Thermoplastic elastomers and vulcanisates based on ethylene and vinyl alcohol copolymers
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to thermoplastic elastomers and thermoplastic vulcanisates which are suitable for air-tight application. The thermoplastic vulcanisate contains a thermoplastic resin containing an ethylene and vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH), cured rubber dispersed therein and an EVOH-rubber compatibiliser. The cured rubber is selected from a group which includes: butyl rubber, halobutyl rubber, isobutylene and p-methyl styrene copolymer-based rubber and mixtures thereof.
EFFECT: invention improves barrier and mechanical properties of thermoplastic vulcanisates.
15 cl, 5 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water-soluble films. Water-soluble film has suitable thickness and contains, at least, 50 wt % of water-soluble resin, based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), resin, having average viscosity in the range from approximately 13.5 sP to approximately 20 sP and degree of hydrolysis in the range from approximately 84% to approximately 92%, film in addition has not more than 30 wt % of PVA-polymer, which has average viscosity lower than approximately 11 sP, in addition, film is characterised by solubility index in the range from approximately 620 to approximately 92, when film is approximately 76 micron thick, and stress index in the range from approximately 145 to approximately 626, when film is approximately 76 micron thick, and where film is thermally mouldable. Sack, containing water-soluble film, is also claimed.
EFFECT: water-soluble films and sacks, containing water-soluble films, have good cold water solubility, moisture resistance in treatment with wet hands and good mechanical properties.
9 cl, 15 tbl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to improved products, used in agriculture, including solid materials. A polymer-containing composition, intended for the application on solid products, applied in agriculture, includes water, a copolymer, which contains individual quantities of maleic and itaconic residues, and from approximately 5 to 60 wt % of a drying accelerator, representing an organic compound, selected from the group, consisting of organic alcohols and ketones. Also claimed is a version of the polymer-containing composition.
EFFECT: increase of the mass yield.
19 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: described is a proton-conducting composite polymer material which includes a linear polymer matrix which is a 2-9% aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol, containing silver nanoparticles with size of 20-100 nm in concentration of 40-100 mg/l and a proton-conducting solid electrolyte dispersed therein in the form of a phosphoric-tungstic acid and a plasticiser in the form of glycerine, with the following ratio of components, wt %: aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol 38-69, phosphoric-tungstic acid 19-50, glycerine - the balance.
EFFECT: proton-conducting composite polymer material having high ion conductivity and the lowest possible electronic component of conductivity, which improves power characteristics of supercapacitors or other solid-state electronic devices, and longer charge storage duration thereof.
2 tbl, 13 ex
SUBSTANCE: composition for producing hydrophobic fire- and water-resistant films contains aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol, formaldehyde and an acid curing catalyst - phosphoric acid, a dispersion of solid amino plastic particles based on products of condensation of formaldehyde with urea in form of fine particles of a urea-formaldehyde resin, with overall molar ratio of the mixture of amines to formaldehyde of 1:0.8-1.3, diethanolamine, a water repellent in form of a 50% aqueous dispersion. In a second version, the composition contains a mixture of carbamide with 10-30% melamine besides formaldehyde.
EFFECT: obtaining fire-resistant films endowed with water-repellent properties and water-resistance.
5 cl, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: composite material can be used to produce sheet decorating and heat-insulating materials in residential, agricultural and industrial construction, as well as for producing moulded packaging elements and containers susceptible to biodegradation, i.e., having biodegradable properties. The polymer composite material consists of, wt %: fibre filler - waste cardboard and/or paper 11.0-12.0, cationic-anionic polyacrylamide resin Ultrarez DS-150 56.0-57.0, polyvinyl alcohol in form of a 15 wt % aqueous solution 27.0-28.0, sodium tetraborate 6.0-3.0. Described is a method of producing a composite material which involves separating fibres of the fibre filler on a rotary disperser with rotor speed of 2500-3000 rpm, wherein the polyvinyl alcohol is added at the mixing step in form of a 15 wt % aqueous solution together with the cationic-anionic polyacrylamide resin Ultrarez DS-150 and sodium tetraborate, pressing and drying.
EFFECT: improved physical and mechanical properties of the polymer composite material while simplifying the production technique.
