Method for determining spectrum of sizes of suspended nanoparticles
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method for determining a range of sizes of suspended nanoparticles consists in passage of gas (mixture of gases) containing analysed particles, through diffusion batteries of a meshed type and their introduction to supersaturated vapours of a low-volatile enlarging substance. Then, lighting of a flux of particles with a light beam and recording of parameters of light signals shaped by enlarged particles at their flying through the pointed-out area of the flux is performed. In order to improve accuracy of determination of the range of sizes, the main flux is separated into six parallel fluxes. With that, five of them are passed through five diffusion batteries with a different slip, and one of them is passed directly. Then, these fluxes pass through six devices of condensation growth and then to a field of vision of a charge-coupled device matrix and the obtained six areas of images of enlarged fluxes of particles are transmitted to a computer for an analysis of their range of sizes. Unlike known ones, the method allows performing simultaneous processing by means of a computer of six images of enlarged particles, which characterise different dimensional ranges of nanoparticles.
EFFECT: reducing the time required for measurements and improving their accuracy.
The invention relates to analytical measuring systems associated with the determination of trace contaminants, primarily aerosol and nanoparticles in various gases and their mixtures, including in air atmosphere. It may find application in many fields of science and technology, in particular in the solution of various ecological problems, in the creation of ultra-clean manufacturing facilities, under the control of the dispersed phase for targeted drug delivery to the respiratory system.
A device image analysis of particles (Pat. US 2007 0273878 A1 G01N 21/00 from 29.11.2007), comprising: an illumination unit, a unit for capturing the image and the block image processing. The device is in the coverage of the particles, the received image capture and processing of the acquired images using a threshold device for the analysis of extracted particles and obtain their morphological characteristics.
The disadvantage of this device is that it does not allow measurement of nanoparticles.
The known method of the study of micro-objects (Pat. EN 2154815, G01N 15/02 dated 20.05.1998), which is that the studied micro-objects irradiated by the radiation beam, the maximum linear size of the coherence volume in the irradiation zone of micro-objects does not exceed 30% of the average distance between particles in warranty�ve. Using optical systems form images of the studied micro-objects and after reading measure their geometrical parameters on the signal level, depending on the coherence of the illumination and the aperture angle of the optical system forming the image.
The disadvantage of this method is that this method can not be determine the size of particles at the nanoscale.
In the basis of methods of measuring the concentration of disperse composition of aerosol particles in the nano range is the agglomeration of particles due to their condensation growth in supersaturated vapor environment (e.g., water) and measuring the concentration and size of the grown droplets using a conventional opto-electronic methods.
The process of steam condensation on suspended in the gas mixture the particles of the substance (nucleus condensation and misting three starts reaching a certain supersaturation:
where p0- the saturated vapor pressure over a flat surface condensation; p is the vapor pressure over the drop. In the state of thermodynamic equilibrium between the drop and the gas p is defined as the ball pressure in the gas mixture.
When sufficiently large, the solution is the connection of radius r and current supersaturation S is expressed by the Kelvin equation with the amendment of Thomson, on the electric charge of the nucleus:
where σ and ρW- the surface tension and the density of the condensate; k - Boltzmann constant; T is the gas temperature; m is the mass of vapor molecules; e is the electric charge.
Using formula (1), it is easy to estimate what the supersaturation necessary to create, to drop up to a maximum amount, which is able to record optical device.
When sufficiently large, the solution (S>3) water vapor in the air centers of condensation can be a light air ions (r<10-7cm, e=1.6 x 10-19CL). All the cores, ranging from r<0.1 µm, up to the size of ions, referred to in the literature Aitken nuclei.
Particles, manifested at low solution S<0.1 in the air, called cloud condensation nuclei, i.e. nuclei, which are formed droplets of clouds and fog.
The first design of counters of condensation nuclei is described in 1888 by Aitken and then perfected by Scholz in 1932 In these devices has grown in supersaturated water vapor the air drops societywide visually after sedimentation on a glass substrate (Belyaev, S. P., Nikiforova N. To., Smirnov V. V., "Optical-electronic methods for the study of aerosols". M.: Energoizdat, 1981, p. 102).
