Method of creation of adjustable free flowing water flow and device for its implementation
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering, specifically to creation of the water flow and its control using pipes to drive the hydraulic turbines, devices of water systems, and protection of fill dams against washaway. To create water flow the siphon is used, at its ends the gates are installed, and in its top point a hole is made closed by the tight plug. The siphon intake end is lowered in the source water reservoir, and drain end is inserted in beginning of the distribution pipe, its internal diameter is selected higher then outside diameter of the siphon pipe. For the water flow start gates are closed in series, the siphon is filled with water up to plug, hole is tightly closed by plug, and gates are opened. The created water flow is directed in the required or safe for people and environment direction via the distribution pipes, trays or other water ways. The dam protection against washaway (in case of the water overflow over the dam) is performed by means of the siphon gates opening and water overflow over the siphon installed on the dam crest. Method is ensured using the device containing siphon with controlled gates in input and output ends, and with hole in its top point closed by tight plug, distribution pipes, buffer or water discharge devices, trays and water ways. To ensure the required higher intensity of the water flow the single flows of several specified devices installed in common or different source water reservoirs or acting water flows are combined in common rather powerful flow.
EFFECT: possibility of increasing of energy power with significantly lower specific and absolute expenses, and fill dams protection against washaway upon threat of dam pond overfilling.
8 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: mobile hydropower structure with water-retaining filled shell attached to water flow bed with the help of bed anchors, installed along perimetre, includes generator, turbine, diffuser. At the same time water-retaining filled shell on top is enveloped with a siphon, which supplies water into lower reach to turbine with generator. Turbine is installed on mobile body, which represents a hollow reservoir with holes for installation of diffuser and removal of flow.
EFFECT: possibility to construct a temporary water utilisation system at waterways with considerable flow rate of bottom deposits for local power supply, irrigation, water supply, fish farming, and provision of confinement of forest fires spreading.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the hydraulic devices and can be used for dump of water from ponds, holding basins and water catchers. The device for dump and regulation of withdrawal depth from a holding basin includes tail vertical and horizontal channels, a slide and a stilling pool. For regulation of withdrawal depth, the tail vertical channel is closed by the external cylinder forming the additional tail external channel, placed according to the height of the top end over a height of water in a holding basin and through an aperture is communicating with atmosphere. The device has a screw drive for moving of the external cylinder on height with the flange fixed on bottom bead liquidating decompression funnel at an overflow of water in the tail external channel. The aperture for the communication with atmosphere is protected from pollution and freezing. Dependences on which constructive geometrical parameters of the device are calculated, the tail vertical and external channels, taking into account a migration of water in a holding basin, and an adjustable driving depth of the external cylinder in a holding basin are resulted. If the channels have out-of-round shapes, their sizes should correspond to the hydraulic radiuses equal to hydraulic radiuses of cylindricities of channels.
EFFECT: maintenance of dump of water from the middle layers of a holding basin, which are not polluted by floating substances.
FIELD: building, particularly to protect dams.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming additional water spillaway channel including a number of self-flowing siphons passing over dam crest, wherein the siphons are assembled of prefabricated units which are delivered to dam when water in water pool reaches dangerous level; permanently installing short and long siphon necks are on the dam by positioning short neck of each siphon below water level in upper pool and by locating long neck thereof below water level in lower pool; assembling vacuum plant; connecting suction chamber of vacuum plant with uppermost siphon point by pipeline; evacuating the siphons and filling thereof with water.
