Single-step dc voltage converter
SUBSTANCE: single-step DC voltage converter comprises transformer, which secondary windings are coupled to output pins of one or several converter outputs, primary winding is coupled to field-effect transistor and feedback winding is coupled to feedback divider, control transistor, time-setting capacitor, three logic inverters and logic AND element, between output of the latter and input of the first logic inverter there is in-series RC-circuit. At low loads or in idle mode gating time of the field-effect transistor is defined not by the time-setting capacitor but by low time constant of the in-series RC-circuit, at that disturbance voltage does not affect operation of the device.
EFFECT: excluded loss in control stability in idle mode and improved reliability of the device at large.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: DC high-voltage converter with the ration of high voltage to low voltage, equal to N, where N - the integer, containing the common series capacitor voltage divisor of N capacitors, L sheets of identical converting structures, a current divider with L outputs, a load. Each sheet of the converting structure consists of diode-transistor chain of 2N series connected diodes shunted by counter and parallel transistors and a capacitor and reactor chain of series connected N-1 branches with series connected reactor and capacitor in each branch. The named chains are connected as it is specified in the application materials. Loading is connected parallel to the first capacitor of the capacitor voltage divisor the terminal of which forms the second input of the converter, common with one of the load terminals. The converter can operate both as reducing, and step-up voltage converter with certain ration.
EFFECT: expansion of functionalities and increase of limit power of a load.
SUBSTANCE: in levelling unit wherein double-channel mechanism of active levelling is implemented on the base of a reversed transformer, an accumulating choke and a through accumulating main of the battery and electronic keys controlled from the microcontroller through the respective drivers there are introduced comparators of charge and discharge emergencies for the accumulators, recharging of the accumulating main and the chock overcurrent through which the respective logic elements are coupled to trip inputs of the respective drivers and inputs of the microcontroller one-time commands.
EFFECT: improved reliability of the battery reliability in emergency situations due to a comparator channel for the device driver tripping that doubles microcontroller action.
SUBSTANCE: device has input (3), output (4) and common terminals, two identical single-cycle converters (1) and (2) connected in parallel at the input and the output, each having n capacitors (6) and two groups of two-way switches, wherein the first switch (7) of the first group is connected between the positive terminal of the first capacitor and the output terminal (4) of the converter, (n-1) switches (8) of the first group, each connected between unlike terminals of capacitors of corresponding neighbouring circuits, the last switch (9) of the first group which connects the input terminal (3) with the negative terminal of the last capacitor. Each switch of the second group connects the negative terminal of the corresponding capacitor with the common terminal (5) of the converter. The device includes n two-way switches, each connecting the positive terminal of the corresponding capacitor with the input terminal (3). The converter is bidirectional and can operate in both directions, in both the output voltage increase mode and output voltage decrease mode, and as a system for exchanging electrical energy between direct current sources with multiple voltages.
EFFECT: broader functional capabilities.
SUBSTANCE: two-directional down converter of constant voltage (TVDC) can be used as high-voltage dc-dc converter of average capacity in systems of direct current electric equipment, for example for direct current electric locomotives with voltage of 3 (1.5) kV for power supply from contact system with increased voltage (12 (6) kV, 18 (9) kV, etc.), so that galvanic isolation of supply mains and load is provided. The proposed TVDC with ratio of high voltage value to amplitude of voltage pulses of primary winding of transformer, which is equal to K, where K - even number which is higher than two, includes 3·(K-1) switches formed with opposite parallel connection of valve with complete control and diode, one two-directional completely controlled switch, K capacitors used at the same voltage polarity, transformer having one primary winding and one secondary winding, and rectifier which is used at increased frequency and which is reversible as to current.
EFFECT: two-directional down converter of constant voltage uses insulation load more effectively owing to providing galvanic isolation of supply mains and load, which leads to improvement of insulation reliability of output chains of converter and load.