2 cl, 3 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of porous polyvinylformal-based filters for removal water, impurities and biological contaminants from fluids and gases. Proposed method consists in chemical modification of the following composition containing in wt %: polyvinyl alcohol - 50-20, pore-forming agent - 2-30, cross-linking agent - 2-15, catalyst - 3-15, water making the rest. This is effected by dissolving water-soluble preset-amount polyvinyl alcohol inorganic slat in aqueous solution at heating it to 75-95°C and continuous mixing. Plus adding preset amount of cross-linking agent thereto and mixing for 10-30 minutes. Plus adding preset amount of catalyst at 30-40°C to convert soluble salt into insoluble one and mixing for 10-20 minutes. Plus pouring produced reaction mix into moulds to be held in oven at 55-80°C for 5-20 hours. Now, produced element is extracted from the mould and cleaned of catalyst and pore-forming agent. Finally, it is dried, first, at 15-25°C for 24-48 h and, then, at 30-50°C to constant current.
EFFECT: efficient filter.
7 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves mixing equally concentrated, highly saponified aqueous solutions of polyvinyl alcohol and partially saponified polyvinyl alcohol and filler, where the filler is nano-bodies selected from fullerenes and nanotubes, taken in amount of 0.02-1.0 wt % with respect to the polymer.
EFFECT: combining two types of polyvinyl alcohol to obtain mixed compositions.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an oxygen impermeable polyolefin composition for use in making food packaging. The composition contains polyolefin, whose composition includes a copolymer of ethylene with a vinyl alcohol containing 27-44 mol % ethylene links, an active oxygen absorbent, a miscibility enhancing additive, as well as clay or a nucleating agent or a polyamide, optionally including said clay or nucleating agent. The clay has characteristic ratio of at least 10.
EFFECT: combining components in a defined ratio enables to obtain compositions with unexpectedly good properties as an oxygen barrier.
13 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl, 10 ex
SUBSTANCE: described is an aqueous solution of an optical brightener, containing (a) 10-50 wt % optical brightener of formula (I): where: M is hydrogen, an alkali metal atom, ammonia or an amine cation; R1 is hydrogen, C1-C4-alkyl or C2-C4-hydroxyalkyl; R2 - C1-C4-alkyl which can be substituted with -CN- or -CONH2-group or C2-C4-hydroxyalkyl; or R1 and R2 together with a nitrogen atom close a morpholine ring; (b) 0.5-9 wt % polyvinyl alcohol, having degree of hydrolysis 71-85.2% and Brookfield viscosity 3-5.4 mPa·s; and (c) water. The invention also describes use of said solution in a coating composition for paper and a method of obtaining paper coated with said coating composition.
EFFECT: disclosed aqueous solutions of optical brighteners have low viscosity, can be used directly by paper manufacturers and can be fed by a pump directly into the coating composition to provide a coating on paper with high whiteness.
10 cl, 2 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to filters intended for separation of inhomogeneous systems, in particular, to fabrication of filtration PVFM-based materials to be used in cleaning fluids and gases of water, mechanical impurities and biological contaminants. Composition for filter fabrication includes the following components, in wt %: polyvinyl alcohol - 5-20, porophore - 2-10, paraformaldehyde cross-linking agent - 2-15, catalyst - 1-15, water making the rest. Porophore mat represent a mix of starches with average grain size, or mix of starch with dextrin. Preset amount of polyvinyl alcohol is diluted in water. It is heated to 75-95°C with continuous mixing. Porophore suspension in cold water is added to obtained solution and kept at 55-80°C for 15-30 min with continuous mixing. Preset amount of cross-linking agent is added thereto and mixed for 10-30 min. Preset amount of catalyst is added thereto at 30-40°C and mixed for 10-20 min. Obtained reaction mix is poured in the mould, kept in temperature controlled cabint at 55-80°C for 5-20 h. Produced element is withdrawn from said mould, washed of catalyst and porophore. Drying is carried out at 15-25°C and, then, at 30-50°C to constant weight.
EFFECT: simplified process, possibility to vary filter porosity, reduced contamination.
