Method for destruction of strong high clay sands of gravel deposits and disintegration of their hydraulic mix during dredger suction
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in development of high-strength high-clay sands of precious metals gravel deposits in underwater faces. Process of strong high-clay sands destruction is performed in automatic mode by means of control system with mechanical ripper, installed in the direction of movement of the screen with slots, mechanical ripper is made in the form of conical roller cutter with elements of erosion destruction-washing, and conical roller cutter rotates at speed and presses the face with force depending on strength, hardness, abrasibility and fracturing of strong high clay sands. System is equipped with stationary hydrodynamic reflectors-cavitators with stiffness ribs to create resonant acoustic phenomena in hydrous flow before suction and intensification of mix solid component disintegration.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of strong high clay sands by means of conical roller cutter with elements of erosion destruction-washing and disintegration of the hydraulic mix mineral component by using resonance acoustic phenomena in hydrous flow by means of reflectors.
1 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: according to the method upper layer of gas hydrate mass is melted gradually by heating gas hydrate mass in bottom sediments of a water body up to temperature of 50-60°C. Heating is made by a heating element made as blade edge located along diameter of a cargo container lowered from a flotation device. The flotation device is made as a mobile underwater vehicle with retractable tract in the form of a container equipped with blade edge in the bottom part connected to heating elements inside container. Stability of the mobile underwater vehicle is endured in regard to the bottom of the water body. Container is rotated and electric current is supplied to heating elements. Gas hydrate stratum is heated up to 50-60°C. The container is lowered with rotation to the gas hydrate stratum with provision of single-point recovery of hydrates from the above stratum in solid state.
EFFECT: reduced material and operational expenditures and ecological consequences at gas hydrate extraction territory.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes production of gas hydrates, their transportation to a consumer and decomposition of gas hydrates with gas recovery. Gas hydrate recovery process is implemented at thermodynamic parameters corresponding to formation of gas hydrates. Transportation of gas hydrates is performed in sealed and heat insulated cargo spaces of a vehicle at thermodynamic parameters excluding decomposition of gas hydrates. Decomposition of gas hydrates with gas recovery upon completed transportation is made by reduction of pressure in cargo space of a vehicle up to atmospheric pressure. Process of gas hydrate recovery and their storage during transportation is carried out at temperature of -0.2°C and pressure of 1 MPa. At that gas hydrates are withdrawn in hydrate state as briquettes by n-containers run down in sequence to submarine reservoir of gas hydrates from a submarine vehicle. The submarine reservoir of gas hydrates is heated up by heating elements located at edges of n-containers. Each n-container is buried in sequence to submarine reservoir of gas hydrates to the depth twice exceeding the container height. Upon loading of each n-container by free falling of gas hydrates they are loaded to cargo space of a vehicle. The vehicle is made as a submarine vessel. While heating submarine reservoir of gas hydrates only reservoir section under the container is heated. Containers are filled with gas hydrates represented by briquettes of natural metastable mineral in hydrate solid state.
EFFECT: improving efficiency in recovery and transportation of gas hydrates due to reduced consumption of energy and reduced capital and current costs.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises mechanical destruction of seafloor layer by an stripping knife moving along the seafloor, and transportation of destruction products to the surface. The products of destruction are placed in elastic, gas-tight shells, which are collected along the surface and transported them to the place of use in the transportation vessel refrigerators. The combine is a moving platform with a knife for seafloor cleaning with the mounted video camera and the stripping knife under the hole in the platform designed as a horizontally rotating cylinder with the scrapers mounted on it. The platform has two mounted cylinders, the first is a container with shells located horizontally one above another one, and the second one, mounted above the hole, is a loading container in the top side of which the segments with drive mechanisms shifting them from the cylinder axis are located.
EFFECT: improvement of efficiency of ocean production of gas hydrates.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a clamshell ladle fitted with levers with bosses and flexible links, a sensor, a flexible cavity, a float. The device is also fitted with the vessel designed as a bent cylinder with the tapered extended cylindrical part which is inclined to the opposite side from the self-contained unit and through the frame is interconnected with it. The vessel is fixed on a cable with a possibility of vertical movement. The extended cylindrical part of the vessel is fitted with a sensor interacting with a sensor located in the container under a flexible cavity which is filled with liquid with a specific gravity, less than that of environment. The unloading hole of the extended cylindrical part of the vessel is fitted with the throwing-back tray. The distance from the clamshell ladle centreline to the tray in the thrown-back situation and distance from the lower edge of the clamshell ladle to the tray in the thrown-back situation are determined by the mathematical relations given in the description.