SUBSTANCE: to transformerless power supply containing n parallel connected chains consisting of in-series connected first diode, capacitor and in all cells except the last one, the second diode, which are connected to each other through diodes connected between opposite capacitor plates of those chains, rectifier the output of which is connected through the first controlled switch to the input of the first chain, accumulating capacitor parallel connected to output of transformerless power supply and connected through the second controlled switch with common point of the first diodes and control unit connected via power circuit to rectifier output, and via output to control inputs of the first and the second switches, there additionally introduced is source of reference voltage and adjustable voltage divider, which are connected via inputs to output of transformerless power supply, and via output - to inputs of comparison circuit the input of which is connected to input of control unit.
EFFECT: stabilisation and possibility of smooth adjustment of output voltages.
SUBSTANCE: adjustable voltage multiplier includes voltage source consisting of in-series connected storage battery and circuit breaker, switching device, locking diodes and capacitor bank. As switching device there used is locked thyristor the control electrode of which is connected to secondary winding of transformer the beginning of primary winding of which is connected to transistor collector; end of winding is connected to alternating capacitor the second output of which is connected to transistor base; emitter base circuit of transistor includes in-series connected resistor and the second capacitor; one pole of voltage source is connected to average point of primary winding of transformer and between resistor and the second capacitor; the second pole of voltage source is connected to transistor emitter; locked thyristor is connected by means of one of power electrodes to voltage source, and by means of the other power electrode it is connected to throttle with inductance adjustable with core; the second output of throttle is connected to the second pole of voltage source; capacitor bank is connected parallel to throttle through locking diodes; locking diodes have reverse polarity in relation to voltage source.
EFFECT: obtaining the source of adjustable high and low constant voltage of wide control range of potentials and power.
FIELD: electric engineering.
SUBSTANCE: bidirectional step-down DC voltage converter (BSVC) may be used as high-voltage dc-dc converter of medium capacity in systems of DC electric equipment, for instance for DC electric locomotives with voltage 3(1.5) kV for supply from contact network with increased voltage of (12(6) kV, 18(9) kV etc.). Proposed BSVC with ratio of high voltage value to amplitude of low voltage pulses equal to K, where K is even number, higher than two, comprises 3-K+5 keys formed by opposite connection of valve with full control and diode, and K capacitors used at single polarity of voltage. Structure of this BSVC includes two key modules (M1 and M2), K-2 additional key modules (AM), three additional keys (AK) and capacitors. Modules M1 and M2 consist each of four keys, serially connected with identical terminals, and middle points of these points serve as low voltage terminals. Each of AM modules consists of three keys, which are serially connected by opposite terminals. Two of AK keys are connected one by one between the first points of M1 and M2 module keys connection, which are counted from terminals of low voltage to the left and right. AM modules are connected in a cascade to modules of M1 and M2 symmetrically relative to them to the left and to the right. K capacitors are connected one by one between points of connection of according terminal outputs of modules M1 and M2 with modules AM, between connection points of neighbouring modules AM and between terminal outputs of terminal modules AM. One of two high voltage terminals is connected to according output terminal of according terminal AM directly, and the second one - via the third AK key connected either by cathode of diode to positive output of high voltage, or by anode of diode to negative output of high voltage.
EFFECT: reduced losses of active power in capacitors, due to use of capacitors with limit values of voltage, which do not exceed amplitude of voltage pulses at low voltage outputs of converter.
SUBSTANCE: voltage converter consists of transistor switch, transformer, encircling diode, pulse-width modulation controller, current protection sensor, peak detector, the first and the second operating amplifiers, reserve capacity, resistors, smoothing capacitor, throttle, current transformer and their connections. The method differs by the fact that to current transformer there introduced is the third winding which is connected through an additional detector to adjustable output voltage to output "Current Blocking" of pulse-width modulation controller.
EFFECT: steady start up of voltage converter in the system with similar voltage converter operating in parallel for total load irrespective of the number of voltage converters and their power.