The disadvantage of the first designs of counters of condensation nuclei is the lack of automatic control.
The known method of analysis of impurities in gases, based on education�Denmark aerosol particles to separate molecules (A. S. 188132, G01N 15/00 from 23.06.1961). At the first stage for the consolidation of the smallest nuclei injected into a gas supersaturated vapor of any very malaleuca substances, such as dioctylsebacate. In the second stage, adding at room temperature saturated vapours of the more volatile substances, such as diisobutylphthalate make growing nucleus of condensation into particles sufficiently robust monodisperse aerosol, convenient for nephelometric or ultramicroscopic dimensions.
The disadvantages of this method are its operational inconvenience. In it was mandatory consistent exposure to supersaturated vapor first developing agent, then quickly put. Accordingly requires two same type devices. In the first auxiliary device a small flow of gas in contact with the heated developer substance and is mixed with the main gas stream at room temperature, containing nuclei of condensation. The second device is another small auxiliary stream in contact with the heated substance enlarger and mixes with the main flow coming from the first device with educated in it particles of ultrafine aerosol enlarger.
Another operational disadvantage of this method is that the saturated vapors in the auxiliary threads in contact with di�pragmas mixers, partially condense it and oxidized in air. Oxidized condensate is a viscous, sometimes solid, which gradually clogs the aperture, changing the mode of operation of the method.
To remedy these various disadvantages of the known methods and devices of formation of a molecular condensation nuclei (MOAC).
A device for creating a metered dose of vapor supersaturation substances in the gas flow (A. S. 1741105 G05D 11/00, B01F 3/02, B01F 15/04 from 15.06.1992), which contains connected via a metal capillary tube evaporator and mixing parts. In the body of the vaporizer has a heater and the sleeve with the carrier evaporated substances intended to saturate a small flow of gas vapor of the substance at elevated temperature. Mixing part consists of a tube with a nozzle for the primary dilution of the stream with condensation nuclei.
The disadvantage of this device is the design complexity and greater overall dimensions and power consumption of appropriate equipment.
The known method of detection of small impurities in Gaza (Pat. 2253857 G01N 15/00 from 01.03.2004), which involves the formation of molecular condensation nuclei (MOAC) in the gas stream from impurities or with their participation, evaporation and exhibiting the consolidation Moak substances by their metered�about heating in gas flows, the formation of aerosol particles and measuring their concentration, which determines the concentration of impurities. The heated flow of gas with vaporized substances unite in a common thread, creating a supersaturation vapor mixture of substances and form a joint aerosol particles by condensation on Moak vapor mixture exhibiting and consolidation of substances.
The disadvantage of this method is the use as a heater wire of gold, platinum or their alloys, and high power consumption. In addition, this method does not allow to determine the range of sizes of condensation nuclei.
A method of enlargement of nuclei of condensation, and the device for its implementation (us Pat. 2061219, G01N 15/00 from 27.05.1996), in which a supersaturated vapor consolidation of the substance is obtained by passing the stream with nuclei in the gap between two equidistant surfaces with a given temperature difference, one of which, having a higher temperature) is covered by consolidation substance. The method is implemented by a device containing a camera to create supersaturation, equipped with a cooler, which is installed inside the evaporator with an electric heater. The chamber may be formed, for example, in the form of a tube, and the cylindrical evaporator is located on its axis.
The disadvantage of this method is the inability to determine measured for cores to�condensation (nanoparticles) spectra of their size.
