Antidote for carbon monoxide and hepatotoxic substances

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, namely to pharmacology, and describes antidote of carbon monoxide and hepatotoxic substances. Antidote is ammonia-zinc salt of soluble oxidised lignin with general formula (CxHyOz)n(NH3)k(Zn)m, where x = 14-16; y = 11-13; z = 5-7; n = 1.0-20; k = 1-30; m = 1-1.2.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of treatment and prevention of poisoning with carbon monoxide (CO) and hepatotoxic agents and can be used for treating hypoxic states of various aetiology.

1 cl, 7 ex, 11 tbl

 



 

Same patents:

FIELD: biotechnology.

SUBSTANCE: method of processing plant biomass comprises its hydrothermomechanical treatment in a liquid medium at a temperature of self-heating, and separating the resulting suspension to separate fractions. At that the plant biomass with the ratio water/biomass of 10:90 to 90:10 is subjected to hydrothermomechanical treatment at a temperature of self-heating of the reaction mixture of 45°C - 240°C to obtain a particle size of solid phase of not more than 1000 mcm, the resulting aqueous suspension is separated at a temperature of the reaction mixture to the solid cellulose-containing fraction and a liquid fraction containing lignin, which is mixed with the plant biomass, not subjected to hydrothermomechanical treatment and/or with plant biomass previously subjected to the aid hydrothermomechanical treatment, liquid is removed from the resulting mixture, and the resulting mass is directed to form the target products.

EFFECT: method enables to improve environmental friendliness and versatility of the process of processing plant biomass, to eliminate from the technological cycle the toxic organic solvents, and to obtain environmentally friendly products from natural plant materials.

3 cl, 3 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to application of sulphided lignin as anti-scuff additive in lubricating composition.

EFFECT: extension of areas of sulphided lignin application, application of sulphided lignin for wear reduction in wheel-rail pair.

1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biotechnology. A method of lignocellulosic biomass processing is offered. Soaking a lignocellulosic biomass feedstock in steam or liquid water or a mixture thereof in the temperature range of 100 to 210°C for 1 minute to 24 hours to create a soaked biomass containing a dry content and the first liquid. Separating at least a portion of the first liquid from the soaked biomass to create the first liquid stream and the first solid stream. The first solid stream comprises the soaked biomass. Treating the first solid stream with steam to create a steam treated stream.

EFFECT: severe conditions of steam treatment ensure low concentrations of furfural in the product.

22 cl, 9 dwg, 30 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a cationic electrodepositable coating composition. The cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprises a film-forming resin and a lignin-containing cationic salt resin dispersed in water. The invention also relates to a cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising water dispersed film-forming resin and a lignin containing film-forming resin wherein the lignin has not been reacted with a monofunctional compound and wherein the lignin comprises ≥5 wt % of the coating composition based on the total resin solids of the coating composition. The present invention is also directed to yet another method of making a cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising: (i) reacting lignin and epichlorohydrin to form an intermediate reaction product, and then reacting the intermediate reaction product with an amine; and (ii) reacting the reaction product of (i) with an amine and an acid.

EFFECT: raw materials from renewable and/or inexpensive sources.

20 cl, 4 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of complex processing of vegetable biomass includes hydrothermomechanical processing of destructed vegetable biomass in liquid medium and separation of obtained pulp into target products in form of separate fractions. At the first stage pulp, obtained by mixing of water and vegetable wastes, is processed by mechanical impact in device, causing self-heating of pulp components, at the second stage after processing of pulp at temperature of self-heating 40+/-5°C part of liquid fraction is discharged from pulp, at the third stage water is added and hydrothemomechanical processing is repeated, providing self-heating of mixture to 120+/-5°C or hydrothermomechanical processing is carried out at temperature not higher than 200°C by said self-heating and additional heating, in the process of the following mixture cooling separated are solid phase dispersed in pulp cellulose fraction at reduction of pulp temperature to 100±5°C, lignine fraction, deposited at reduction of pulp temperature to 40±5°C, - liquid fraction in form of mixture of water and low molecular organic or inorganic compounds, which are soluble in water and/or precipitate at temperatures lower than 40±5°C, with hydrothermomechanical processing being carried out in water at ratio of water/biomass from 20:80 to 80:20.

