Method of processing of brown coal in place of its bedding
SUBSTANCE: method of processing of brown coal in the place of its bedding comprises drilling of vertical, inclined or horizontal wells from daylight surface down to the deposit, simultaneous mechanical action by axial and radial water jet flows from the borehole hydromining tool. The physical action is performed by means of rotation of radial flows, untwisting the crushed rock mass around the borehole hydromining tool, thus implementing jet mill effect. The suspension with the first dispersed medium is obtained in the form of the first target product - liquid concentrate of water-soluble humic acids which after rotary elutriation of brown coal and inorganic components is sucked in through the filter by the borehole hydromining tool and is supplied to the daylight surface. After drainage of the extraction chamber the physical and chemical impact action on the elutriated brown coal is performed by means of supply into the extraction chamber of alkalized water which as the second target product through the filter is sucked in by the borehole hydromining tool and is supplied to the daylight surface. Further obtaining target products.
EFFECT: significant growth of productivity and expansion of range of the target products obtained during of production in the form of useful mineral components.
SUBSTANCE: method for hydromechanical benefication involves drilling of production wells, water-jet destruction of a mineral deposit in extraction chambers of the deposit with its changer over to a movable state as a part of a hydraulic mixture, hydraulic lifting via the well to day surface from extraction chambers of the hydraulic mixture in the form of pulp, hydraulic transportation of pulp to a benefication place, and gravitational benefication of the mineral deposit in water medium. Destruction of the deposit is performed during formation of an extraction chamber with a vertical symmetry axis in the form of a rotation figure: cylinder, cone or ball, thus creating a circular flow of coal hydraulic mixture, which is swirled about the vertical symmetry axis, and depositing foreign heavy inclusions and sand at the bottom of the extraction chamber in the created hydraulic cyclone. Suction of coal hydraulic mixture is performed from the level above deposit level; turbulent hydraulic transportation of pulp from the extraction chamber to the place of its preparation for benefication is performed via pipelines. Hydromechanical treatment of pulp is performed so that a brown coal suspension is performed. Target products are obtained in the form of a concentrate of humic acids and a concentrate of bitumens by tangential supply of the flow of the brown coal suspension to a conical sedimentation basin, filling of the sedimentation basin with further settlement of the brown coal suspension and staged pumping-out of highly disperse fractions that are settled subsequently with their supply to different accumulation tanks for collection of target products and benefication tailings. The processing line implementing this method consists of three sections - borehole hydraulic mining, hydraulic transportation and benefication - subsequently dispersing brown coal till fineness.
EFFECT: implementation of staged production of target products.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: development method comprises opening-up of developed field reserves, ditch driving along the whole length of the production block, water flooding of the production block for disintegration of clay sand and their subsequent improvement by the production complex with installation of pressure of head hydraulic transportation and concentration plant. Before grooving of slits by cross-cut and longitudinal passes of slit-cutting unit, and also water flooding of the production block for disintegration of clay sand and their subsequent improvement, using experimental and analytical methods the bending compression and tension characteristics of high clayey sands in various locations of placer deposits are determined. The dynamics of change of elastic characteristics in these sections is determined, the correlation of response curve of resiliency of sand at water saturation of separate sections of the field with the relative wave resistance of sand in these sections is studied, and grooving of cracks at the distance from each other depending on the change of response curve of sand resiliency of at water saturation is performed.
EFFECT: achievement of high level of disintegration of clay sands difficult for wash-out, minimising of process losses of valuable component and decrease of mining expenses.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining and can be used at mining operations. Proposed method comprises drilling the row of test wells to fit downhole hydromining units therein and to washout minerals therefrom by fluid jets forced by said units for pulp to be delivered to surface. Drilled pipes are inclined in the plane perpendicular to spread of said row. Wells are drilled in a row to distance equal to double efficient length of washout jet while rows are spaced apart through distance equal to efficient length of washout jet. Washout is performed from wells towards hanging layer to form the face with hemispherical cross-section perpendicular to well axis.
EFFECT: reliable egress of minerals, washout at dried face.
3 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining and can be used for hydraulic process of coal production. Main and auxiliary openings are driven via tandem and/or single faces that delineate blocks, barrier and safety pillars. Water is forced into faces by pump stations after cleaning at drainage complexes, mechanised settlers and/or water headers. The latter are located in intercommunicated chambers located at lower points of hydraulic site blocks and exiting into accumulation openings via which hydraulic transport is performed and rock is discharged. Abandoned pillars are liquidated after working of extraction pillar at backstroke in tow-side or single-side cuts. Water is cleaned at mechanised settlers and/or water headers with application of combination of water cleaning technical means and processes. For this, used are, for example, water impermeable partitions with water bypass nearby bottom, thin-layer clarifiers, flotation, coagulation, water processing by constant pulsating current, etc.
