Method of producing aqueous paste of nickel hydroxide
FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electrical engineering, namely to production of aqueous paste of nickelous hydroxide. As starting material used is alkaline industrial effluents directly from section of producing metal ceramic nickel oxide electrodes containing admixture KOH, K2SO4 and hydrate suspension, which are settled, then suspension is washed and filtered.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain fine highly active fraction of nickelous hydroxide with simplification of method.
4 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: at first surface of nickel containing material is degreased, further it is treated approximately for 10 minutes to make surface rough in approximately 1% solution of hydrochloric acid; also process is accelerated with addition of hydrogen peroxide. Surface of nickel containing material is washed, then this material is inserted into 3.5 molar solution of caustic alkali mixed with approximately 10% hydrogen peroxide and maintained there approximately for 10 minutes. In the following thermal process surface of nickel hydroxide thereby obtained is dehydrated and oxidised to nickel oxide. The invention also refers to electro-conducting surface layer thus obtained, also to electrodes produced out of it, to their application in the process of chlorine-alkaline electrolysis and in fuel elements and accumulators.
EFFECT: facilitating extremely high electro-conductivity of nickel oxide surface layers.
9 cl, 2 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: electrical engineering; stabilizing active material in electrode strip manufacture for alkali batteries.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes addition of alkali to pasty active material in amount desired to attain stabilization of concentration calculated using data on quantitative composition and physicochemical properties of material ingredients according to relevant formula. Proposed method can be likewise effectively used for manufacturing non-sintered positive electrodes basing on highly porous metal electrode samples in the form of strip and using various pasty materials for any types of alkali batteries.
EFFECT: reduced material input and labor consumption, enhanced quality of product.
1 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: electrotechnical industry; method of production of the nickel hydroxide for anode mass of the nickel oxide electrode of the alkaline accumulators.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to field of the electrical technology and may be used for the industrial production of the anode masses for the alkaline cadmium-nickel accumulators. The technical result of the invention is reduction of the material and power inputs at production of nickel hydroxide due to improvement of the manufacturability of the process of the nickel hydroxide scrubbing from sodium sulfate, decrease of the nickel-containing raw losses and stabilization of the high electrochemical activity of the nickel hydroxide. The method includes deposition of the nickelous hydroxide from the solution of the nickel sulfate by the solution of the sodium alkali with the additive of the sodium carbonate at dozing of the solutions with the subsequent filtration, washing and drying, during which at the nickel hydroxide deposition the retention of the of sodium alkali excess within the limits of 0.025-007 g/mmole is ensured, due to maintaining of the constant ratio of the solutions, at which per 1 g/mmole of the nickelous sulfate solution there are 4.5-5.3 g/mole of the sodium alkali and 0.35-0.41 g/mole of the sodium carbonate.
EFFECT: the invention ensures reduction of the material and power inputs at production of nickel hydroxide due to improvement of the manufacturability of the process of the nickel hydroxide scrubbing from sodium sulfate, decrease of the nickel-containing raw losses and stabilization of the high electrochemical activity of the nickel hydroxide.
3 dwg, 34 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: electrical engineering; plate mass for industrial production of nickel-cadmium batteries.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for producing nickel hydroxide for plate mass of nickel-cadmium battery includes precipitation of nickel hydroxide from nickel salt solution by alkali solution doped with sodium carbonate while continuously dosing solutions followed by filtration, washing, and drying; novelty is that solutions are dosed while maintaining mass discharge of solutions in proportion of 0.334-0.384 kg/min of alkali solution per 1 kg/min of nickel sulfate of 0.43-0.5 g/mole concentration, doped with sodium carbonate, sodium alkali and sodium carbonate concentrations being 6.5 - 7.4 and 0.47 - 0.6 g/mole, respectively; changes in pressure of solution columns within tanks is determined for correcting rate of discharge of source solutions.
EFFECT: enhanced electrochemical activity of nickel hydroxide produced for plate mass of nickel-cadmium battery.
1 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: electrical engineering; industrial production of anodic masses for alkali nickel-cadmium batteries.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method used in production of alkali batteries with oxide-nickel plate electrodes involves separation of metal component from anodic mass by deforming oxide-nickel plate electrodes at pressure of 19 - 45 N/mm2 for 0.5 - 1 s, sieving, and magnetic separation, followed by leaching of anodic mass with sulfuric acid solution of 200 - 300 g/l concentration to ion content Ni 65 110 g/l at temperature of 60 - 80 °C to pH = 3.5 - 5.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of nickel use in battery manufacture, reduced pollution of environment.
1 cl 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of contact welding of a current collector unit to a base of a fibrous electrode of an alkaline accumulator includes cutting of the base in compliance with the electrode stock, pre-pressing of a zone of additional deposition of nickel, with the area of 5.8-6.9%, relative to the total area of the stock, with the specific pressure of 21400 - 22300 kgf/cm2 and welding of a contact plank with current of 130-160 A for 0.15-0.35 s.
