Method for making articles for civil and/or industrial objects on moon, mars, and/or asteroids
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods for making articles for civil and/or industrial objects on the Moon, Mars and/or asteroids. Method involves stages of providing equipment, generating electricity by means of photovoltaic panel, extraction of regolith from soil by means of excavators, electrostatic or magnetic dressing regolith, mixing of enriched minerals with aluminium powder. In obtained mixture placed into mold, reaction is initiated of self-spreading combustion to produce objects of required size and shape, suitable for connection to each other. For construction of civil and industrial objects, obtained articles are assembled by means of their connection.
EFFECT: invention increases efficiency of production of civil and/or industrial facilities, reducing time for such operations.
4 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: ultrasonic drag head is designed for drilling of ground to the depth of up to 2 metres at the speed of up to 20 mm/min per passto take samples without changing the composition. Drag head consists of an ultrasonic oscillating system with a working tool, an ultrasonic generator and a control system. Ultrasonic generator and control system are fixed on a space lander. On a waveguide of ultrasonic oscillating system there installed is a frame on which heat-insulated containers to take ground samples with a turning opening/closing mechanism, heat accumulators and a passive temperature stabilisation system are fixed. Ultrasonic oscillating system is equipped with a temperature sensor of drag head containers, which is connected to the control system of drag head. Sizes of each next element of the ultrasonic oscillating system are chosen based on compliance with resonant frequency of piezoelectric converter.
EFFECT: invention is able to take ground samples without thermal destruction and evaporation of volatile components.
SUBSTANCE: drag head includes a drilling machine with a control system and a penetrator, which is fixed on a space lander. Heat insulated containers for soil sample excavation are fixed on the penetrator. The drilling machine is equipped with a temperature sensor of a penetrator tip, which is connected to the control system of the drilling machine.
EFFECT: invention allows improving quality of obtained soil samples.
4 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes erection of the main and auxiliary shafts with a drilling rig from a shelter building, installation of sealing and heat-insulating ramps in shaft collars. One of the auxiliary shafts is erected in the form of a microscope, drilled from an exploratory well by means of its expansion from an inner mine tunnel until reaching the surface of an nonterrestrial object and used as a saving shaft, which on the surface via a gate chamber contacts with a landing complex of a spacecraft. In the saving shaft in the area of its connection with the inner mine tunnel there is a sealing heat-insulation ramp installed, drilled solids are distributed into a crater of the nonterrestrial object.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to carry out salvage operations and to ensure the necessary ventilation in mines and pits, and also to establish a connection between the shafts on the nonterrestrial object surface.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to space engineering. Proposed device comprises pipeline 5, assembly to transfer container via pipeline and assembly to prepare and load container. The latter comprises rotary support 8 arranged on fixed support 7, bush 18 to accommodate container 17 and container cover 18. Transfer assembly comprises housing 19 accommodating gas-tight sleeve 20 representing, in initial position, a flat tape. Sleeve open end is tightly jointed with housing 19. Space 22 is communicated via air line 11 and start-and-shut-ff valve 12 with compressed gas source 10. Bush 16 has spring-loaded flange 24 and is locked by pyro cotter 27. Cover 18 is locked by pyro cotter 28. Support 8 is also locked by pyro cotter and provided with spring pusher 31 with rod 32 to displace transfer assembly, together with bush 16 and container 17, to under cover 18. Pyro cotter 27 operated, container 17 is closed by cover 18. Pyro cotter 28 and valve 12 operated, sleeve 20, straightening under gas pressure, displaces container 17 along pipeline 5. Delivery of container into autolander from any direction.
EFFECT: higher versatility of proposed device.
9 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining, particularly to methods of building of isolated sealed mines, grooves and mountain-drilling rooms, used for shelter of people, and also for introduction of exploration work and field development of minerals in geological material of nonterrestrial objects. Building method of mines and grooves on nonterrestrial objects includes opening of top horizons by one of shanks, opening of bottom horizon through main shank and delivering of rock from deepening of each shank and horizon by adjacent shank. Structure of main and auxiliary shanks is implemented by boring machine with headstock from building structure - shelter, connected to spacecraft. After spudding of one or other shank on its mouth there are installed sealing and heat insulating shelves. There is continued construction at the outset of auxiliary shank, opening top horizon, then it is continued construction of main shank, top horizon connects both shanks. Delivery of rock from passing of each shank and horizon is implemented by adjacent shank through building structure - shelter and chamber gate by means of carriage bogie. Top horizon is continued to construct up to inlet to lip of nonterrestrial object, outlet of horizon is equipped by chamber gate.
EFFECT: invention provides safe of drilling activities implementation and to reduce material expenses.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to processing lunar soil and production of helium-3 (He3) on the Moon, including its back side. The complex of facilities for production of (He3) from the lunar soil consists of a source of micro-waves of super-high frequency installed on the lunar surface, and also of control equipment. The source of micro-waves of super-high frequency radiates waves onto a section of lunar soil surface covered with transparent for radiation elastic pressurised jacket; further He is withdrawn from the zone covered with the jacket, is liquefied and collected. The control equipment is installed in points of libration (Lagrange points) of system the Earth-the Moon and is designed to re-translate a control signal to the back side of the Moon.
