Device of error control of shaft rotation to code converter
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the device to control error of conversion of the shaft rotation angle to the code. The device contains reference converter of shaft rotation to code, block interfacing the monitored and reference converters, comprising assembly of rigid connection of shafts of the reference and monitored converters, assembly limiting casing rotation of the monitored or reference converter with installed autocollimating mirror, which angular position is measured by the digital autocollimator. The autocollimator output and outputs of the controlled and reference converters via the electronic block are connected with PC. Assembly limiting casing rotation of the monitored or reference converters provided the casing with all degrees of freedom excluding rotation around the axis of the own shaft, and can be made in form of parallel-link mechanism with spherical linkages.
EFFECT: assurance of the possibility tom increase number of the monitored positions of the converter.
FIELD: radio engineering, communication.
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is automated monitoring and testing equipment for testing energy and information interaction circuits of a multichannel control system with actuating devices, having a virtual reference and a module for comparing signals with the reference, a personal computer connected to an information transmission unit with a monitoring unit, which can be connected to a monitored system and has a control unit, a multichannel unit for standardising input signals with an analogue-to-digital converter, a unit for generating output signals and an interface simulator. The equipment is provided with a unit for simulating standard connection of the monitored system with a unit for generating relay signals of the state of the monitored system, a unit for simulating connection to a power supply network, a control module, a module for communication of the monitored system with the personal computer and an interface module, which can be connected to the interface simulator of the monitoring unit through the monitored multichannel control system.
EFFECT: broader functional capabilities of the equipment and high reliability of monitoring by providing equivalent standard connection of the monitored system.
SUBSTANCE: drive circuit for at least one direct current sensor, having a digital controller connected to a main circuit and a control circuit, wherein the main circuit comprises a digital-to-analogue converter connected to the sensor through a forward amplifier channel and a return amplifier channel for transmitting sensor drive signals, having a constant signal component during differential connection, wherein the control circuit comprises an analogue-to-digital converter connected to the amplifier channels. The circuit includes a monitoring circuit which is connected to the controller in parallel to the converter for transmitting signals depending on the variable component of signals output at the amplifier channels. A digital computer is configured to input an in-phase sinusoid into the drive signals and analyse signals at the output of the monitoring circuit and signals at the output of the analogue-to-digital converter.
EFFECT: simple design of the means of detecting and identifying faults in a drive circuit.
6 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for radiation calibration involves measuring a signal with a satellite sensor and simultaneous sub-satellite ground-based measurement of brightness coefficients and albedo of the underlying surface. Optical thickness of the atmosphere and luminance of the sun on the test area, the size of which corresponds to spatial resolution of the sensor, are measured. Measurements are taken in two (or more) test areas with different albedo of the underlying surface and the calibration factor is calculated based on the relationship between the signal measured at the input of the satellite sensor and the brightness coefficient of the underlying surface.
EFFECT: invention increases accuracy of absolute energy calibration and simplifies the calibration procedure.
SUBSTANCE: in order to correct the output signal of a photometric sensor, the measured object is exposed to radiation and measurements are taken by receiving radiation passing through the measured object using a sensor having a nonlinear output characteristic. The output signal of the sensor is linearised such that the output signal from said sensor becomes proportional to the amount of the received radiation in response to change in the amount of received radiation. Hardware transmission coefficients are measured at arbitrary points of the measurement range on the inspected sensor and then corrected based on an approximation function.
EFFECT: high reliability of measuring true transmission coefficients of monitored liquid media by enabling taking into account of non-idealities of principal characteristics of an optical channel.
SUBSTANCE: invention contains body which consists of base and cover, made from fluoroplast, and device for imitation of optical properties of various types of live biological tissues. Device includes set of layer-by-layer placed elements which possess light-dispersing, fluorescent and light-absorbing optical properties. Layer-by-layer placed elements represent polymer optical films, whose spectral linear coefficients of absorption and dispersion correspond to spectral linear coefficients of light absorption by biological tissues with superficial and epidermal melanin, blood saturated with oxygen on 5-100%, spectral linear coefficient of light dispersion by collagen fibres and dense tissue structure without blood. Wavelengths of fluorescence of polymer optic films correspond to wavelengths of fluorescence of respiratory cell enzymes of biological tissue.