EFFECT: improvement of efficiency of underwater development of minerals.
5 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a delivery pipe for supply of minerals designed from top to bottom with a bell and a pipeline for coolant supply. The delivery pipe is designed as variable section pipe with formation of alternating cylindrical compartments with inlets and outlets, and the top parts of some compartments are arranged with inclination as cross-lying with reference to other compartments, and the lower parts of compartments are designed conical, interconnected with coolant supply pipelines. Outlets of compartments are located from inlet holes at the distance necessary for passing and maintaining of soil and ice bodies in a suspension provided that: L≥3·dmax, where L - is the distance between inlets and outlets of compartments, dmax - maximum diameter of soil and ice bodies.
EFFECT: improvement of efficiency of production of minerals from continental shelf.
SUBSTANCE: device includes a conveying capacity in the form of a grab bucket provided with levers with thrusts and flexible links, a start sensor located in a container and a flexible cavity. The latter is filled with liquid with a capsule located in it and containing reagents. A capsule throw valve is located at the top of the flexible cavity. Radio beacons are fixed inside the container, on its side walls, and coupling rings are located on the outside. Sodium chloride (3%) and sodium hypochloride (0.3%) are used as reagents.
EFFECT: improving efficiency of operations.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device includes a grab bucket with armoured jaws and flexible links by means of which the bucket is connected to a gas generator and to a flexible cavity start-up sensor, which are located in a container, and a float. The grab bucket is made from elastic material, and a flexible cavity is equipped with a cable located inside the cavity in the centre, the lower end of which is attached to a partition wall additionally installed between a gas generator and the flexible cavity, and the upper end of the cable is attached to the float. As the elastic material of the grab bucket there used is for example thermopolyutherane. The upper edge of the grab bucket is perforated. Armoured jaws of the grab bucket are provided with holes uniformly distributed throughout the surface area. A full air discharge valve is located at the top of the flexible cavity. The float is made in the form of a radio beacon.
EFFECT: improving efficiency of operations.
6 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: system contains at least one modular shaft with the central unit placed under water and an uprise buried to the ocean bottom and at least one air-lock chamber to transport duty shifts of workers, materials and equipment. Besides the system comprises at least one drilling area with a horizontal tunnel branched from the uprise in the central unit, and an inclined area for delivery of drill pipes and a vertical area in which bottom part there is a wellhead of at least one well. A power cable and control systems as well as pipeline in the protective shell for oil and gas transportation are connected to the modular shaft.
EFFECT: increasing development efficiency of subsea oil and gas deposits.
9 cl, 56 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises mineral feed pipe aligned inside hollow pipe with funnel at its bottom, and coolant feed pipeline. Additionally, this device comprises coolant feed pipelines distributed uniformly over hollow pipe perimeter, in funnel walls and in extra struts of said funnel. Hollow pipe is located at the level of funnel strut. Funnel strut inner walls are perforated. At the level of funnel, hollow pipe has vertical cut-outs furnished with plugs from top and bottom. Funnel strut top parts are also equipped with plugs.
EFFECT: continuous mining, lower power consumption and extraction costs, minimised negative effects on contamination of environments.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method for development of methane hydrates is based on their breaking by water jets at a temperature of more than 285K with the rate more than 1 m/s in a pulse mode with a frequency in the range from 1 up to 200 Hz, gasification and lifting from the seabed. A device for development of methane hydrates contains a floating device, handling equipment, a power generating unit, pipelines, a control unit and an underwater methane hydrate development unit in which body there is an installed infrared heater, a water-jet monitor with pressurised water feed equipment and a gas bleeder.