SUBSTANCE: present invention can be used in electrical engineering. The element for a distributing device contains a group of connections (1), comprising six bidirectional power semiconductor switches (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7) and a capacitor (25). The first switch (2) is connected anti-parallel and in series with switch (3). The third switch (4) is connected anti-parallel and in series with switch (5). The capacitor (25) is connected with the point of connection of the first switch (2) and the second switch (3) and with point of connection of the third (4) and fourth (5) switches. The fifth switch (6) is connected to the point of connection of the first (2) and second (3) switches, and with the fourth switch (5). The sixth switch (7) is connected to the point of connection of the third (4) and fourth (5) switches and with the second switch (3). There are first and second series-connected capacitors (8, 9). The first switch (2) and the third switch (4) are connected to each other at the point of connection of the fist (8) and second (9) capacitors. Proposed also is a converter circuit for switching many voltage levels, containing the said element of a distributing device.
EFFECT: reduced amount of accumulative electrical energy and decrease in dimensions.
15 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is attributed to pulse technique, specifically to pulse power supply units and is intended for feeding high-voltage pulses to anode or control electrode to provide power supply of klystrons, particle accelerators, magnetrons, travelling-wave tubes and similar devices. Modulator (fig. 1) contains power supply unit (1), capacitors C1, C2), regulation circuit (2), voltage sensing device (VSD) (3), control circuit (CC) (4), modulating device (MD) (5), reference-voltage source (RVS) (12). Switching element (SE) of regulation circuit is made in the form of field-controlled or bipolar insulated-gate transistor (T) with resistor (R) connected with sink or in the form of field-controlled or bipolar insulated-gate T with R connected with source or in the form of field-controlled or bipolar insulated-gate T with inductance connected with sink. Furthermore CC includes comparator one of inputs of which is connected with VSD output the other output of which is connected with RVS, and output of comparator is connected with SE control input. MD is made in the form of connected in series block of switches and switch control circuit. Versions of device configuration and circuit of electronic switch for it are presented.
EFFECT: decrease of mass-dimension characteristics with reliability enhancement.
20 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electrical engineering and can be used for changing voltage in a network. The device for varying voltage in network is a connection of a set of capacitors or modified capacitor for "pumping" electrical energy from a network with "transformation" of supply voltage. Shortcomings related to manufacture of transformers, which require large material inputs and use of expensive raw material are excluded, as well as servicing and need for the user to settle for power, provided by the transformer substation or some other system for changing voltage. The device can be installed into an open line of the high side. Installation of a capacitor in the circuit leads to increase in cos φ, which is good for the circuit as a whole. The invention does not transform electrical energy, but pumps it out of the network, as it were. Pumping power depends on the capacitance of the device. Large capacitance is required for a high power user. Knowing the required power and voltage of the user and the high side, it is easy to calculate capacitors and standardise the proposed device as a whole. The device allows for considerable decrease in power used by the network due to that, the source of electrical energy supports voltage harmonics and not power in the network.
EFFECT: use of a capacitor as a transformer.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: transforming equipment engineering, possible use in electric power sources.
SUBSTANCE: adjustable decreasing transformer of direct voltage contains input, output and common clamps for connection of, respectively, source of direct voltage and load, n chains connected by their first outputs to common clamp 25. Each chain consists of serially connected discharge diode 1, capacitor 2 and controllable discharge key 3. transformer also contains (n-1) discharge diodes 4, each of which is enabled between differently named outputs of capacitors of appropriate adjacent chains, controllable charge key 5, enabled between input clamp and discharge bus 6, controllable adjusting elements 7-11, each of which is connected in parallel to discharge diode 4 of appropriate chain and two groups of commutation elements, while each commutation element of first group 12-17 is enabled in parallel to discharge key 3 of appropriate chain, while each commutation element of second group 18-23 is enabled between discharge bus 6 and common point of connection 24 of capacitor 2 and discharge key 3 of appropriate circuit. Introduced into transformer are n groups of m commutation elements and (m-1) output clamps for connecting additional loads.
EFFECT: extended functional capabilities due to provision of operation of device for several loads with varying output voltages; significantly improved mass-dimensional characteristics.
SUBSTANCE: device containing a load, the first and second input terminals, the first and second output terminals, a switching transistor, an inductance, a discharge diode, a capacitor forming with inductance and inductance-capacitance filter of angle-shaped type, the resistive output voltage sensor, the unit of comparison of sensor voltage with voltage of the unit of reference voltage and the switching transistor control unit is also fitted with the unit of change of the current direction in a load. The unit is designed with a possibility of change of the current direction in a load.