EFFECT: method is environmentally friendly, is characterised by high degree of target product extraction, which results in obtaining fractions, suitable for further application.

4 cl, 5 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: treatment is carried out in an aqueous-organic solvent medium.

EFFECT: high solubility of hydrolysed lignin and shorter duration of treatment.

2 cl, 1 tbl, 13 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: lignocellulose biomass is fed at first pressure and first temperature. The biomass includes a first solid fraction which contains insoluble lignin and a first liquid fraction which contains soluble C6 saccharides, and soluble lignin. Before said phased feeding, at least part of the C6 saccharides is removed from the biomass by fractionation. The first biomass pressure is lowered to a second pressure while virtually simultaneously lowering the first biomass temperature to a second temperature. Virtually simultaneous reduction of second pressure and second temperature to third pressure and third temperature is carried out to deposit soluble lignin into the first liquid fraction. A mixture is formed, which contains a second solid fraction which contains insoluble lignin, and deposited lignin, as well as a second liquid fraction which contains soluble C6 saccharides. The invention enables to obtain a lignin product with small particles for improving combustion efficiency and preventing typical problems of equipment clogging and high degree of energy recovery.

EFFECT: reduced clogging of equipment with lignin when processing lignocellulose biomass.

29 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: when implementing the method (version 1), the starting material used is hydrotropic lignin obtained from silver grass, which is mixed with water. Hydrolysis is carried out at atmospheric pressure. The mixture is heated to water boiling point and held for 5-60 minutes. After holding, the solid phase is then collected, dried and treated with acetone at room temperature. The solid phase is then separated. Acetone is then removed from the filtrate at room temperature to obtain a thermoplastic polymer. When implementing the method (version 2), the starting material used is crushed silver grass, which is mixed with water. Hydrolysis is carried out at high pressure. The mixture is heated to temperature of 180-190°C and held for 5-60 minutes. After holding, the reaction mixture is cooled to room temperature. The solid phase is collected, washed with water until the rinse water becomes clear, dried at temperature of 100-110°C and then treated with acetone while boiling for 30-60 minutes. The solid phase is then separated. Acetone is then removed from the filtrate at room temperature. The obtained intermediate product is treated with acetone at room temperature. The solid phase is separated. Acetone is removed from the filtrate at room temperature to obtain a thermoplastic polymer.

EFFECT: each version of the invention improves environmental safety, technological expediency and operational properties of the method of producing an end product which is soluble in an organic solvent and has a low melting point.

3 cl, 2 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to catalytic processes. Described is a method for synthesis of a catalyst for oxidative cracking of organic material, including biomass, involving heating water containing 1-10% lower alcohol to 58-75°C, adding FeCl3×6H2O and soda with weight ratio of iron chloride to soda of 1.5-80, holding the aqueous solution at temperature of 58-75°C for at least 10 minutes while stirring and leaving the aqueous solution until complete precipitation of Fe3+. Described is use of a catalyst obtained using said method for oxidative cracking of organic material.

EFFECT: high catalyst activity.

14 cl, 8 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of powdered cellulose from cellulose materials. The method involves breaking down cellulose material using a Lewis acid solution and an organic solvent while stirring. The breakdown process takes place at low concentration of the Lewis acid solution using a minimal amount of organic solvent. The product is washed and dried. The cellulose material used is different types of lignocellulose materials obtained from semi-finished wood products which are obtained during processing thereof at paper mills, straw of grain crops and waste paper material.

EFFECT: obtained powdered cellulose has high chemical reactivity and can be used in analytical chemistry, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry, to modify cellulose and lignocellulose materials and when producing derivatives thereof for special purposes.

2 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: biotechnology.

SUBSTANCE: method of processing plant biomass comprises its hydrothermomechanical treatment in a liquid medium at a temperature of self-heating, and separating the resulting suspension to separate fractions. At that the plant biomass with the ratio water/biomass of 10:90 to 90:10 is subjected to hydrothermomechanical treatment at a temperature of self-heating of the reaction mixture of 45°C - 240°C to obtain a particle size of solid phase of not more than 1000 mcm, the resulting aqueous suspension is separated at a temperature of the reaction mixture to the solid cellulose-containing fraction and a liquid fraction containing lignin, which is mixed with the plant biomass, not subjected to hydrothermomechanical treatment and/or with plant biomass previously subjected to the aid hydrothermomechanical treatment, liquid is removed from the resulting mixture, and the resulting mass is directed to form the target products.