The known method of determining trace concentrations of CARBONYLS of metals in the air stream (Pat. 2356029 G01N from 15.06 from 20.05.2009), which includes the conversion of carbonyl molecules in the molecular condensation nuclei, the subsequent manifestation and larger nuclei in supersaturated vapor showing and consolidation of the detecting substances in the condensation device and nephelometric measurement of the received light scattering aerosol. Wherein the transformation of the carbonyl molecules in the molecular condensation nuclei is carried out by passing the sample flow through the heated part of the tube showing the condensing device deposited on the inner walls of the developing agent. The manifestation of the cores is carried out in a supersaturated pair of developing agent in the further passage of the fluid through the cooling portion of the same pipe.
The disadvantage of this method is the impossibility of determining the size spectrum of the measured trace.
The closest in technical essence to the proposed method is a method to measure the spectrum of the sizes of condensation nuclei aerosol particles and device for its implementation (us Pat. 2340885, G01N 15/02 dated 26.10.2006), including the amount of gas (or gas mixture) containing analyte particles through a diffusion battery mesh type, putting them in supersaturated vapours of Nicole�ucego consolidation substances condensation of vapour in the cores of the particles with formation of the aerosol, the concentration of which is determined by the optical counter. This method is based also work diffusion aerosol spectrometer Model 2702, produced by LLC "Aeronautic" (Moscow).
The disadvantage of this method and of the spectrometer is that the calculation of the spectrum of particle sizes is performed indirectly using a gamma distribution and solving a system of nonlinear algebraic equations, as the spectrum analysis of the enlarged size of aerosol particles produced by consecutive measurements of glitches particles through the five diffusion panels mesh type and the channel without batteries (zero channel).
The technical result that can be obtained by carrying out the invention, is to reduce measurement time and improve accuracy.
This result is achieved in that the method for determining the range of sizes of suspended nanoparticles consists in passing the gas (mixture of gases) containing analyte particles through a diffusion battery mesh type, administered in supersaturated vapours of low-volatile consolidation of a substance, light a stream of particles by a light beam and recording the parameters of the light signals formed by the coalesced particles during their passage through the area allocated�th thread. To improve the accuracy of determining the spectrum of the sizes of the main stream is divided into six parallel streams, five of which are passed through five diffusion cells with different breakthrough, and one directly, then these flows pass through six devices condensation growth and then enter into the field of view of the CCD matrix and obtained the six areas of the images of the integrated flow of particles is transferred into a computer for analysis of the spectrum of sizes.
Fig.1 shows a General diagram of a device for implementing the method.
The apparatus comprises a pulsed radiation source 1, the optical system of the illuminator 2, the optical imaging system of micro-objects, consisting of lenses 3 and 8, and a focusing optical radiation in the area of the counting of the volume flow of the particles 7, the CCD 9, analog-to-digital Converter 10, the computer 11. Also, the device comprises an inlet nozzle feed channels 4, a diffusion battery mesh type 5, the device for condensation growth 6 and the vacuum pump (blower) 12.
The optical system of the illuminator 2 includes a lens system that implement, for example, any of the known methods of lighting the micro-objects (lighting by Keller, methods bright field and a dark, critical illumination, etc.).
The device according to the method operates as follows. Analyzed the flow of air�, or another gas, containing aerosol particles, through the inlet nozzle, the flow channels 4 is passed through five diffusion batteries 5.1-5.5, is a series of veins that let in aerosol particles above a certain size. In order to determine the concentration of particles that have passed through the diffusion battery, you need to enlarge to a size that can be registered by a CCD matrix in the counting volume 7. This is achieved by dibutyl phthalate vapor condensation on the nuclei of the particles with the formation of an aerosol in a consolidation device 6, consisting of a consolidation device for six channels 6.1-.6.6 and further consolidation of the unit 6.0 6.1 channel to the possibility of agglomeration of the nanoparticles molecular size. Next, six of the integrated flow of particles coming into the control area of the CCD 9, the formation of images which provides an optical system comprising a pulsed radiation source 1, the illuminator 2, lenses 3 and 8, a focusing optical radiation in the area of the counting of the volume flow of the particles 7. With matrix CCD image enters the analog-to-digital Converter 10 and then in the computer 11. The computer carries out the processing of the received digital six regions characterizing five channels passing sorted diffusion batteries and directly (through the zero battery) aggregated particles with TSE�'yu determine the range of nanoparticle sizes. Also the computer controls the device condensation growth 6 (6.0-6.6) and a vacuum pump 12.