EFFECT: application of invention extends functional possibilities of device and ensures calibration and check-up of vast range of devices and apparatuses of non-invasive medical spectrophotometry.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: metering equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to X-ray diagnostic equipment and is intended to monitor constancy of parametres and characteristics of X-ray and computer CT scanners. Test object comprises body made of Perspex in the form of hollow cylinder, installed horizontally on supports, internal cavity of which is separated by partition into sections, one of which is filled with water, and the other one contains inserts having groups of openings with various diametre and tungsten wire installed in parallel to longitudinal axis of body cylinder symmetry. One of inserts is arranged in the form of solid cylinder made of Perspex, where tungsten wire is melted in parallel to axis of insert cylinder symmetry, with displacement from it upward along vertical line. One base of insert cylinder is rigidly fixed on partition with displacement of its longitudinal axis of symmetry upwards along vertical line versus longitudinal axis of body cylinder symmetry, and tungsten wire is installed at the distance of 20-30 mm from longitudinal axis of body cylinder symmetry. On the other base of insert cylinder there is holder fixed rigidly, free base of which is truncated at the angle of 60°-70° versus longitudinal axis of body cylinder symmetry, and another insert is installed on it, being arranged in the form of detachable flat aluminium plate of rectangular shape with thickness of 0.5-1.0 mm, comprising groups of through holes with diametre of 0.5; 0.7; 1.0; 1.5 and 2.0 mm, which are provided along its whole surface. On external side surface of cylinder there are marks applied, three of which are arranged in the form of straight line sections matched with generatrices of body cylinder along its full length, and arranged accordingly, as one in upper part of body cylinder, and two other - at its sides in mutually perpendicular longitudinal planes of body cylinder symmetry. Two other marks are arranged along full length of body cylinder circumference and are installed, accordingly, one in the middle of body section filled with water and other in the second section of body directly above middle of insert cylinder. On body there are the following components provided - rigidly fixed cover on the side of water-filled section, and detachable cover - on the side of section with inserts.
EFFECT: invention expands arsenal of test objects of X-ray computer CT scanners.
FIELD: measuring technology.
SUBSTANCE: inventions refer to instrument engineering and can be used for calibration of instruments measuring mobility of air (anemometres and thermo-anemometres). The method is implemented by uniform motion of a calibrated anemometre in immobile air at a specified rate along a reference section of path. The facility consists of an aerodynamic pipe enclosing components of the facility and made in form of an assembled portable frame insulating the section of the measurement path from external thermo and aerodynamic influences. Also the following is inserted inside the pipe: the reference section of path of motion of calibrated gauge, a motion activator with a regulator of step motion speed change, a timer for recording time of motion of the calibrated instrument along the reference section of the path switched synchronously with the beginning of motion, a carriage with a roller mechanism whereon the calibrated anemometre is attached and a contact lever switching the timer on at the moment of carriage motion beginning, and a traction-drawing mechanism connecting the traction activator with the carriage. Further, the facility consists of a source of electric power with a mechanism facilitating stability of activator operation.
EFFECT: upgraded accuracy of measurement of air flow speed.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to calibration of measurement facilities and may be used in systems with indicator strips for investigation of analyte with lateral distribution. According to invention, they identify previously specified method of indicator strip calibration, which corresponds to production batch, from which indicator strip is made. Then they measure values of signals, with simultaneous performance of analytical reaction with lateral distribution on indicator strip. Final signal value is detected and corrected in compliance with identified previously selected method of indicator strip calibration, which may use intermediate value of signal, limit value of signal, moment of limit signal value measurement, etc.
EFFECT: due to that, it is possible to compensate variability of indicator strip characteristics.
40 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: three-dimensional standard is taken and successively put into fixed reference points of the operating area of a three-dimensional measuring machine. Measurements are taken during successive positioning of the standard in three mutually perpendicular directions. The vector field of measurement errors of any differently oriented linear dimension is then calculated for each reference point of the three-dimensional measuring machine, and from the set of vector fields for fixed reference points, the vector field of measurement errors is obtained for the entire operating area of the three-dimensional measuring machine. The distinctive feature of the invention is that, the standard used is the same certified set square or the same certified conic frustum.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of determining errors of three-dimensional measuring machines.
FIELD: physics, measuring.