EFFECT: provision of emergency water discharge over the dam and provision of water level reduction in water pool, prevention of scour creation and dam failure.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering, namely the preparation of wastewaters in irrigated agriculture for irrigation and fertilising of plants. The biological stabilisation storage pond comprises a closed water intake water reservoir area in the form of a storage pond 1, having a water-supply tube 2 with the fed collector 21, and a water distribution device at the inlet of the discharge pipeline 4. The water distribution device has two concentrically arranged rings, the inner 5 of which is connected to the pipeline of the outlet, and the outer 6 - to the pipeline of inlet and is located in the lower point of the inclined bottom. The inlet opening of the ring 5 is provided with an air pipe 9 with a valve 10, one end of which is mounted at the inlet to the discharge pipeline 4, and the other communicates with the atmosphere. The source of pressurised air and gas emitted from the wastewaters is made in the form of a mixing chamber 11 with the mesh cloth 12 at the upper part, sequentially arranged on the discharge pipeline 4 below its input. The chamber 11 is connected by the tube 13 with the perforated tubes 14 located in the cavity of the inner ring 5. In the side walls of the inner rings 5 there are air-gas slotted openings 16. In order to regulate the conditions of discharge of the wastewaters into the pond and their removal from the side of the grid 8 at filling the pond 1 a shield 19 can be mounted with an inclination towards the bottom of the pond. The shield 19 can be mounted on a horizontal axis of rotation 20 and is connected by the rods with the drive of vertical movement. According to the second embodiment the storage pond comprises successive water reservoirs with inclined bottoms and water distribution devices. The water distribution devices are formed as two concentrically arranged rings, the inner of which is connected with the discharge pipeline and the outer - with the pipeline of feeding of flows, located in the lower point of the inclined bottom. The inner ring is provided with an air pipe with a vent, one end of which is mounted at the inlet to the discharge pipeline, and the other communicates with the atmosphere. In the side walls of the inner ring there are air-gas outlet openings. The water distribution devices are connected on the discharge pipeline with the mixing chambers.
EFFECT: device improves the efficiency of protection of intake of wastewaters from entering floating debris and simultaneous contributes to decontamination when feeding wastewaters for irrigation The design of the device enables to mix the air due to the organisation of the process of air-gas connection and discharging it from the chamber, which is in the gaseous state.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: for desalination of heavy saline lands, water is supplied to the desalinisation site, the slits 3 are cut, the irrigation pipes 6 with droppers 7 are placed along the central axis of the inter-slit bands, the inter-slit bands are covered with waterproof screens. Then the wash water is fed through the droppers 7, the soil with salt is moved from the walls of the slits 3 at their bottom after the termination of washing, and the slits 3 are poured. Before cutting the slits 3 the deep loosening 2 is carried out. The slits 3 are cut with a bias of the bottom towards the collector and matched with it. Along the central axis of the inter-slit bands the troughs 5 are formed by compacting, in which the pipes 6 with droppers 7 are placed. After moving to the bottom of the slits 3 of soil with salt they are poured first with gravel as the layer of 0.2-0.3 m, then with sand of the field surface. Then, the site surface is levelled and ploughing is carried out with the formation of the arable layer.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of desalination of heavy saline lands with minimal cost of water, diversion of excess precipitation with removal of salts beyond the desalinisation site.
SUBSTANCE: water outlet comprises the inlet 1 and transit 2 channels, associated with water intake gallery, having the water inlet opening in the upper part, covered with grid 11. Grid 11 also covers the V-shaped threshold 10, which separates the sediments before the bottom slot of gallery into coarse fractions. The side walls of the supply channel 1 are provided with guide elements with possibility of their displacement towards the threshold. Guide elements are designed with L-shaped vertical walls 13 with shelves 14, placed above the bottom of the supply channel 1. The lower edges of vertical walls are installed relative to the bottom of the inlet channel 1 with gap. Gallery is made with intake portal in the form of tube, the upper part of the case of which with oblique cut 6 is located above the slotted hole of the gallery. Due to the fact that the cross-section portal of tube with the inlet portion 5 is located slightly above the bottom of the chamber, the water flow to the discharge pipeline is increased, and flow regime through the portal into the transit channel 2 occurs without splashing and all sediments go down. In the presence of bending, the flow speed profile is more uniform in the pipeline, which reduces the tendency of flow separation from the inner curved wall and reduces the energy losses along the length of the pipeline, caused by the vortex turbulence. Pressure losses in the inlet portion at the presence of tubular portion, curved in three dimensions, as in the outlet portion of the pipeline, are reduced.
