Method of producing materials applicable for life-support manned space flights to mars, using local resources
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions intended for life-support manned space flights to Mars. Physical and chemical section is intended for producing oxygen, water, carbon oxide, ammonia and nitrogen-based fertiliser. Biological section is intended for producing edible biomass. Set of materials and devices includes physical-chemical and biological group sections for use on the Mars soil. As source material used is atmosphere of Mars and regolit.
EFFECT: production of oxygen, water, carbon monoxide, ammonia, nitrogen-based fertiliser and edible biomass from available in the place of resources.
8 cl, 3 dwg, 32 tbl
SUBSTANCE: ultrasonic drag head is designed for drilling of ground to the depth of up to 2 metres at the speed of up to 20 mm/min per passto take samples without changing the composition. Drag head consists of an ultrasonic oscillating system with a working tool, an ultrasonic generator and a control system. Ultrasonic generator and control system are fixed on a space lander. On a waveguide of ultrasonic oscillating system there installed is a frame on which heat-insulated containers to take ground samples with a turning opening/closing mechanism, heat accumulators and a passive temperature stabilisation system are fixed. Ultrasonic oscillating system is equipped with a temperature sensor of drag head containers, which is connected to the control system of drag head. Sizes of each next element of the ultrasonic oscillating system are chosen based on compliance with resonant frequency of piezoelectric converter.
EFFECT: invention is able to take ground samples without thermal destruction and evaporation of volatile components.
SUBSTANCE: drag head includes a drilling machine with a control system and a penetrator, which is fixed on a space lander. Heat insulated containers for soil sample excavation are fixed on the penetrator. The drilling machine is equipped with a temperature sensor of a penetrator tip, which is connected to the control system of the drilling machine.
EFFECT: invention allows improving quality of obtained soil samples.
4 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes erection of the main and auxiliary shafts with a drilling rig from a shelter building, installation of sealing and heat-insulating ramps in shaft collars. One of the auxiliary shafts is erected in the form of a microscope, drilled from an exploratory well by means of its expansion from an inner mine tunnel until reaching the surface of an nonterrestrial object and used as a saving shaft, which on the surface via a gate chamber contacts with a landing complex of a spacecraft. In the saving shaft in the area of its connection with the inner mine tunnel there is a sealing heat-insulation ramp installed, drilled solids are distributed into a crater of the nonterrestrial object.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to carry out salvage operations and to ensure the necessary ventilation in mines and pits, and also to establish a connection between the shafts on the nonterrestrial object surface.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to space engineering. Proposed device comprises pipeline 5, assembly to transfer container via pipeline and assembly to prepare and load container. The latter comprises rotary support 8 arranged on fixed support 7, bush 18 to accommodate container 17 and container cover 18. Transfer assembly comprises housing 19 accommodating gas-tight sleeve 20 representing, in initial position, a flat tape. Sleeve open end is tightly jointed with housing 19. Space 22 is communicated via air line 11 and start-and-shut-ff valve 12 with compressed gas source 10. Bush 16 has spring-loaded flange 24 and is locked by pyro cotter 27. Cover 18 is locked by pyro cotter 28. Support 8 is also locked by pyro cotter and provided with spring pusher 31 with rod 32 to displace transfer assembly, together with bush 16 and container 17, to under cover 18. Pyro cotter 27 operated, container 17 is closed by cover 18. Pyro cotter 28 and valve 12 operated, sleeve 20, straightening under gas pressure, displaces container 17 along pipeline 5. Delivery of container into autolander from any direction.
EFFECT: higher versatility of proposed device.
9 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining, particularly to methods of building of isolated sealed mines, grooves and mountain-drilling rooms, used for shelter of people, and also for introduction of exploration work and field development of minerals in geological material of nonterrestrial objects. Building method of mines and grooves on nonterrestrial objects includes opening of top horizons by one of shanks, opening of bottom horizon through main shank and delivering of rock from deepening of each shank and horizon by adjacent shank. Structure of main and auxiliary shanks is implemented by boring machine with headstock from building structure - shelter, connected to spacecraft. After spudding of one or other shank on its mouth there are installed sealing and heat insulating shelves. There is continued construction at the outset of auxiliary shank, opening top horizon, then it is continued construction of main shank, top horizon connects both shanks. Delivery of rock from passing of each shank and horizon is implemented by adjacent shank through building structure - shelter and chamber gate by means of carriage bogie. Top horizon is continued to construct up to inlet to lip of nonterrestrial object, outlet of horizon is equipped by chamber gate.