EFFECT: simplification of process and equipment for production of helium-3 (He3), and also possibility to produce helium-3 (He3) not only on visible side of the Moon, but on its back side.
SUBSTANCE: complex of development tools fro obtaining He3 from lunar soil includes draft gear, drag head, transporter, and receiving and processing unit. Draft gear is made in the form of two similar devices with removable ground traction boosters attached symmetrically at the opposite sides of the draft gear. Receiving and processing unit is placed beyond excavation zone. Receiving tool comprises a number of lunar soil banks obtained by soil casting from excavation zone to the processing unit. At that, the complex includes receiver-emitter device mounted at the draft gear for preliminary soil heating.
EFFECT: improved equipment operation efficiency and energy savings.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metallurgy, namely to the production of ferroalloys - ferrochrome and ferrotitanium. The method involves mixing of powders of initial components of a charge containing an ore concentrate and aluminium as a reducing agent, initiation of the combustion process, mechanical separation of the obtained cast ferroalloy from slags. An oxidiser in an amount of not more than 15 wt % is additionally added to the charge; an alkali metal perchlorate is used as the oxidiser, and to the composition of the reducing agent there added is not more than 15 wt % of magnesium or alloy of aluminium with magnesium in the amount sufficient for the complete reduction of oxides from ore concentrates; with that, the total content of the reducing agent in the charge is not more than 30 wt %; the charge is arranged in a capacity made from graphite or boron nitride; initiation of the combustion process in the air is performed by means of a tungsten spiral.
EFFECT: invention allows reducing power consumption at high efficiency of the process; prime cost and time required for the process at the maintenance of a high degree of extraction and purity of the target product.
3 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a method of producing titanium via reduction thereof from a tetrachloride using a liquid tetrachloride and dispersed aluminium as a reducing agent. The process is carried out in the temperature range of -23°C to +137°C and weight ratio of the initial titanium tetrachloride to aluminium of not less than 5.27 to 1.00 with intense mixing. The system is kept in a pseudo-Newtonian liquid state by using highly dispersed initial aluminium and dispersed products - titanium and aluminium tetrachloride with relative excess of the liquid phase. An apparatus for implementing the method is a flat-bottom conical reactor mounted on a magnetic mixer and fitted with batchers for feeding tetrachloride and dispersed aluminium, as well as a device for separating suspensions of titanium, aluminium trichloride and titanium tetrachloride. The latter is returned to the reactor and solid phases are separated by sublimation and subsequent condensation of aluminium trichloride. Powdered titanium is fed for further processing.
EFFECT: simple technique owing to lowering of temperature.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to obtaining spongy titanium by the thermal reduction of titanium tetrachloride with liquid magnesium. The device contains a retort with a false bottom, provided with a cover with the central fitting pipe and a fitting pipe for argon supply, a discharge device, and a reaction chamber. The reaction chamber is located in the retort below the level of magnesium filling, is rigidly fixed from the bottom to the pipe, installed in the central fitting pipe and provided with fitting pipes for the supply of titanium tetrachloride and argon into the reaction chamber. The reaction chamber consists of the upper cylindrical part with side slots and attached to it lower part, made in the form of open from the bottom chutes with narrowed to the bottom walls and transverse partitions, rigidly connecting the chute walls. In accordance with the method the retort is vacuumed, filled with argon and simultaneously heated, liquid magnesium is poured into the reaction chamber, argon is supplied to a pressure by 20-40 gPa higher than the pressure in the retort, and titanium tetrachloride, and reduction with the accumulation of spongy titanium on the false bottom is carried out at a reduction rate higher than the rate of titanium tetrachloride supply in the reaction chamber with the formation of own pressure fluctuations in the gas volume of the reaction chamber.
EFFECT: increased quality of the reaction mass is ensured.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: charge is prepared by mixing of copper galvanic sludge with sodium carbonate, sodium chloride and with coal or coal and a cassiterite concentrate. Recovery of oxidised sludge metals is performed in a reaction tank by charge melting at the temperature of 1000-1100°C during 1.5 h. The obtained melt is cooled and hardened copper alloy is separated from sludge.
EFFECT: increasing an extraction degree of copper from sludges of galvanic copper-plating; reducing the number of impurities as a part of a crude alloy.
2 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nonferrous metallurgy. Proposed device comprises retort with false bottom equipped with top cover, central pipe and argon feed pipe, bottom drain pipe and vibrator fitted in central pipe. Vibrator consists of the tube with reaction chamber secured from below, vibrator secured from above and argon and titanium tetrachloride feed pipes. Reaction chamber is composed of top truncated cone with top hole and bottom inversed truncated cone with bottom hole interconnected by their bases and insert. In compliance with proposed method, retort with vibrator fitted therein is sealed and filled with argon to be heated to 800°C, liquid magnesium is filled therein, vibrator being filled with argon and retort being heated to 850°C.Titanium tetrachloride is loaded in reaction chamber to reduce titanium tetrachloride by magnesium at reaction chamber vibrations with accumulation spongy titanium at false bottom.