EFFECT: improvement of energy efficiency for underwater development of methane hydrates and their lifting to the floating device.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to processing of dredge spoils excavated by the dredger. The method of transportation of dredge spoils from the fields of excavation located in the area of re-use at a great distance from them comprises the steps at which the marine transport vessel is located for anchorage near the excavation area, with the much larger size than the dredge, adapted to receive a large amount of dredge spoils in a condition suitable for transportation, the excavation of dredge spoils, using at least one dredger, bringing the dredge spoils to a condition suitable for transportation by the supply of dredge spoils from the dredger to a centrifugal separator separating dredge spoils onto wet fraction and dry fraction, and the dry fraction is collected and fed to the gravity separator additionally separating the collected dry fraction to the drier and wetter fractions in comparison with the dry fraction, in which the drier fraction is collected in a transport vessel made with the ability to receive the drier fraction of dredge spoils and transportation of the drier fraction to the area of re-use using the transport vessel, the location of transport vessel for anchorage in the area of re-use and unloading of drier fraction from the transport vessel in the area of re-use.
EFFECT: delivery to the consumer of finished construction products is ensured, immediately after the processing of the underwater ground on the watercraft.
17 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining and can be used for dredging soil. The system to extract submerged sediments (3) of the geological allotment and their allotment is considered. From the free floating mining ship (1) the mixture of water and sediment is sucked by the submerged pump assembly through the flexible hose (7) made with the ability of winding on a rotating spool (5) located on the said mining ship when the ship sails over the geological allotment. The sucked mixture is then immediately fed into one of the series of free-floating cargo and transporting assemblies (27), which float along the board side. The system is provided with the length regulators of the suction hose and the length of the hanging ropes.
EFFECT: improving the efficiency of dredging soil.
11 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises discharge pipe, diffuser, mixing chamber, distribution chamber with working fluid feed pipe, funnel-shape confuser with curved-bulged surface smoothly changing in mixing chamber inlet, hydraulic loosening circular slotted nozzle arranged at confuser inlet and ejecting nozzle. Besides, it comprises one extra ejecting nozzle, all nozzles being composed of pipe communicating distribution chamber with mixing chamber and arranged at acute angle to mixing chamber axis. Axes of pipes at the cross point with chamber mirror axis are located, on one side from mirror axis, at 0.75-1.25 of pipe diameter.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, longer life.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device comprises an underwater vessel with atmospheric pressure of air, a trolley, a pulp line with a cone-shaped mixer and a jacket, a bracket with a trolley and a jacket, a vertically arranged working organ with a hydraulic motor, its shaft and tillers. On the shaft of the hydraulic motor there is a conical body, tillers are made in the form of cutters and fixed on the conical body. On the side surface of the conical body there are through holes with transverse size of not less than concretion size. The conical body with cutters is installed below the horizontal input section of the mixer. The bracket is connected with the trolley by means of a rotary hydraulic cylinder with the vertical axis of rotation.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of a soil intake device due to achievement of continuity of the process for production of minerals at the specified area of the water reservoir bottom.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: cable assembly includes a frame-lifting and swing winches with programmable winding of ropes onto drums rotated with angular speed, which is directly proportional to lengths of wound cables, blocks on the frame-lifting boom of the suction dredge and life ropes with roller carriages arranged on canal shores in parallel to its longitudinal axis. The device is also equipped with a follower cable, branches of which via blocks on the frame of the snapper and the frame-lifting boom of the suction dredge are connected to the frame-lifting winch arranged in the form of two drums arranged on one shaft synchronised with a reversible programmable drive, and are fixed to life cables perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the canal with the help of roller carriages. Roller carriages are equipped with fixators, with which roller carriages of swing winches are also equipped.
EFFECT: by control of snapper position in a canal section in connection with suction dredge displacement along the canal axis, the specified curvilinear underwater cross section of the canal is formed, which corresponds to the stable bed of the canal, and production of works is simplified.
SUBSTANCE: device includes a floating base placed in a water reservoir with swing and hoist winches, a submersible dredging pump. To energise the floating base, the device comprises a power supply cable. A discharge pipeline, which connects the pump with an accumulating hopper placed on the shore of the water reservoir, is made of polyethylene pipes and has two parts, connected between themselves in the flange connection - the shore one and the one arranged in water. The discharge pipeline is connected to the dredging pump with a submersible unit. The part of the pipeline arranged in water is connected to the submersible pump in the submersible unit placed in a heated room of the floating base. The shore part of the discharge pipeline is placed in soil at the depth exceeding the depth of the possible freezing of the shore soil. The submersible part of the pipeline is placed in the water reservoir at the depth exceeding the depth of the possible freezing of water. The submersible part of the pipeline has detachable loading yokes fixed outside to give them negative buoyancy. The submersible unit is mounted on the floating base with the possibility of vertical displacement and fixation. The floating base is mounted on a pontoon or on two joined parallel pontoons. Lateral sides of the pontoon or pontoons are made at the angle of more than 45° to the vertical plane, the top of which faces the base. The power supply cable is made as submersible, equipped with a protective jacket and fixed on a submersible part of the pipeline. The accumulating hopper has heat insulation and a heating system or is installed in a heated room.