EFFECT: invention provides safe of drilling activities implementation and to reduce material expenses.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to processing lunar soil and production of helium-3 (He3) on the Moon, including its back side. The complex of facilities for production of (He3) from the lunar soil consists of a source of micro-waves of super-high frequency installed on the lunar surface, and also of control equipment. The source of micro-waves of super-high frequency radiates waves onto a section of lunar soil surface covered with transparent for radiation elastic pressurised jacket; further He is withdrawn from the zone covered with the jacket, is liquefied and collected. The control equipment is installed in points of libration (Lagrange points) of system the Earth-the Moon and is designed to re-translate a control signal to the back side of the Moon.
EFFECT: simplification of process and equipment for production of helium-3 (He3), and also possibility to produce helium-3 (He3) not only on visible side of the Moon, but on its back side.
SUBSTANCE: complex of development tools fro obtaining He3 from lunar soil includes draft gear, drag head, transporter, and receiving and processing unit. Draft gear is made in the form of two similar devices with removable ground traction boosters attached symmetrically at the opposite sides of the draft gear. Receiving and processing unit is placed beyond excavation zone. Receiving tool comprises a number of lunar soil banks obtained by soil casting from excavation zone to the processing unit. At that, the complex includes receiver-emitter device mounted at the draft gear for preliminary soil heating.
EFFECT: improved equipment operation efficiency and energy savings.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electrochemical method of obtaining copper acetylenides. Acetylenides of general formula R-C≡C-Cu, where R-alkyl (C6-C8), aryl is obtained by electrolysis of solution, which consists of alkyne of general formula R-C≡CH, where R-alkyl (C6-C8), aryl, anhydrous salt of alkaline-earth metal of general formula MX2, where M=Mg, Ca; X=Cl, Br, I and bipolar aprotic solvent (N,N-dimethylformamide, H,N-dimethylacetamide) in molar ratio alkyne : MX2 : solvent - 1:3:15 on copper electrodes and controlled potential E=2.4 V.
EFFECT: application of claimed method makes it possible to exclude toxic and expensive reagents, extend base of raw material, and simplify technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a water electrolytic generator for producing a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen via water electrolysis with flame treatment of materials, bipolar or monopolar-bipolar, having a housing with an electrolyte, a block of spaced-apart electrodes immersed in the electrolyte, said electrodes having openings for passage of the hydrogen-oxygen mixture and the electrolyte, and conductors for transmitting current to the electrodes. Said electrode block is placed in a tube made of dielectric material which encloses the electrodes without spacing around the periphery, one current-conducting wire connected to the electrode at the centre of the block and the other to both end electrodes.
EFFECT: use of the present invention enables to stabilise the composition of the electrolyte in the block, eliminate counterflow of gas or liquid in the electrode block, solves the problem of cracking due to triaxial expansion.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing hydrocarbons from carbon dioxide and water, in which the first reaction reservoir, which contains a positive electrode and a liquid electrolytic medium, including water and an ionising material, is provided; the second reaction reservoir, containing a negative electrode and the liquid electrolytic medium, which includes a mixture of water and carbon dioxide; the first and second reaction reservoirs are connected by connection means in the form of the liquid electrolytic medium; constant electric current is applied to the positive electrode and negative electrode, providing the formation of hydrocarbons on the negative electrode in the reaction reservoir and oxygen on the positive electrode in the reaction reservoir, with the reaction reservoirs working under the pressure higher than 1.5 atm and at different temperatures. The invention also relates to a device for the method realisation.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to efficiently produce hydrocarbons from water and carbon dioxide.
33 cl, 4 dwg, 3 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: methanesulphonic acid is used as a catalyst in olefin nitration, acylation, esterification and polymerisation reactions. Methanesulphonic acid is also used in chemical, electronic and radiochemical industries. A method of producing methanesulphonic acid is carried out via electrolysis of aqueous dimethyl sulphone solution on a methanesulphonic acid background; electrolysis is carried out from concentrated aqueous 0.2-1.6 M dimethyl sulphone solutions and is carried out in the anode compartment of a diaphragm cell, wherein after electrolysis, the anolyte is heated to 70-80°C. The objective of the present invention is to improve the method of producing methanesulphonic acid via electrolysis of highly concentrated aqueous dimethyl sulphone solutions.
EFFECT: efficiency of the process increases owing to high concentration of the raw material; obtaining methanesulphonic acid of high purity; considerably faster process of producing methanesulphonic acid, which does not require complex equipment; the intermediate product of electrolysis is a nontoxic and environmentally safe substance.
6 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a method for using a solid-polymer electrolytic cell, involving DC power supply and water feed, ensuring heating a solid-polymer electrolytic cell and water to a temperature providing the preset effectiveness and a respective value of electrolysis current, controlling the current temperature, pressure, electrolysis current, effectiveness in the process of heating of the solid-polymer electrolytic cell, recording the working pressure and working temperature, operating the electrolytic cell in the steady mode at the recorded working temperature at the pre-set effectiveness and pressure. The method is characterised by the fact that the electrolysis current is recorded once achieving the preset effectiveness during heating, and the working temperature - once achieving the working pressure at the pre-set recorded electrolysis current and minimum voltage supply.