4 cl, 4 tbl, 16 ex
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a pneumatic object. Pneumatic object is described which is provided with an elastomeric layer which is impermeable for inflating gas, wherein said impermeable elastomeric layer contains at least one thermoplastic styrene elastomer with block polyisobutylene, characterised by that said impermeable elastomeric layer additionally contains plasticising oil in amount of more than 5 to less than 150 phr (weight parts per 100 parts elastomer) and polyphenylene ether (PPE), where the polyphenylene ether is selected from a group consisting of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenyl ether), poly(2,6-dimethyl-co-2,3,6-trimethyl-1,4-phenyl ether), poly-(2,3,6-trimethyl-1,4-phenyl ether), poly(2,6-diethyl-1,4-phenyl ether), poly(2-methyl-6-ethyl-1,4-phenyl ether), poly(2-methyl-6-propyl-1,4-phenyl ether), poly(2,6-dipropyl-1,4-phenyl ether), poly(2-ethyl-6-propyl-1,4-phenyl ether), poly(2,6-dilauryl-1,4-phenyl ether), poly(2,6-diphenyl-1,4-phenyl ether), poly(2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-phenyl ether), poly(1,6-diethoxy-1,4-phenyl ether), poly(2-methoxy-6-ethoxy-1,4-phenyl ether), poly(2-ethyl-6-stearyloxy-1,4-phenyl ether), poly(2,6-dichloro-1,4-phenyl ether), poly(2-methyl-6-phenyl-1,4-phenyl ether), poly(2-ethoxy-1,4-phenyl ether), poly(2-chloro-1,4-phenyl ether), poly(2,6-dibromo-1,4-phenyl ether), poly(3-bromo-2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenyl ether), corresponding copolymers thereof and mixtures of said homopolymers or copolymers, and that the weight fraction of the polyphenyl ether ranges from more than 0.05 to less 5 times the weight fraction of styrene present in the thermoplastic styrene elastomer itself.
EFFECT: improved heat resistance and gas-impermeability of the gas-impermeable layer of the pneumatic object.
16 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to thermoplastic elastomeric compositions. A dynamically vulcanisable alloy includes: a) at least one elastomer containing isobutylene; b) at least one thermoplastic resin, c) an anhydride-functionalised oligomer, wherein before functionalisation, the oligomer has molecular weight in the range of 750-1250, and d) a plasticiser which is selected from a group which includes tertiary amines, secondary diamines and sulphonamides, wherein the anhydride-functionalised oligomer and plasticiser are present in a ratio of 0.15-3.0, the elastomer is present in a dispersed phase in the form of fine vulcanised or partially vulcanised particles in the continuous phase of the thermoplastic resin.
EFFECT: alloy retains high Shore hardness A and acquires improved fluidity necessary for treatment.
12 cl, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of removing volatile compounds from a flowing medium, containing, at least, one non-volatile polymer, which represents synthetic rubber and, at least, one volatile compound, as well as to a device, suitable for the realisation of the said method. The method includes the following stages: a) processing the flowing medium in, at least, one unit of a concentrator, in which the flowing medium is heated, after which the concentrated flowing medium is supplied into a degassing tank and re-heating at stage b) in a reheating unit. After that, the reheated flowing medium is supplied to stage c) into, at least, one extruder unit. The extruder unit contains, at least, a degassing section of the extruder, from which volatile compounds are removed via ventilation ports and steam lines, as well as, at least, a transportation section, an accumulation section and a discharge section.
EFFECT: continuous energy-efficient, environmentally and economically preferable method of removing volatile compounds with obtaining a polymer product based on synthetic rubber, which virtually does not contain volatile compounds.
11 cl, 11 dwg, 10 tbl, 27 ex
SUBSTANCE: non-drying rubber mixture contains, wt %: butyl-rubber regenerate from waste diaphragm chambers - 17.0-31.0, ether of glycerol tall oil rosin - 0.5-1.0, PN-6sh oil - 20.0-25.0, chalk - 10.0-45.0, high-pressure polyethylene in the form of a film - 0.5-1.3, waste fibres of cotton ginneries - 0.7-1.0, alumosilicate microspheres - 4.0-25.0, talc - 4.0-11.0.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase the damping properties, adhesion to metal and frost resistance of the composition.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to dynamically cure mixes that can be used for tire production. Production of said mix including at least one isobutylene-bearing elastomer and at least one thermosetting resin is carried out in several steps. At step (a) said thermosetting resin is mixed with at least one plasticiser in the first melt processing device to get a resinous mother mix. At step (b) said mix is pelletised prior to feeding it in the melt treatment second device intake. At step (c) said elastomer, at least one curing agent and resinous mother mix are fed into intake of the melt second treatment device. At step (d) said content of melt processing second device under conditions of dynamic curing to make dynamically vulcanised mix. In the latter, elastomer exists as a disperse phase of fine cured or partially cured particles in disperse phase of thermosetting resin.