EFFECT: working of coal at complex mining and geological conditions, lower costs.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining and can be used for hydraulic borehole mining of minerals. Proposed method comprises opening of the deposit via central and peripheral wells, placing the equipment therein and opening of adjacent chambers in layers, from bottom to top, starting from peripheral chambers. Prior to opening of the next layer through the entire bed thickness, undercut chamber is formed nearby soil of formed chamber and, parallel with said layer, of artificial ceiling of hardening material with inclination to centre. Shrinkage of fallen rock and filling of opened space with hardening material, opening and backfilling of central chamber at development of every chamber. After making of said artificial ceiling, several hydraulic cuts are made over the height of temporary wells. After formation of undercut space, rocks are hydraulically fractured from lower hydraulic cuts to force fluid into fracture unless rock failure into undercut space. Caved rock is partially flooded by hydraulic fracture fluid and giants to wash out the rock. As rock disintegrates, pulp is fed to the surface. As magazine level drops below design mark, hydraulic fracturing is repeated from hydraulic cut closest to stripped area, shrinkage, wash-out and discharge of pulp. Then, said jobs are repeated unless stripped area reaches aforesaid artificial ceiling. Now, shrunk rock is completely washed put, pulp is discharged and stripped area is filled.
EFFECT: selective extraction, decreased losses of minerals and costs, lower environmental effects.
8 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises exposure of producing formation by production well equipped with jetting equipment and jetting of minerals. Nearby soil of developed strata horizontal drain hole is drilled for preliminary drying of working zone and creating conditions for operation of jetting in air. Note here that minerals are broken by jetting, gravity and increasing rock pressure resulted from underground water level decrease. This allows mining the minerals at strength of 3-5 MPa. Light grade well is drilled in vertical plane with drain well inclined to mouth to allow outflow of hydraulic mix by gravity and accumulated in settler. Operation of wells of hydromining complex is performed in turns. First, drain well is activated. After water level drop below giant jet nozzle, giant jet is activated. Minerals are mined by intervals in direction from bottom to mouth of operation well and with withdrawal of casing tubes.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of hydromining.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a machine with a hydraulic drive of reciprocal and return-rotary displacement, a two-channel tubular frame, a jet working element, a system to supply and distribute discharge liquid. The working element is equipped with the main and auxiliary jet-forming shafts with attachments and separated channels of discharge liquid supply to them. The main shaft is installed at the angle of 90°, and auxiliary shafts - at the angles of accordingly 45° and 3-10° to the longitudinal axis of the working element. Supply of the discharge liquid to channels is adjusted to a two-position distributor installed on the shaft of the hydraulic drive of return-rotary displacement.
EFFECT: simplified design, increased reliability of design, increased safety and efficiency of labour.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: first preparatory field mines are driven - level haulage and ventilation drifts with identical geodetic elevations, block crossdrifts and accumulating drifts with an inclination for a self-flow transport, stripping wells are drilled at the right angle to the bed plane, then, line cuts are washed by the hydraulic method. Level haulage and ventilation drifts stretch at identical geodetic elevations to form a ventilation scheme with horizontal depression. The area of line cuts is increased to initiate the process of caving of a hanging massif in a stope. The stope bottom is formed by washing of line cuts with an inclination providing for accumulation of caved coal through self-flow. The caved coal is magazined to control shift of side rocks in the stope. Chambers that are adjacent to the mined space are separated by barrier sight pillars. Oversize material is crushed, and coal mass is periodically discharged in dosing manner into the accumulating drift to provide for stope bottom movement up the pitch.
EFFECT: elimination of air leaks through a mined space, reduced contamination of coal by caved rocks, higher reliability of breaking face functioning and labour safety.
SUBSTANCE: system capable of using naturally reheated fluids produced from hydrothermal channels with the purpose to develop and use practically unlimited quantity of thermal energy contained in specified fluids. The system comprises the main system made of three parts: a funnel, pipe sections and any combination of several mechanical fixtures. The extracted thermal energy is used to drive steam turbines or other equipment for generation of power, which is transported to earth surface, water desalination or for any other production, requiring thermal energy. Besides, the specified thermal energy may simultaneously or separately be introduced into the extracting plant for extraction of resources in order to extract precious metals, mineral and chemical substances without system modification.
EFFECT: provision of a reliable mechanism for extraction of thermal energy from an ocean bottom and such precious resources as minerals, metals and chemical substances.