EFFECT: construction of water outlet as a whole provides its protection against the sediments, as well as in case of the absence of water inlet and simplification of the design at the increased discharge capacity, besides the length of the discharge pipeline is reduced respectively.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises preparation of a field ditch and an irrigation furrow with opening the shoulder of the field ditch, into the shoulder of the field ditch a plastic bottle with the volume of 1.5-2 litres with a truncated bottom at the height of 3 cm is placed, the bottom is placed in the cut place of the bottle with the reverse side, the bottom serves as the means of water start and turning off the water flow into the irrigation furrow, and at low flow rates of water the start and turning off the water after finishing watering is carried out by the bottle lid.
EFFECT: simplification of the method and improvement of the quality of irrigation.
SUBSTANCE: water divider includes supply (2) and transit (3) channels, control gates and bottom well (1) with division walls (8-10) located in it and provided with horizontal caps (11-13) in the upper part dividing the well into chambers. Bottom well (1) is provided with L-shaped caps (15-18), the flange of which faces downwards, which are arranged in each chamber and attached to the middle part of the chamber wall opposite to a horizontal cap. Division walls (8-10) have water-carrying slot-shaped openings (20-22) covered from above with horizontal flanges (23-25) and from below with horizontal flanges (26-28) respectively. Water outlet slot-shaped holes (20-22) are arranged in series opposite L-shaped caps (15-17). The upper part of division walls (8-10) has fractures (29-31) in a vertical plane with specified angles functionally depending on a value of water intake with each chamber of bottom well (1). Surface areas of inlet openings of chambers increase in flow direction above well (1). Each chamber of bottom well (1) has cone-shaped bottom (32-35) directed with a convex in an upward direction. Well (1) with chambers arranged in it is connected to an outlet channel by means of a water-jet damping well. Operating efficiency is improved due to stabilisation of discharged consumption and carrying capacity is increased in a mode of free flow at a wave structure of a flow.
EFFECT: formation of a stable hydraulic jump is provided; with that, spreading of a common jet in an outlet channel is maintained.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: drainage-humidification system comprises a supply 1 and a discharge 2 closed irrigation pipelines interconnected with water distribution executive unit. The water distribution executive unit consists of a vertical pipe 3 mounted on the supply pipeline 1 and the working chamber 4 of pressure with separation from it by the membrane 5 with the rod 6. The water distribution executive unit, the valve gear 19, the container 24 with the float 23, and the rotary valve 44 with the control pipeline are located in series. The cavity 11 of the chamber 4 is connected via the hydraulic pipeline 64 provided with a valve 65, with the switch 27, the shank of which is fixed pivotally with one end of the lever 50 to the rod 22. Movement of the upper lever 50 is limited by the upper stop 58, and the lower lever 51 - by the lower stop 59 above and below the threshold level in the storage container 24. The valve gear 19 is made in the form of a cylinder and has a double piston 20 which is pivotally coupled to the rod 22 of the float actuator. The valve gear 19 is connected to the supply irrigation pipeline 1 through the control pipeline 34 to the valve 35 and is respectively connected to the manifold 42 with drains-humidifiers 43. The storage container 24 with a siphon 28 communicates through the rotary valve 44 to the control pipelines 31, 34, respectively, with valves 32, 35 and with the supply pipeline 1.
EFFECT: system enables to create closed automated systems in land reclamation, to save water resources, to obtain the necessary productivity of agricultural products with the effective use of land.