SUBSTANCE: specified expedient is applicable to measuring and computing complex (MCC), including communications junction (CJ), programmed norming transformer (PNT), microprocessor (MP) and built in radio channel of communication (RC), for purpose of maintenance of operation of a complex in a wide gamut of temperatures (-40°+50°C) with high stability and accuracy of observed datas in it use procedures of self-acting single calibration and correction for each type of the data units measured by the MCC. In the method in advance the spot points "i" in operational interval of the MCC temperatures and in the given point of temperature (ti) yield regular measuring, and at performance of procedure of calibration a gamut of codes of observed data break on "j" subbands where medial values Nj in a code equivalent of every subband readout correspond to the gauge values shaped by the self-acting calibrator of standards.
EFFECT: decrease in error of device at expense of magnification of its speed, thanks to exception of additional gang of precision resistors fixing beginning and extremity of a gamut of measuring for all types and plans of linking of data units, served by MCC.
FIELD: medical equipment.
SUBSTANCE: estimator for modulation transfer function of X-ray image detector according to "sharp edge" method lies in application of tungsten plate with rectilinear sharp edge, fixed on substrate surface designed as lead plate by plates symmetry axis and so that substrate edge coincides with rectilinear sharp edge of tungsten plate. On substrate side opposite to sharp edge of tungsten plate there are two dot marks equally spaced from symmetry axis. Another two marks as line segment are mapped on substrate surface on tungsten plate side, each mark is angles to line of rectilinear sharp edge forming right angle if crossing virtual line which is actually extension of mark as line segment and line connecting dot mark with centre of rectilinear sharp edge of tungsten plate.
EFFECT: invention application enables to improve quality of measurements while modulation transfer function X-ray image detectors is estimated.
SUBSTANCE: process of determination of wheels angles of the vehicle including at least one axle (12-14) with the axle end with at least one wheel element (2a-b, 3a-b, 4a-b) at appropriate lengthwise side of said vehicle. This method includes determination of departure of wheel axle from perpendicularity relative to vehicle geometrical axial line. Besides, this invention covers the system to this end. Proposed method and system allow determination of departure from perpendicularity of vehicle wheel axles. Proposed method and system allow determination of departure from perpendicularity of vehicle wheel axles and other parameters of wheels setting.
EFFECT: determination of departure from perpendicularity of vehicle wheel axles without extra appliances, for example, reference attachments.
13 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: present group of inventions relates to measuring equipment, and can be used to check the railroad, in particular to determine deviation of the railroad from the design position. Method of check of spatial position of railroad means that using the receiving and analyzing systems two images of space adjacent to the railroad are obtained. Using the processing and control block the reference mark is detected on the obtained images, and coordinates of the reference elements of the reference mark are determined by preliminary measurements of the mutual spatial position of the check elements. Then displacement of the check elements relatively to the base point of the devices coordinate system in vertical, longitudinal and transverse directions are determined, angles of rotation of the reference mark around the vertical and longitudinal axes, as well as angle of system rotation relatively to the transverse axes is measured. Set of obtained values of displacement of each check element relative to the datum point of the devices coordinate system is compared with the pre-measured mutual spatial position of the mass elements. Based on the results of such comparison the displacements of the reference mark in vertical, longitudinal and transverse directions are determined. Correction of the obtained displacements is made considering the obtained angles of rotation, and railroad position is determined.
EFFECT: reduced error of determination of the railroad position.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: physics, navigation.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method and an apparatus for maintaining geodetic direction relative to the true meridian. The solution is based on that two optical systems having reflecting surfaces are placed on independent planes having a common vertical axis of rotation and linked by an optical beam into a single unit. A retroreflector is placed on one of the planes to obtain and monitor the maintained geodetic direction. Implementation of the method and setup of the apparatus when maintaining or restoring the direction is provided by rotating the two planes about each other to enable the beam to pass from a laser mounted in one of the optical systems through a predetermined optical path.
EFFECT: solution enables to reproduce the geodetic direction in both stationary mounting conditions and mounting on a location with minimum effort.
5 cl, 18 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fibre optics and can be used for measurement of the angle of deflection of controlled object surface from datum level, profile and part surface curvature in machine building. Proposed device comprises radiation source, V-like waveguide system, two comparators, photo receiver and cylindrical optical adapter. Every waveguide fitted in said adapter allows the device operation in its particular range of angular positions which cover the required operating range of control surface angular position measurements.
EFFECT: expanded operating range of control surface angular position measurements.