EFFECT: increased service life and higher capacity characteristics of nickel-cadmium accumulators with fibrous electrodes by means of increasing quality of contact welding of a current collector unit is the technical result of the invention.
FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: nickel-zinc storage battery comprises housing accommodating interconnected electrodes place in electrolyte. Interconnected positive electrodes are fitted between negative electrodes and separated therefrom by separators. Every electrode consists of current conducting foil-like element with edge flanged along its perimetre. Active mass is built-up on foil side surfaces. Negative or positive electrode being produced, homogeneous mix of active mass consists of either binder and interlayer compound of zinc or nickel with graphite. Active mass outer surfaces support separators. Method of making active mass comprises separate production of interlayer compounds of zinc and nickel with graphite. For this mixes of zinc and nickel chlorides are preliminary heated to 85°C to 150°C. Then aforesaid surfaces are treated by 85%- to 95%-concentrated nitric acid for 1.5 to 5.0 and 2.0 to 6.0 h, respectively. Produced interlayer compounds are separately flushed to produce neutral reactions and dewatered. Dewatered compounds are, now, ground to finely produce negative or positive electrode.
EFFECT: higher reliability, specific capacity, lower weight and costs.
3 cl, 4 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to electric engineering, namely to sources of supply, which may be installed in various transport means: hybrid electric cars, electric cars with power plants on fuel elements, etc. According to invention, method for operation of nickel-metal hydride buffer batteries consists in execution of rapid charge, switching to floating with low current and execution of discharge to achieve minimum voltage, rapid charge with current of up to 20 C is carried out until maximum voltage is achieved in accumulator or group of accumulators, which is calculated according to the following formula Umax=UC-k×(t-t0)+R× (lC-lRC), where UC is final charge voltage of accumulator (or group of accumulators) at rated charge current lRC at temperature of t0=20°C, k is temperature coefficient of voltage, t is temperature of accumulator, lC is charge current, R is resistance of accumulator (or group of accumulators), which corresponds to achievement of 85 - 90 % of maximum charge capacity; discharge is executed until minimum voltage is achieved in accumulator or group of accumulators: Umin=Ud-k×(t-t0)-R×(Id-Ird), where Ud is final discharge voltage of accumulator (or group of accumulators) at rated current of discharge lrd at temperature of t0=20°C; discharge or rapid charge is interrupted, when maximum temperature is achieved, equal to 60 - 65°C; repeated switching to rapid charge is carried out only after at least 10% of rated capacity is spent or after storage of more than 10 days.
EFFECT: high resource reliability in operation and high efficiency of battery.
FIELD: chemistry; electricity.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical source of electric energy and can be applied in designing and producing nickel cadmium battery with alkaline electrolyte. According to the invention nickel cadmium battery contains a metal container in which accumulators joined between each other with buses are placed. The accumulators consists of a vessel with multilayered separators separated by positive nickel oxide electrodes, negative cadmium electrodes, note that coarse porous separators are applied on positive and negative electrodes and fine porous separator is placed between them. The separators have particular characteristic ratio.
EFFECT: improvement of gas withdrawal from accumulators during charge, extended work life, increase of reliability and security of service within continuous application of accumulator batteries by aggravating formation of cadmium bridges.
SUBSTANCE: invention is used in alkaline accumulators comprising a positive electrode from spherical nickel hydroxide and negative electrode from zinc oxide which are divided by combined porous separator, alkaline electrolyte and cell jar with valve. In order to absorb released gases and ensure long life of the accumulator valve with opening pressure of (3.0-3.5)·102 kPa is used providing for the stabilisation of total gas pressure at the level of (1.0-1.2)·102 kPa.
EFFECT: long life of the accumulator in sealed state.
SUBSTANCE: invention is attributed to alkaline accumulators, specifically to zinc-nickel accumulators. In this invention zinc-nickel accumulator comprises casing, alkaline ionogen solution, positive and negative electrodes separated by multilayer separator and porous metal inserts located in multilayer separator between positive and negative electrodes. In this structure the said metal inserts are electrically connected among themselves or made as single zigzag tape the zigs of which are located in multilayer separator between positive and negative electrodes. Edges of separate inserts or edges of single tape zigs can protrude out of separator for 1÷1.5 mm. Capron separator is used at positive electrodes and separator made of nonwoven polypropylene and alkali-proof paper is used at negative electrodes. The insert can be made of nickel foil 50÷60 micron in thickness and with porosity of 40÷50%. Zincate ionogen obtained from reaction of 50 g of ZnO with 1 l "КОН" with specific density of 1.3 g/cm3 is taken as electrolyte.
EFFECT: improvement of resource and electric characteristics.