6 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering, in particular, to methods for determination of water losses from irrigation ditches. The method consists in arrangement of an insulated compartment in a ditch, comprising two polymer water impermeable links, which for the time of determination of filtration losses are closed into slots on the bottom of the ditch at the distance of 30÷50 m, with subsequent hydraulic insulation of joint areas. Maintenance of polymer water impermeable links in the stable position is carried out with the help of a metal polymer rope pulled into open holes in the upper part of links and fixed to coastal anchors. To reduce impact in process of measurements of external factors, on top between water impermeable links there is a tent pulled from light impermeable polymer film. Measurement of water level in the compartment is carried out in special pockets fixed at the outer side to links and communicating with an insulated compartment with the help of three rows of holes in upper, middle and lower parts. For measurement of water level each pocket is equipped with a portable needle level metre (point-gauge) with a vernier scale division price of 0.1 mm, which is fixed on the metal stand, installed in the upper part of the slope above the measured water level.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of measurement of water losses for filtration from channels with anti-filtration lining.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of ecology, environment protection and rational nature management and can be used for purification of river water, climate regulation in drought and also contributes to creation of a reserve of fresh water for the economic and social needs of the population. The essence of the technical solution is that the water reservoirs with the depth of 2.5-3 m, the width of 120-150 m, the length of 250-280 m, the surface area of water of 3-3.5 ha are formed in interstream areas on the river banks at a distance of 150-200 m from the mainstream. The water reservoirs are connected to the river bed by input and take-out channels. At the bottom of the water reservoirs the zeolite-containing clay - irlites are placed with the layer of 10-15 cm.
EFFECT: method enables to reduce the level of pollution of river waters, to create optimal climatic conditions for human living, flora and fauna, the sustainable development of coastal ecosystems and the whole lowland interfluvial landscapes, while simultaneously providing reserve of ecologically clean fresh water for domestic, household and other needs of the population.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ecology and soil science. The method of assessment of degradation degree of industrial landscape in chemical contamination provides the analytical determination of the total number of the chemical pollutant element, the quantity of chemical pollutant element being in the mobile form in soil of the industrial landscape, and, separately, geographically conjugated unpolluted landscape. A procedure of assessment of pollution of the landscape is proposed, consisting of three stages: normalisation of industrial landscape pollution and geographically conjugated unpolluted landscape; determination of the ratio of pollution standard of industrial landscape and the pollution standard of geographically conjugated unpolluted landscape; determination of the degree of degradation of industrial landscape on the ratio of pollution standards under the proposed nonlinear scale of degradation degree of industrial landscape.
EFFECT: proposed method in practical use enables to improve the reliability of detection of degradation degree of industrial landscape in case of chemical pollution.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: weed plants are preliminarily mowed in discharge canal to water level and is left to dry. After drying reed and rush plants are selected. Selected plants are used as sorbent. Filtering cassette net of cassette-holding device is filled with sorbent. Sorbent-containing device is fixed in discharge canal bed in monolithic manner and drainage outflow is passed through it. Plant mowing and replacement of filtering cassette are carried out when rice plant passes from one vegetation stage into another.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve reclamation state of soil and ecological situation on rice fields due to reduction of suffusion and removal of nutrients from soil.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, desalinization of saline soil of agricultural lands.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting slits on plot to be desalinized; feeding rinse water onto strips between slits; removing salt from slit surfaces and spilling soil therein, with slits being cut to depth exceeding depth of season soil wetting with precipitation; providing cavities on strips between slits; closing cavities with shields of hydrophobic water-impermeable material, said shields being equipped with perforations extending along their central axes and float members; fastening shield edges in upper part of slits; providing soil desalinization facilitated by precipitation. Upon precipitation, rain water flows over walls of cavities to infiltrate through perforations and fill cavities bottom part, with the result that salt is washed into depth of soil to be desalinized. Moisture will be preferably moved by capillary force and due to evaporation of moisture from slit wall surfaces toward slit walls, accompanied by accumulation thereon of salts. Washing process may be accomplished during one or several seasons depending upon precipitation intensity and salt concentration. After completing of desalinization processes, shields are removed, salts are buried by spilling soil into slits, and soil on desalinized plot is mellowed to depth of season soil wetting. Burying of salts at the level below depth of season soil wetting and destruction of capillaries by deep mellowing of desalinized soil layer protect it from secondary salinization.