EFFECT: good impermeability and resilience at low temperatures.
17 cl, 2 dwg, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to butyl-rubber based elastomer material for a gas mask housing. The elastomer material contains sulphur as a vulcanisation agent, tetramethylthiuram disulphide (thiuram D) as a vulcanisation activator, zinc oxide as a vulcanisation accelerator, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (captax) as a vulcanisation rate regulator, stearic acid as a plasticiser, as well as carbon as powdered filler, and is characterised by that it further contains polyisobutylene as a rubber mixture plasticising process additive, and as an antioxidant and stabiliser krafanyl-U, or acetonanyl-R (benzopyridine) of formula (C12H15N)n, or naphtham-2, or a mixture of acetonanyl-R with 18-28 pts.wt naphtham-2, or a mixture of krafanyl-U with 32-40 pts.wt acetonanyl-R (benzopyridine), with the following ratio of components per 100 pts.wt butyl rubber: said vulcanisation activator 1.3-1.7; said vulcanisation accelerator 4.4-5.6; said vulcanisation agent 1.8-2.5; vulcanisation rate regulator 0.3-1.1; said powdered filler 40-50; polyisobutylene 4.8-10.6; said plasticisiser 0.8-2.4; said antioxidant and stabiliser 0.9-2.0.
EFFECT: elastomer material which provides given elasticity and fitting of the shape of the head of a rescuer, maintaining a given shape of the gas mask housing, sufficient gas impermeability and reliable protection of human skin from aerosol and droplet penetration of liquid chemical and harmful substances.
5 cl, 15 ex
SUBSTANCE: peroxide-cured thermoplastic vulcanisate contains thermoplastic and a non-halogenated elastomer. The thermoplastic is selected from a group comprising polypropylene, polyethylene, polystyrene, a copolymer of acrylonitrile, butadiene and styrene, allyl resins, a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl alcohol, fluoroplastic, polyacetals, polyacrylates, polyacrylonitriles, polyamides, polyimides, polycarbonates, polyesters, polethylene oxide, polypropylene oxide, polyethylene glycol, polypropylene glycol, polyvinylidene chloride and mixtures thereof. The non-halogenated elastomer contains repeating units obtained from isobutene and 3.5 mol % repeating units obtained from isoprene.
EFFECT: disclosed thermoplastic vulcanisates can be used when producing moulded articles for applications which require high degree of purity, reduced hygroscopicity and preventing decolouration of the article.
20 cl, 2 dwg, 7 tbl, 18 ex
SUBSTANCE: described is a liquid graft polymer obtained using a method which involves reaction of a polymer of a C4-C7 monoolefin monomer and a C4-C14 multiolefin monomer which contains butyl rubber, in the presence of a material for conducting graft copolymerisation, which contains maleic anhydride, and a free-radical polymerisation initiator which contains an organic peroxide, wherein the liquid graft polymer has number-average molecular weight (Mn) from 150000 to 30000. Described is a vulcanised compound containing the described liquid graft polymer and a vulcanising agent based on a multi-functional amine. Described is a method of decomposing a non-liquid butyl polymer to a liquid butyl graft polymer, where the method involves reaction of a non-liquid butyl polymer of a C4-C7 monoolefin monomer and a C4-C14 multiolefin monomer which contains butyl rubber, in the presence of a material for conducting graft copolymerisation, which contains maleic anhydride, and a free-radical polymerisation initiator containing dicumyl peroxide, wherein the liquid graft polymer has number-average molecular weight (Mn) from 150000 to 30000.
EFFECT: liquid maleated butyl rubber is obtained.