6 cl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention is attributed to the field of electric engineering and can be used in manufacturing zinc electrodes for alkaline accumulators. According to the invention this is method for zinc electrode manufacturing for alkaline accumulator in which active mass containing bonding material is applied on electric conductive base and dried in air. In this process, the base is made of tin-lined copper sponge with thickness of 2.0÷2.5 mm, porosity of 80÷90% and with density of 0.3÷0.35 g/cm3, and 3% polyvinyl alcohol solution is taken as bonding material. Active mass is applied on the base in quantity of 1.2÷1.25 g/Ah. After the active mass has been applied, the electrode is pasted with alkali-proof paper and re-pressed to thickness of 0.8÷1.0 mm, and then dried at temperature of 45÷50°C for 5÷8 hours.
EFFECT: increase in specific electric characteristics.
4 cl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention is attributed to electric engineering industry and can be used in chemical current source production. In this invention method consists in oxide-nickel electrode manufacturing when finely dispersed nickel powder is injected into nickel sponge, squeezing is performed, active mass is injected by means of saturation in nickel nitrate solution with subsequent treating in alkali liquor. In this process the sponge has thickness of 2.5÷3.5 mm, porosity of 80÷90% and pore size of 0.6÷0.8 mm; powder with particle size having bulk weight of 0.1÷0.5 g/cm3 is taken as finely dispersed nickel powder. The powder is injected in mixture with 1÷3% polyvinyl alcohol. Injected powder quantity is 1.8÷2.2 g/cm3. Squeezing is performed to thickness of 1.5÷2.0 mm, saturation in solution of nickel nitrate with density of 1.65÷1.7 g/cm3 is performed at temperature of 80÷85°C, pH-level of 0.5 and nickel concentration of 30÷35 g/l of solution. Treating in alkali liquor with density of 1.1 g/cm3 is performed at temperature of 70÷75 °C for 40÷60 min. After flushing and drying the electrode is sealed up with alkali-proof paper using 1÷3% polyvinyl alcohol and finally repressed to thickness of 0.8÷1.2 mm.
EFFECT: producing the electrode with increased discharge and resource characteristics.
SUBSTANCE: invention is attributed to electric engineering in particular to alkaline accumulator with tubular-plate electrodes. According to the invention this is method for tubular-plate cadmium electrode for alkaline accumulator manufacturing through active mass applying to current collector and treating with ammonia-water mixture. In this process sponge nickel frame is used as current collector, active mass is prepared of cadmium oxide with addition of nickel hydroxide in quantity of 5÷7 wt %. Active mass is treated by ammonia spirit, then filtered, dried at temperature of 70÷80°C for 1.5÷2.0 hours and sieved through separator with mesh size of 350x350 micron. Active mass is applied on current collector in amount of 0.5÷0.6 g/cm and squized. Active mass is treated by 5% ammonia spirit in amounts of 2 l per 1 kg of active mass for 20÷30 minutes. Electrode with active mass is saturated in 2.5% ammonia spirit for 20÷30 minutes and dried in air for at least 3 hours. Prior to applying on current collector, active mass is processed by sprinkling with straw oil in amounts of 20÷25 g per 1 kg of active mass.
EFFECT: electrode mechanical strength increase.
4 cl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention is attributed to the field of electric engineering and can be used in manufacturing cadmium or nickel electrodes for alkaline accumulators. In this invention method for manufacturing foil electrode for cadmium-nickel accumulator includes rolling of nickel powder into foil, foil baking in hydrogen atmosphere and active mass infusion. In this process carbonyl nickel powder is taken as nickel powder, the powder is annealed at temperature of 700÷800°C for 30-60 min, obtained powder is milled and sieved. The powder is rolled in cylinders at pressure of 250 kg/cm2±5% until thickness of 40÷80 micron and porosity of 40÷60%, sintering is performed at temperature of 600÷700°C for 1 hour ±10%. Active mass infusion is performed by means of foil saturation in cadmium or nickel salts depending on electrode type and sedimentation in alcali liquor. After preset active mass quantity has been infused into electrode, the electrode is flushed out and dried.
EFFECT: increase in specific electric characteristics.
2 cl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: claimed is method and deammonifying installation for purification of ammonium-containing sewage waters. Deammonifying installation for purification of ammonium-containing sewage waters contains aeration tank and hydrocyclone for separation of sludge from aeration tank into relatively heavy fraction, which includes bacteria, performing anaerobic ammonium oxidation, and relatively light fraction. Hydrocyclone contain input, connected with aeration tank, for return of separated relatively heavy fraction into aeration tank and upper output, connected with aeration tank, for discharge of separated relatively light fraction from hydrocyclone. Hydrocyclone contains cylindrical segment and conic segment. Surface of internal walls of conic segment is rough on certain parts. Rough surface of internal walls of conic segment has higher degree of roughness than surface of internal walls of cylindrical segment. Method of purification of ammonium-containing sewage waters is realised in deammonifying installation.
EFFECT: simplification of ammonium and nitrite conversion into elementary nitrogen.
33 cl, 3 dwg