EFFECT: increased fertility of agricultural areas on unirrigated agricultural lands in the absence of potable water sources without the necessity of constructing expensive water feeding systems.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, desalination of agricultural lands.
SUBSTANCE: method involves feeding water to land to be desalinated; cutting slits therein; irrigating strips between slits; removing salt from slit wall surfaces and spilling soil thereon, with slits being provided at distance from one another which does not exceed doubled value of capillary transfer of soil moisture at land under desalination process and slit cutting depth being set so that it exceeds value of capillary lifting of moisture by soil at land under desalination process; forming ridges with two sloping surfaces on strips between slits; placing pipelines with droppers thereon, said pipelines being connected to water supply main; covering strip surfaces with water-impermeable shields made from hydrophilic material; fastening shield edges in upper part of slits; supplying water from droppers up to termination of desalination procedure, with following interrupting of water supplying process; moving soil layer with salt from slit walls onto slit bottom and forming water-impermeable layer of hydrophilic material above said soil layer; leveling slits.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of washing water, increased efficiency in soil desalination, decreased consumption of labor and costs for extraction, conveyance and disposition of salts settled on slit walls.
FIELD: agriculture, particularly irrigation ditches, namely gravity flow, open channel water distribution systems to control water flow in irrigation canal with water consumers, which take water along the canal.
SUBSTANCE: water-distribution system comprises irrigation canal with head gate, sealed chamber with sliding float communicating with upper pool and discharge means through three-way gate installed in supply pipeline, three-way gate control sensor, movable water consumer with water-intake means, blocking structure made as elastic shell and water level sensor. Water-intake means of water consumer is provided with sheet fixedly secured to upper end part thereof and adapted to block upper part of water flow. The sheet is associated with spherical elastic shell, which blocks remainder water flow part and provided with balancing means. The balancing means is located around spherical elastic shell perimeter. The sheet is linked to head part of water-intake means by flexible tie. Hollow body is connected to outer side of water-intake means. The hollow body is adapted to receive water level sensor made as float with vertical post. The post has two parallel contact rods connected to one post end and associated with power source. The contact rods cooperate with trolley cables in horizontal plane. The trolley cables are carried by masts installed on irrigation canal berm and distributed along the full canal length. The trolley cables are connected to power source through spring-loaded contact rods arranged in water-intake means and receiver/transmitter unit. Time delay unit is connected with gate control sensor. Sliding float is connected with head gate through kinematical connection means. Movable water consumer is provided with programmable control device, which controls water-intake means location height.
EFFECT: reduced operational costs, decreased water consumption for agricultural crop watering, decreased water reserve volume, simplified structure and reduced costs of irrigation system object construction.
FIELD: irrigation, particularly artificial water canals.
SUBSTANCE: method involves punching perforation orifices in film web; cutting furrows; breaking down and spreading soil lumps; laying perforated film webs along furrow perimeter and securing film web edges to berm. Number of perforation orifices made in film web increases from front furrow end to rear end thereof. Method is realized with the use of device including frame carrying working tool used for furrow cutting. Spreader, perforated film web accumulation means and pressing rollers are serially installed behind the working tool. The spreader comprises two rows of paired rollers freely rotating about their axes fixedly secured to shaft by means of bearings and loaded with spring. Roller is installed behind perforated film web accumulation means. The roller may perform limited vertical movement and is pressed with spring to furrow bottom and sides. Pressing rollers and scrapers are arranged behind the roller.
EFFECT: prevention of irrigation water losses during furrow filling with water; elimination of plant rootage damping-off.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to nondestructive methods for control and diagnostics of operational condition of tray channels. Device for diagnostics and forecasting of technical condition of tray channels in irrigation systems includes frame, antenna blocks and motion sensor. Device is equipped with processing module. Frame copies channel shape and is equipped with support rollers. Antenna blocks are arranged along frame perimetre.
EFFECT: makes it possible to improve quality of tray channel operational monitoring, to speed up their inspection with nondestructive test methods and to carry out forecasting of remaining service life of tray channels.