16 cl, 2 tbl, 2 dwg, 10 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed invention may be used for protection against poison-gases and chemicals. Butyl rubber-based three-layer material comprises central reinforcing layer and outer cover layers arranged on its both sides. Said central layer is made up of fabric from polyester high-strength thread with liner density of 9-12 tex, specific breaking load of, at least, 160 mN/tex and number of turns of 180-220 t/m, or high-strength aramide thread with linear density of 6.3-14.3 tex, specific breaking load of 200 cN/tex, and number of turns of 90/130 t/m, or mix thereof. Said thread is two-component combine thread. First rod-shape component represents aramide and/or polyester complex thread or yarn, while second component represents rod shield with number of turns of 600-900 t/m made up of modified fire-resistant viscose thread or yarn with linear density of 10-30 tex. Said fabric represents calico, twill, momie or satin weave with identical thread base and weft characteristics and densities. Two outer cover layers are made from rubber composition based on butyl rubber containing cure accelerator, that is, zinc white and thiuram D, curing agent, that, technical sulfur, curing rate regulator, that is, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, filler, that is, white carbon and technical carbon, plasticiser, that is, stearic acid, chlorinated paraffin wax, netoxol, fluid PMC-400 and zinc stearate, fire retardant, that is, antimony trioxide, chlorinated paraffin wax and melamine cyanurate, pigment, that is, titanium white, and adhesive, that is, paraffin. Barrier film material is applied on both sides on aforesaid material. Said barrier material consists of five consecutive layers with total thickness of 18-36 mcm. Adhesive layers are arranged on both sides of third barrier layer made form copolymer of ethylene with vinyl alcohol and maleic anhydride, or the like.
EFFECT: better protection, higher incombustibility and low surface density.
11 cl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to polymerisation of isoolefins and polyolefins for producing butyl rubber based polymers filled with silicon dioxide. The method involves dispersion of siliceous nanoclay, containing a quaternary onium ion as a substitute, in an organic solvent which is suitable for use as a polymerisation medium for butyl rubber, particularly methyl chloride. At least one isoolefin monomer and at least one polyolefin monomer are then dissolved in an organic solvent. Further, the isoolefin monomer and polyolefin monomer are polymerised in the presence of nanoclay. Said method enables to obtain a nanocomposite material containing a butyl rubber based polymer intercalated with nanoclay. Addition of nanoclay into the liquid polymerisation medium essentially does not affect the rate of polymerisation.
EFFECT: obtained polymers, which are filled with silicon dioxide, have improved impermeability compared to non-filled polymers.
16 cl, 2 tbl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the technology of producing polymer film materials with special mechanical properties, which can be used in food and processing industries. The disclosed method is carried out as follows. Granular polyolefin in the form of 70 wt % low-pressure polyethylene and 30 wt % high-pressure linear polyethylene is thoroughly mixed with a granular copolymer which includes propylene (75%) and diene (25%), combined with a superconcentrate PO AK 12 in amount of 1.0% of the total weight of polyolefins and modifier, sliding additive PO AS 12 in amount of 1.0% of the total weight of polyolefins and modifier for 30 minutes and the mixture is molten (version 1a), followed by extrusion of the melt, cooling, orientation and heat setting the film. The diene is dicyclopentadiene or butadiene or 1,4-hexadiene or a diene monomer based on norbonene dethylidene. In versions of the method, the modifier used is also a copolymer (version 1b) of propylene (50%), diene (2%) and ethylene (48%). The amount of the modifier in the material in different experiments is 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 65% of the weight of the polymer composition: polyolefin and modifier. Versions of the method further include addition of a biodegradable additive (version 1c) in amount of 1-5% of the total weight of the polymer composition: polyolfeins, modifier, superconcentrate PO AK 12, sliding additive PO AS 12. The rate of decomposition of the film in natural conditions is determined by an indirect method according to GOST 12020-12. In formulations, the rate of decomposition is in the range of 30-60 days.
EFFECT: providing uniformity of supply and monitoring the shape of articles, obtaining films with a small thickness - 10-15 mcm, capable of retaining up to 80% of bending and twisting deformation, high lustre and quality of the surface (eliminating the "sharkskin" effect), reduced load on the shaft, which improves efficiency and reduces power consumption, low processing temperature; eliminating burning (sticking) on shaping edges, shorter time for holding the materials in the extruder, which allows fast change of operating conditions; low cost of the running meter of the product; self-decomposition of the film material in ambient conditions.
2 cl, 1 tbl