EFFECT: method enables to improve environmental friendliness and versatility of the process of processing plant biomass, to eliminate from the technological cycle the toxic organic solvents, and to obtain environmentally friendly products from natural plant materials.

3 cl, 3 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a cationic electrodepositable coating composition. The cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprises a film-forming resin and a lignin-containing cationic salt resin dispersed in water. The invention also relates to a cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising water dispersed film-forming resin and a lignin containing film-forming resin wherein the lignin has not been reacted with a monofunctional compound and wherein the lignin comprises ≥5 wt % of the coating composition based on the total resin solids of the coating composition. The present invention is also directed to yet another method of making a cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising: (i) reacting lignin and epichlorohydrin to form an intermediate reaction product, and then reacting the intermediate reaction product with an amine; and (ii) reacting the reaction product of (i) with an amine and an acid.

EFFECT: raw materials from renewable and/or inexpensive sources.

20 cl, 4 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of complex processing of vegetable biomass includes hydrothermomechanical processing of destructed vegetable biomass in liquid medium and separation of obtained pulp into target products in form of separate fractions. At the first stage pulp, obtained by mixing of water and vegetable wastes, is processed by mechanical impact in device, causing self-heating of pulp components, at the second stage after processing of pulp at temperature of self-heating 40+/-5°C part of liquid fraction is discharged from pulp, at the third stage water is added and hydrothemomechanical processing is repeated, providing self-heating of mixture to 120+/-5°C or hydrothermomechanical processing is carried out at temperature not higher than 200°C by said self-heating and additional heating, in the process of the following mixture cooling separated are solid phase dispersed in pulp cellulose fraction at reduction of pulp temperature to 100±5°C, lignine fraction, deposited at reduction of pulp temperature to 40±5°C, - liquid fraction in form of mixture of water and low molecular organic or inorganic compounds, which are soluble in water and/or precipitate at temperatures lower than 40±5°C, with hydrothermomechanical processing being carried out in water at ratio of water/biomass from 20:80 to 80:20.

EFFECT: method is environmentally friendly, is characterised by high degree of target product extraction, which results in obtaining fractions, suitable for further application.

4 cl, 5 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: treatment is carried out in an aqueous-organic solvent medium.

EFFECT: high solubility of hydrolysed lignin and shorter duration of treatment.

2 cl, 1 tbl, 13 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: lignocellulose biomass is fed at first pressure and first temperature. The biomass includes a first solid fraction which contains insoluble lignin and a first liquid fraction which contains soluble C6 saccharides, and soluble lignin. Before said phased feeding, at least part of the C6 saccharides is removed from the biomass by fractionation. The first biomass pressure is lowered to a second pressure while virtually simultaneously lowering the first biomass temperature to a second temperature. Virtually simultaneous reduction of second pressure and second temperature to third pressure and third temperature is carried out to deposit soluble lignin into the first liquid fraction. A mixture is formed, which contains a second solid fraction which contains insoluble lignin, and deposited lignin, as well as a second liquid fraction which contains soluble C6 saccharides. The invention enables to obtain a lignin product with small particles for improving combustion efficiency and preventing typical problems of equipment clogging and high degree of energy recovery.

EFFECT: reduced clogging of equipment with lignin when processing lignocellulose biomass.

29 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: when implementing the method (version 1), the starting material used is hydrotropic lignin obtained from silver grass, which is mixed with water. Hydrolysis is carried out at atmospheric pressure. The mixture is heated to water boiling point and held for 5-60 minutes. After holding, the solid phase is then collected, dried and treated with acetone at room temperature. The solid phase is then separated. Acetone is then removed from the filtrate at room temperature to obtain a thermoplastic polymer. When implementing the method (version 2), the starting material used is crushed silver grass, which is mixed with water. Hydrolysis is carried out at high pressure. The mixture is heated to temperature of 180-190°C and held for 5-60 minutes. After holding, the reaction mixture is cooled to room temperature. The solid phase is collected, washed with water until the rinse water becomes clear, dried at temperature of 100-110°C and then treated with acetone while boiling for 30-60 minutes. The solid phase is then separated. Acetone is then removed from the filtrate at room temperature. The obtained intermediate product is treated with acetone at room temperature. The solid phase is separated. Acetone is removed from the filtrate at room temperature to obtain a thermoplastic polymer.