EFFECT: using the method enables achieving the preset parameters of the electrolysis process with minimum power consumption.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in producing magnetic powders, permanent magnets, resin-bonded magnets, magnetic liquids and high-density magnetic recording devices. The method of producing barium hexaferrite includes preparing a barium hexaferrite suspension, depositing said suspension in a neutral or weakly alkaline medium and drying. The barium hexaferrite suspension is obtained using an electrochemical method by dissolving electrodes made of steel St3, the distance between which is 5-15 mm, in an electroconductive solution of barium hydroxide and sodium chloride. The process is carried out with concentration of Ba(OH)2 7-10 mg/dm3, NaCl 3-5 mg/dm3, voltage 8-10 V, temperature 85-90°C, current density 0.11 A/cm2.
EFFECT: invention simplifies production of fine barium hexaferrite powder.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes the following steps: obtaining pores under the effect of electrolysis in a plate with thickness of 700-730 mcm and area of up to 32 cm2 of monocrystalline silicon, which is the anode, with p-type conductivity, doped with boron with concentration of about 10-19 cm-3, with resistivity of 3-7·10-3 ohm·cm, the surfaces of which are directed in parallel to the crystallographic planes in a glass-carbon cup, which is the cathode; wherein the electrolyte used is a solution consisting of different volume parts of hydrofluoric acid and ethyl alcohol; subsequent separation of the obtained porous layers from the remaining part of the bulk crystal by increasing the applied voltage by 5-90%, which changes the mechanism of the electrochemical process and switches from pore-formation to continuous polishing etching; washing the separated layers in ethanol and drying in air, followed by stepwise thermal annealing and grinding to fine powder state. Annealing is carried out first for 2 hours at 250°C and then for 20 minutes at 650°C in a hydrogen atmosphere.
EFFECT: obtaining silicon biocompatible nanocarriers with porosity of 40-80% and size of end-to-end pores of 5-20 nm.
3 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metallurgy, and namely to cathode materials based on nanocrystalline Fe-Ni particles. A cathode for electrochemical hydrogen generation is made in the form of a steel substrate with a nanocomposite Fe-Ni coating applied onto its surface. The Fe-Ni coating with Ni content of 3-10 wt % has thickness of 0.5-0.9 mm and average grain size of up to 40 nm. A manufacturing method of a cathode for electrochemical hydrogen generation is characterised by the fact that a mechano-activated Fe-Ni powder nanocomposition with Ni content of 3-10 wt % is prepared and applied layer-by-layer onto the steel substrate, and layer-by-layer laser sintering is performed. Laser sintering is performed in vacuum with a fibre-optic pulse ytterbium laser at pulse generation frequency of 20000-100000 Hz and one-pulse time of 100 ns.
EFFECT: produced cathode is characterised by reduced hydrogen overvoltage.
2 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a cathode material for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) based on nickel-containing perovskite-like layered oxides. As perovskite-like oxide, taken is a compound of the general formula Pr2-xSrxNi1-yCoyO4-z, where 0.0<x<1.0; 0.0<y<1.0; -0.25≤z≤0.25.
EFFECT: cathode material possesses simultaneously high oxygen-ion conductivity, which has the value of the thermal expansion coefficient (TEC), close to TEC of the SOFC electrolyte.
1 ex, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of obtaining low-pressure hydrogen for further combustion and obtaining water vapour by means of low-voltage electrolysis of alkaline electrolyte of solution of salts of hydrohalic acids and their mixtures by constant current, by means of aluminium electrodes, with further extraction of oxygen from formed aluminium complexes into separate accumulating tank, with support of electrolyte composition and temperature and pressure control in electrochemical cell.
EFFECT: application of claimed method makes it possible to reduce danger in carrying out the process due to binding of resulting from reaction oxygen into complexes and possibility of its further utilisation.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular, to greenhouse facility, where carbon dioxide is used to feed plants to increase yields. The method comprises selecting, transportation and metering of carbon dioxide. Selection and simultaneous transportation of carbon dioxide to the fan 2 of the utiliser 1 of the boiler unit is performed in the automatic mode, depending on the concentration of carbon dioxide in each greenhouse. The concentration of carbon dioxide in the greenhouse is controlled by the sensor mounted in it. The constant metering of carbon dioxide into the greenhouse is performed automatically by adjusting the position of the valve 4 at the inlet of the greenhouse and change in pressure in the pipeline system by adjusting the rate of rotation of the fan according to the results of measuring the pressure in the pipeline system.
EFFECT: method enables to provide the possibility of the automatic control system of production, transportation and metering of carbon dioxide of the required concentration, the operation of the source of heat at low pressures without the use of network pumps, and dressing the plants with carbon dioxide free from harmful impurities at various methods of growing plants, including directly on the ground.