EFFECT: expansion of functionality of the device at its implementation, obtaining output voltage with randomly pre-set periodic and continuous form, in particular, sinusoidal, with keeping of properties of simplicity of circuits of its implementation and rigid load characteristic.
FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: this gadget incorporates three extra diodes and one transistor. Emitter of the latter is connected with cathode of the first extra diode and anode of the second extra diode and second output of current limiting throttle. Transistor collector is connected with second diode cathode and with positive output terminal. First diode anode is connected to common assembly combining the negative input and output terminal. Third diode anode is connected with first output of current limiting throttle while its cathode is connected with input terminal positive output. Variation of transistor operation on-off ratio allows variation or stabilisation of output voltage level relative to input voltage as well as adjustment of power supply charge current of accumulated active load power.
EFFECT: control of flow of recuperated power.
SUBSTANCE: claimed device comprises a source of direct current, voltage stabiliser, Schmitt trigger, integrating RC-circuit, a key, pulse transformer, the first and second differential voltage comparators (DVC), rectifier and filter coupled to the respective load, the first and second parallel RC-circuits, three capacitors, six diodes, six resistors and voltage limiting terminal, at that the key is based on NO gate, which output is the key input while its output is connected to the gate of switching MOS-transistor with n-channel, which drain is the first output of the key, its source is the second output of the key, at that pulse transformed comprises primary winding, n of secondary windings where n=1, 2…, and the second secondary winding.
EFFECT: improving stability of output voltage at load in the wider range of input voltage and ambient temperature values, ensuring short circuit protection in the load both for switching FET transistor with channel of n-type and source of direct current.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to conversion equipment, particularly to high-frequency converters for converting dc voltage to high-power dc voltage with galvanic isolation of circuits, and can be used in electrical circuits of dc power sources for various purposes. The disclosed device comprises a control unit and a transformer, the primary coil of which is connected to the middle points of two diagonals of a transistor bridge, each formed by two series-connected transistors, and the secondary coil of the transformer is connected to a load through rectifier diodes and an output capacitor. According to the disclosed solution, the device further includes two transistor diagonals, each consisting of two transistors, and an additional transformer, the primary coil of which is connected to the middle points of additional transistor diagonals, and the secondary coil is connected through additional rectifier diodes to the output capacitor and to the load, wherein the control unit enables to generate four pulse sequences with partial time overlapping of one pulse with two adjacent pulses.
EFFECT: high efficiency, providing transistor switching at virtually zero current, resulting in the multifold reduction of dynamic losses on transistors of the converter.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a three-phase source of uninterrupted power supply. The offered circuit of the electric power converter with input interface which comprising multiple input lines, each of which is intended for coupling with a phase of a multiphase AC power source with a sine signal; set of DC buses including the first positive DC bus with the first rated DC voltage, second positive DC bus with the second rated DC voltage, first negative DC bus with the third rated DC voltage, and second negative DC bus with the fourth rated DC voltage; The circuit of the electric power converter comprising the first electric power converter and the second electric power converter, each is connected with AC input and at least with one of multiple DC buses.
EFFECT: implementation of the offered invention without using of step change in operation of two electric power converters so that the load could be fed by the standard three-phase electric power.
20 cl, 16 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device is composed of the following components: at least one power switch, to one output of which input voltage is applied, the other output is connected to the input of a transformer-rectifier assembly, at the output of which output voltage is generated, arriving to one input of a voltage divider and further via a comparison device to a summator, in which it is added to the signal of the first current sensor, connected in the circuit of the power switch, and arrives to the input of the control unit, comprising a width-pulse modulator and a current comparator, where the control signal is generated, arriving to the third output of the power switch. The transformer-rectifier assembly comprises the second current sensor, from the output of which the signal on the output current arrives to one input of the parallel operation assembly, the other input is connected to the output "PARAL", connected during parallel operation of sources of secondary power supply, and the outlet is connected to the other input of the voltage divider.
EFFECT: invention provides for operation of sources of secondary power supply in parallel mode with various sources of input voltage.
3 cl, 7 dwg