EFFECT: each version of the invention improves environmental safety, technological expediency and operational properties of the method of producing an end product which is soluble in an organic solvent and has a low melting point.

3 cl, 2 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of processing cellulose-containing material involves prehydrolysis, boiling lignocellulose in a 30% hydrotropic solution, filtering the obtained cellulose, washing it with 30% hydrotropic solution, washing with water, bleaching the cellulose mass with hydrogen peroxide in sodium hydroxide solution to obtain bleached cellulose, treating with an acid solution and then with a solvent, filtering and drying, where treatment of the spent cooking liquor (filtrate) is carried out with water at temperature 50°C; lignin is filtered, washed and dried; the cellulose-containing material used is silver-grass or fruit coats of cereal crops or straws of cereal crops.

EFFECT: obtaining quality cellulose and native lignin from non-wood material using environmentally friendly technologies.

6 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: antipyrene is a mixture of products of oxidation of a lignin-containing substrate. The lignin-containing substrate used is wastes from wood-work and timber processing industry. The antipyrene is obtained through liquid-phase oxidation of a lignin-containing substrate in an alkaline medium in the presence or absence of a catalyst at temperature ranging from room temperature to 90°C under the effect of an oxidising agent. The oxidising agent is selected from a group comprising air, oxygen, ozone and hydrogen peroxide. The catalyst used is metal salts, primarily copper (II) or cobalt (II) salts. The antipyrene is used in form of a liquid mixture or dry powder of a mixture of products of oxidation of a lignin-containing substrate. The antipyrene is used to produce low-inflammability materials, for fire-retardant processing of articles made from wood and other combustible materials, as well as for extinguishing combustion sources. The liquid mixture of products of oxidation of a lignin-containing substrate is applied onto the surface of a combustible material and dried until formation of a film of antipyrene on the surface of the said material. Alternatively, the mixture of products of oxidation of the lignin-containing substrate is mixed with a solid combustible material and dried. The dry powder of the mixture of products of oxidation of the lignin-containing substrate is added into molten polymer thermoplastic and fire-resistant articles are then mouled from the obtained composite material. A combustion source is treated by the antipyrene by spraying or sprinkling.

EFFECT: antipyrene is an efficient, environmentally safe fire-retardant agent.

24 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: detection is carried out by treating the intermediate product with sulphuric acid. The intermediate product is then undergoes successive nitration with concentrated nitric acid, alkalisation and amount of lignin is photometrically determined.

EFFECT: simple and fast process.

2 tbl, 24 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of recycling organochloride wastes from chemical production through their condensation in mild conditions in the presence of sodium polysulphide, obtained from reacting sodium sulphide with sulphur and NaOH, while heating to temperature from 60 to 95°C for 3 to 4 hours with hydrolysed lignin which has been activated by mono- or multiple chlorination with chlorine water which contains 7.0-14.0 active chlorine per 1 dm3 of water, with subsequent acidification of the reaction medium and separation of the condensation product through filtering. The invention also relates to a modifying additive for bitumen, which is a product of condensation, whose components are in the following ratio (in wt %): sodium sulphide (anhydrous) 9.55-20.50; sulphur 1.97-8.46; sodium hydroxide 6.65-8.45; organochloride wastes from chemical production 9.83-26.40; hydrolysed lignin which has been activated by mono- or multiple chlorination with chlorine water - up to 100.

EFFECT: increased selectivity and efficiency of the process of bonding toxic organochloride compounds with lignin, obtaining a modifying additive for bitumen with high compatibility of lignin with bitumen.

3 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: what is presented is a method for acute exposure to organophosphates with pronounced non-anticholinesterase mode of toxicity. A method consists in preventive administration of β-oestradiol 100 mg/kg 20-60 min prior to application of the toxic agent organophosphate.

EFFECT: reducing the manifestations of first signs of the exposure, developing convulsions and complete elimination of animals' death experimentally, administering β-oestradiol 5 days or 1 day before the exposure has not been producing such an effect.

3 tbl

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