37 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes exposure and development of reserves by open-cut method, exposure, preparation and working-out the reserves in cut edges by underground method, transportation of rock mass and maintaining protective pillars. When eliminating the front of open mining at safety distance there performed is an exposure of underground mining unit in cut edge that includes several beds. There passed are ventilation and pulp-haulage drift ways that are cut by pulp-haulage roadway, and from the surface there drilled are wells along coal beds till pulp-haulage roadway. Broken working is done from well upwards and downwards by hydraulic or drill-hydraulic methods, and pulp transportation is done by wells and pulp-transportation mines till draining complex.
EFFECT: invention allows increasing the coefficient of mineral resources extraction and reducing environmental losses.
6 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a technique of heap leaching of precious metals, for example gold, from ores, and can be used at development of deposits of refractory ores. A method for heap leaching of gold from ores involves ore crushing, formation of piles from crushed ore, leaching of gold by supplying a solution of a reagent to the pile till reduction of content of gold in productive solutions below a process limit, drilling of wells, arrangement of explosives in them, blast firing, additional leaching of mineral mass, collection of productive solutions with further extraction from productive solutions of gold. At well drilling, testing of the mineral mass is performed, as per the results of which outlines of colmatation zones with increased content of slurry and clay fractions are defined; concentrated alkali-cyanide leaching solutions are pumped under pressure to those zones through wells, thus performing diffusion leaching of gold by means of them. After a pause is held, explosive charges placed into ampoules filled with water are arranged in well parts located within the colmatation zones. Blasting of charges is performed, thus loosening the material with simultaneous blasting and injection treatment with a water-and-gas mixture formed at blasting of charges; after that, additional leaching of mineral mass is performed by sprinkling the whole pile with a weak alkali-cyanide solution.
EFFECT: improving leaching efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a process of leaching of noble metals such as gold. The method of heap-hole leaching of gold from technogenic mineral formations or sand of non-deep placers comprises drilling injection wells, feeding through them into the productive formation of activated leaching solutions, the collection of productive solutions, subsequent sorption extraction of gold from the productive solutions. Preliminary, in the leached material the drainage workings are formed by local extraction of gold-bearing mineral mass from areas with increased content of silty-clay fractions and/or commercially valuable components. Drilling the injection wells is carried out between the drainage workings. The mineral mass extracted during the formation of the drainage workings is subjected to agglomeration with the leaching solution and cement and it is stored on the surface of the areas with the wells drilled, and then injection of concentrated solutions of leaching reagents is carried out into the gold-bearing mineral mass remaining unextracted and the technogenic formation or sand of placer through the system of injection wells, diffusion leaching of gold is carried out with these solutions, then the mineral mass is irrigated through the surface and through the injection wells with water or weak solutions, the drainage of productive solutions is carried out through the formed drainage workings, and the sorption extraction of gold from the productive solutions.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of leaching.
SUBSTANCE: metal extraction method comprises a sequential formation injection through the system of injection wells with the solution containing hydrogen chloride and sodium hypochlorite, pumping-out of productive solutions through the system of extraction wells. After supply of the injection solution into the formation the hydraulic medium. providing pH acidity of the solution at the level 1.5-2.5, is injected at the pressure exceeding the formation pressure, the hydraulic impact in the formation is generated which is an additional leaching agent. The hydraulic medium is sulphuric, nitric, coal or sulphurous acid or their mixes. The hydraulic medium can be the mixing solutions of sodium carbonate-hydrocarbonate (Na2CO3+NaHCO3), ammonium carbonate-hydrocarbonate ((NH4)2CO3+NH4HCO3), sodium carbonate-hydroxide (Na2CO3+NaOH) or the brine with sodium carbonate saturated with CO2. After supply of the hydraulic medium into the formation the injection solution containing sand with the fraction 0.5-2 mm is supplied again.
EFFECT: improvement of efficiency of metal extraction, decrease of negative environment impact.
7 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining operation.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in particular in underground leaching unconsolidated sediments containing Cu, Au, Mo, U, NaCl, MgCl2 6H2O, and others. The method of leaching the mineral deposits from the producing formation comprises drilling injection and production bores, feeding the leach solution through the injection bore and pumping the productive solution through the production bore. Drilling the injection and production bores is carried out in one direction, placing the production bores under the injection bores. After drilling the first pair of the injection and the production bores drilling the next pairs of bores is carried out in a clockwise direction from the first pair with the pitch of 45°, and supplying the leach solution is carried out after the drilling of the next pair of bores. After pumping the productive solution the used bores are choked and new bores are drilled counter-clockwise with the pitch from the first injection and production bores of 22.5°, and the following - of 45°. At oblique occurrence of ore bed, drilling of injection and production bores is carried out under the angle of occurrence of the ore bed.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of leaching of mineral deposits.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining operations.
