor setting speed. Control of motor speed as a function of complex parameter taking in account level of negative temperature of machine metal, wind load and speed of change of these values, is also carried out. Device for implementing the method contains additionally motor field current setter mechanism, motor field current regulator whose output is connected with motor field current source, motor field current weakening setter whose input is connected with output of master controller, and output, with second input of field current regulator. First input of motor field current regulator is connected to output of motor maximum field current setter. Shaper of complex signal taking into account negative temperature of metal of machine, wind load and speed of change of said values is connected with second input of emf regulator.
EFFECT: reduced dynamic loads at starting, reversing and stopping, improved conditions of excavator bucket filling at digging.
3 cl, 5 dwg