EFFECT: stable reduction of titanium tetrachloride, higher quality of reaction mass.
5 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: unit has a housing, a melting pot with inlet channel and metal reservoir. The melting pot is installed in housing with a gap and it forms a slag bath with drainage and overflow pipes. The metal reservoir is designed as a cooled crystallizer for continuous casting. It is possible to perform continuous reduction melting, producing a cake as a metal bar. Cooling in a cooler contributes to quick and directed metal crystallisation.
EFFECT: cake has compact and fine-grained structure, there are no shrink holes, thus it may be used without additional remelt.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises fitting of detachable insert in retort with clearance between return wall and insert. Lining material is filled in clearance between insert and return wall to make return lining. Insert is withdrawn to fit return in place with made lining into furnace. Note here that liquid slag of previous smelting is used as retort lining tapped from the furnace via tap hole into the other, specially prepared retort outside the furnace. Retort with discharged slag is withdrawn from the furnace and lined with application of liquid slag of previous melting for next melting in the furnace for metal-thermal reducing fusion. Insert can be composed of several parts.
EFFECT: shortened melting cycle, controlled lining wall quality.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to metallurgy and can be used for aluminothermic production of ferromolybdenum. The charge containing the following, wt %, is proposed: molybdenum concentrate 38.5-39.8, iron powder 16.3-17.0, aluminium 14.3-14.8, lime 26.1-26.4, and ground high-aluminous clinker 3.1-3.4. Charge of the proposed composition is prepared, loaded and fused in a melting unit with periclase lining. First, the charge in the amount of 3-5% is put into a melting pot and ignited with an ignition mixture containing magnesium chips and sodium nitrate, and then, the rest charge is loaded into the melting unit onto a furnace top as fusion is being performed. After the melting is completed, slag is exposed in the melting pot till complete deposition of drips of the alloy till final crystallisation of melting products; after that, the obtained alloy is separated from slag, crushed and packed into a finished product.
EFFECT: invention allows obtaining ferromolybdenum of increased quality, and namely of "ФМо"60 grade, using ground high-aluminous clinker as a fluxing additive, which reduces pyrophoric effect.
2 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: starting material is premixed with calcium oxide in amount of 15-20 wt % of starting material and fused to obtain matte-slag melt. Then, silicon-bearing collector melt if the form FS25-grade ferrosilicon to collect platinum metals and nickel. Note here that copper remains in matte. Obtained melt is subjected to ageing. Said starting material represents a nickel-pyrrhotite concentrate. Note here that silicon-bearing alloys is used in ground form.
EFFECT: higher yield, copper and nickel separation.
2 cl, 3 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: proposed blend contains 56.5-57.3 wt % of chromium oxide, 24.2-25.4 wt % of aluminium, 8.4-8.6 wt % of sodium or potassium dichromate, 2.8-4.3 wt % of chromium anhydride, 2.55-2.65 wt % of calcium hydroxide with carbon content of not over 0.2 wt %, 0.40-0.45 wt % of table salt, 0.9-1.1 wt % of fluorspar concentrate, 1.4-1.7 wt % of lime with carbon content not over 0.2 wt % and 1.15-1.45 wt % with carbon content not exceeding 0.5 wt %. First, calcium and sodium hydroxides or calcium dichromate are mixed in drum mixer. Then, chromium oxide, aluminium, table salt, lime with carbon content not exceeding 0.2 wt % and chromium anhydride are loaded in said drum mixer and mixed. Produced mix is loaded into hearth. Blend is smelt at the rate of 360-460 kg/m2·min, some 2-4 min before smelting end lime with carbon content not exceeding 0.5 wt % is loaded onto furnace top. Portion of slag is discharged from said hearth into mould on wall accretion to load fluorspar concentrate onto remained slag. After complete dissolution of the latter it is discharged and chromium metal.
EFFECT: higher yield of chromium metal.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: production of pure niobium.
SUBSTANCE: method includes reducing fusion of niobium pentoxide with aluminum and calcium to provide crude ingots followed by heat treatment and multiple electron beam refining. As an additional raw material in step of reducing fusion sublimates (preferably in non-oxidized form) from second and subsequent electron beam refining are used. Such sublimates are obtained by subsequent cooling of furnace smelting chamber under residual pressure of 10-2-10-4 mmHg for 1.0-3.0 h, letting-to-helium under 1-3 mmHg for 1.0-3.0 h, and letting-to-air for 20-40 min. Sublimates are added in amount of 4.5 % based to feeding niobium pentoxide. Claimed method affords the ability to increase niobium pentoxide consumption by 73 kg in respect to 1000 kg of pure niobium in crude ingots.
EFFECT: production of pure niobium with increased effectiveness without deterioration of refined niobium quality.
2 cl, 1 tbl