SUBSTANCE: method of desalination of dumps comprises formation of dump of rock mass with off-balance content of commercial component, injection of a hardening mixture of the lower zone of the dump provided as a result of segregation of the rock mass on coarseness with the large-size material, injection of the upper zone with the reagent solutions in wells, passed from working to the mountain slope. The working is passed obliquely, parallel to the slope along the centre of the beam water-intake used for dumping. The zone of desalination is increased as areas upwards. After the completion of desalination at a single site instead of desalination reagents the pumping of the solutions for their neutralising is started, and then cementing, hardening agents.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of extraction of useful components from dumps, reduction of negative impact of dumps on the environment and creation of conditions for their subsequent remediation.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining and, in particular, to underground mining represented by pitching and underlay lodes. Mining of stopes during excavation of lodes is carried out in two stages. At the first stage the mined space is filled in moving the front of stoping by removing after ore breaking in each stope cycle from each ore embankment only part of a broken rock mass in the form of a strip adjacent directly to the stoping, the width of which is determined by the formula. Since when breaking of each layer in the mined space of stope a part of the ore embankment is left, after breaking the whole block the mined space is completely filled with the broken ore mass. At the second stage of mining the block the waterproofing of all mine roadway layout is carried out at its outer contour and using the methods of physicochemical geotechnology the useful components are removed from the ore, filling the mined space, and the ore recycled in such a manner is left as a backfilling.
EFFECT: invention enables to improve the efficiency of underground mining of pitching and underlay lodes, to reduce the amount of unproductive works on maintaining mined space, increasing with the increase in the depth of exploitation.
SUBSTANCE: method of underground leaching of ores of deposits on geochemical oxidising-reducing barriers involves construction of geo-production wells, preparation on brine water of a leaching solution, its supply to injection wells and removal of product solutions from extraction wells. At preparation of a leaching solution, concentration of at least three substances contained in brine water is increased; quantitative relationships between them are maintained as equal to their ratio in brine water; content of these substances and relationship between them is determined as per water samples taken from an oxidised part of an oxidising-reducing barrier.
EFFECT: improving leaching efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: installation for formation by dilution and accumulation of gas in salt cavern (26) formed by formation by dilution includes pipe string (70) intended for flow divergence, made so that a provision is made for interconnection as to fluid medium with two or more concentric pipes (2, 2A) in one main shaft of a well with at least one side hole (44) passing from internal passage (25) with external annular passage (24) interconnected with the surface under one set of X-tree with gate valves. Devices (25A) for flow control, flow diverters (47) and/or insulating tubes (22) can be introduced to the pipe string intended for flow divergence, which provides a possibility of changing a zone of dilution in the salt cavern to control the cavern shape. Besides, the pipe string intended for flow divergence and used for formation of cavern can also be used for dehydration and accumulation of gas.
EFFECT: enlarging technological capabilities; improving effectiveness of a cavern creation and use method.
46 cl, 109 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to extraction of nonferrous metal ore. Proposed method comprises ore body exposure by the system of injection and evacuation works, feed of leaching solution in evacuation works, forcing the production solution via evacuation works and processing the latter. Deposit is divided in ore blocks to be successively processed. Note here that injection and evacuation works are located across groundwater flows. Note also that nickel-cobalt solution is evacuated in pH range that ensures in-situ settling-out of ballast admixtures, mainly, iron and aluminium ions.
EFFECT: lower costs, better ecology.
7 cl, 6 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining, and namely to production of useful minerals by an underground block leaching method. The underground block leaching method of useful minerals involves driving at the block bottom of openings of drain horizon for collection of productive solutions, crushing and shrinkage of ore so that a drain horizon of a safety pillar is left above openings, drilling of upward pumping wells from openings of drain horizon through the safety pillar, supply through them of a leaching solution to shrunken ore, collection of productive solutions in openings of drain horizon. Upward pumping wells from openings of drain horizon through the safety pillar are drilled to lower boundary of shrunken ore, and the leaching solution mixed with air is supplied to shrunken ore via upward pumping wells in a hydrodynamic cavitation mode.
EFFECT: invention allows increasing extraction degree of useful minerals from ores, shortening leaching duration and reducing flow of leaching reagents.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes prior pumping into bed through system of feed wells of solution, containing sodium hypochlorite or chloride, draining product solutions through draining wells system. Fed solution additionally has hydrogen chloride with following ratio of components, g/l: sodium hypochlorite 0.4-1.0, sodium chloride 3.0-4.0, hydrogen chloride 0.3-1.0. sodium hypochlorite solution is received directly at place of use via electrolysis of sodium chloride solution. For receiving sodium hypochlorite solution rotation compounds are used, received after productive solutions cycle through absorption columns.
EFFECT: higher safety.