EFFECT: expansion of functional capabilities of the device due to provision of sapropel production at any time of the year.
4 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device to maintain a lane around a hydraulic dredger includes a suction nozzle with a suction tip communicated with a discharge pipeline, equipped with an exhaust nozzle and a water-outlet nozzle, a hydraulic pump. At the same time the suction nozzle with the suction tip and the hydraulic pump is installed on a pontoon, behind the hydraulic dredger. A box is fixed to the pontoon at the level of the suction tip, and the discharge pipeline is located directly in the bottomhole, the outlet nozzle of which is located under water at the level of the hydraulic dredger, and its nozzle is aligned in direction of the hydraulic dredger movement.
EFFECT: lighter design of hydraulic dredger, development of continuous artificial flow, liquidation of a stagnant area.
SUBSTANCE: device for cleaning of water reservoirs from bottom deposits includes two tight loading-unloading reservoirs, every of which is equipped with a nozzle for air supply installed in its upper part, a nozzle for suction of bottom deposits installed in its lower part, and a nozzle for displacement of a hydraulic mixture into a common lifting pipeline installed in the bottom part of the reservoir. The device is equipped with a soil intake assembly of a bucket type, which is common for both reservoirs and where suction nozzles are connected for bottom deposits from both reservoirs, and an additional nozzle of air supply is installed. At the same time nozzles of air supply installed in each reservoir have a branch for air supply to a near-bottom part of the tight reservoir.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of suction process as the suction organ is submerged into dense grain bottom deposits, provision of even soil intake process.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a submerged or a semi-submerged chamber with an intake element, a discharge element and a pump. According to the first version of the device realisation, the chamber is equipped with a vertical partition with a discharge nozzle arranged in it above the chamber bottom. The pump is located in one part of the chamber, and the intake element - in the other part of the chamber. According to the second version of realisation, the chamber is equipped with an additional chamber, which is connected to the main chamber by means of a discharge nozzle arranged above the chamber bottom. The pump is located in the additional chamber, and the intake element - in the main chamber. The intake element according to any of the versions is equipped with an inlet valve and is arranged in the form of a nozzle, one part of which is located outside the chamber. The discharge element is arranged in the form of a discharge pipeline with a check valve connected to the pump.
EFFECT: improved reliability of the device operation due to elimination of pump failures, reduced labour expenditures due to exclusion of additional operations for cleaning of produced sapropel from various fine inclusions and improved quality of the finished product.
14 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device for underwater development of rocks comprises frame, actuating element in the form of chain-and-bucket, discharge coal slurry pipeline, hopper. Device is additionally equipped with platform having walker, with the possibility of longitudinal and transverse motion, arranged in the form of skis installed on eccentric shafts. Chain-and-bucket is fixed on frame at side of device.
EFFECT: invention provides for autonomous operation in complicated mining and hydraulic-geological conditions and extraction of burs with minimum losses and disturbed condition of bottom deposits.
FIELD: sapropel extraction technologies.
SUBSTANCE: device has watercraft, rectangular receiving device in plan with two side vertical walls, device for catching and transporting sapropel and tank for it. Watercraft is made of platform on two pontoons, and between pontoons receiving device is placed, provided with slanting relatively to platform end walls with forming of closed space. Upper edges of side and end walls are placed above water surface, and lower ones - in productive sapropel bed below clear water layer. Device for catching and transporting sapropel is made in form of one-chain conveyor, tail portion of which is suspended on twin ropes and placed in productive sapropel bed. Free ends of each pair of ropes are fixed with possible winding together and onto hand-actuated winch drum with stopping gear, mounted on two interconnected floats. Head portion of one-chain conveyor is placed at shore with forming of convex and concave, in vertical plane, portions with placement of slanting portion within receiving device and fixing thereon via corbels. Receiving device on platform is fixed on the side of shore via joints, and on the opposite side is suspended to platform with two flexible elements, free ends of which are fixed with possible winding together and onto winches drums.
EFFECT: higher effectiveness and productiveness.