SUBSTANCE: angle measuring device contains lens, matrix radiation receiver with calculating unit, and geometrical reference channel (GRC) containing lighting unit optically connected with the lens, having thee lighting sources with spacing 120°, collimator unit containing three input and three output pinhole apertures, and mirror-prism block creating with the applied on it collimator diaphragms the monoblock rigidly connected with the supporting surface of the angle measuring device and made in form of a isosceles hexagon truncated pyramid, which adjacent ribs are located at angle 120° to each other, and one of bases looks on the lens; in it input and output pinhole apertures are located on the side surfaces of the mirror-prism block, additionally provided with three angle-bar reflectors installed after the appropriate output pinhole aperture ensuring radiation input to the input lens aperture by means of reflection from the looking on it smaller base of the mirror-prism block, at that specified pinhole apertures are arranged such that axis of the output beam is directed at right angle to the side surface of the mirror-prism block.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of the device at simultaneous simplification of the lens optical system and decreasing of its weight and size.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of measuring equipment, namely to optical devices for measurement of small angular movements of object. The diffraction method of measurement of angular movements consists in that the object with the reflector installed on it is illuminated with the laser radiation and the radiation is directed through a slot, forming behind it Fraunhofer's diffraction pattern. By separating from this pattern by the second slot or by the diffraction lattice the fragment containing phase inversion lines of various orders the interferential bands are obtained using which the angular position of the object are determined. The device for monitoring of angular movements implementing the offered method contains optically connected and series placed a laser source, a beam-forming arrangement, an auxiliary mirror, a beam splitter, a reflector mounted on an object of measurement, two slots turned to the angle α with reference to each other and a photodetector. Meanwhile the second slot separated the fragment of the diffraction pattern with phase inversion lines of different orders.
EFFECT: improvement of accuracy and range of angular measurements, and also simplification of design and adjustment of the device implementing them.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises axle-mounted flange and dial, two reading channels, device for digital processing and averaging of results from reading channels, digital indicator. The reading channels contain respectively LEDs, condensers, verniers, photodetectors and interpolators. The dial has a circular transparent zone, circular measuring scale and zero mark scale. The verniers have transparent zones and scales. During rotation of the dial the photodetectors generate the signals SIN (α×N) and COS (α×N), where α - current angle of dial rotation; N - total of scale marks of the dial measuring scale. The interpolators generate two sequences of rectangular pulses shifted with reference to each other by quarter of their period in one or another side. The device for digital processing and averaging of results from reading channels averages the data with indicating by the digital indicator.
EFFECT: improvement of accuracy and recurrence of results of measurements, improvement of convenience of operation, minimising of time for measurements, possibility of automatic measurement of difference of angles of slant of two planes.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods and devices for measurement of angles in machine building, and also to devices of spacecraft navigation. The method to increase resolving capacity of measurement of angular coordinates of a glowing reference point by values of signals and serial numbers of photosensitive elements arranged symmetrically with the specified angular pitch relative to a certain axis, consists in increased speed of signal variation by the angle of the specified photosensitive elements. The multi-element receiver of optical radiation consists from at least three photosensitive elements arranged symmetrically with the specified angular pitch relative to a certain axis, at the same time photosensitive elements have devices that increase speed of their signal variation by the angle.
EFFECT: provision of the possibility to increase resolving capacity of measurement of an angular coordinate of a glowing reference point.
3 cl, 7 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: autocollimator may be used for measurement of rotation angles relative to two axes orthogonal to autocollimator lens axis using one CCD-ruler. Autocollimator includes optical system of autocollimating mark image formation based on source of radiation, located in sequence condenser, mark, beam splitter and lens, photodetector in the form of CCD-ruler with control system including sync-pulse generator, and system for processing of videosignals from low-pass filter, video pulse former and video pulse fronts former, and unit of data processing. Mark and photodetector are installed in lens focal plane. Introduced series-connected are selector, peak detector, subtractor and power amplifier. Selector input is connected to low-pass filter output, and power amplifier output is connected to radiation source. Mark is designed as a set of continuous bars forming three horizontal zones, medium of which is designed from at least one vertical bar and at least one inclined side bar. Bars height is equal to zone height, horizontal sections of mark in various zones differ by quantity of bars sections or their mutual arrangement.
EFFECT: improving accuracy, compactness and reliability.
5 cl, 3 dwg