Thus, the method in contrast to the known processes on the computer at the same time six images aggregated particles, describing the different size ranges of nanoparticles.
The method for determining the spectrum of sizes of suspended nanoparticles consists in passing the gas (mixture of gases) containing analyte particles through a diffusion battery mesh type, administered in supersaturated vapours of low-volatile consolidation of a substance, light a stream of particles by a light beam and recording the parameters of the light signals formed by the coalesced particles during their passage through the selected area of the flow, characterized in that to increase the accuracy of determining the spectrum of the sizes of the main stream is divided into six parallel streams, five of which are passed through five diffusion cells with different breakthrough, and one directly, then these flows pass through six devices condensation growth and further enter into the field of view of the CCD matrix and obtained the six areas of the images of the integrated flow of particles is transferred into a computer for analysis of the spectrum of sizes.
SUBSTANCE: present method includes illuminating a stream of particles with a beam of coherent radiation which is divided into a reference beam and an objective beam and recording a hologram of images of the particles from which the sizes of the particles are determined. After passing through the stream of particles, the objective light beam is turned perpendicular to the initial beam and then retransmitted through the stream of particles, wherein the turned objective beam is optically interfaced with the initial objective beam in a certain region of the stream and the interference pattern of the objective and reference beams is recorded by a CCD matrix in the turned beam. In that case, each particle is virtually illuminated with two perpendicular beams and its holographic image in each of the beams carries more complete and more accurate information on the projection of the particle on a plane perpendicular to the axis of the corresponding beam.
EFFECT: automation of the objective recording of the shape of particles and orientation thereof in space during movement of a dispersed stream in the entire range of sizes and shapes, high accuracy of measurements for irregularly shaped particles.
SUBSTANCE: method to determine geometric sizes of particles of pellet and/or granulate material in a loose layer consists in the fact that a visible area of each particle is formed, by its identification on a video image raster from its corresponding intensity maximum of reflected radiation from its closest minima. Then the sequence of treatment of these areas is set from particles with higher extent of roundedness of the visible area to the lower one, distance is measured from the appropriate maximum of intensity of reflected radiation to minima bordering with visible areas of particles having least extent of roundedness, and thus they determine geometric sizes of particles of pellet and/or granulate material.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of determination of geometric sizes of particles of pellet or granulate material in a loose layer.
8 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method consists in measurement of relationships between intensity of scattered radiation and time at several positions of a polarisation analyser, which are intermediate between the position, in which radiation is passed with linear polarisation coinciding with polarisation of exciting radiation (VV) and the position in which radiation is passed with polarisation perpendicular to polarisation of exciting radiation (VH).
EFFECT: invention allows avoiding the need for measurement of very weak optic signals specific for intensity of scattered radiation at polarisation VH.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device is used to determine spectrum of size of suspended particles in gases, comprising the following components installed along the analysed gas flow: an inlet nozzle with supply channels; diffusion batteries of meshed type for passage of aerosol particles of certain size; an aggregating device of condenser growth; a counting volume; a vacuum pump; temperature sensors, a heater, a cooler and a microcontroller for control of heating and cooling processes in the aggregating device of condenser growth; an optical system comprising a pulse source of radiation, a lighter and lenses for focusing of optical radiation in the field of counting volume of particle flow and generation of images on a CCD array; an analogue-digital converter and a PC for control of the microcontroller of thermostatting, the vacuum pump and processing of six images of aggregated particles for analysis of the spectrum of their size. The device makes it possible to process simultaneously six images of aggregated particles on a PC, which characterise various size ranges of nanoparticles.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce time of measurements and to increase their accuracy.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method and the device for determination of local size of mineral grain for a valuable material mineral in rock of a field or deposit, and rock includes at least one another mineral, and the valuable material mineral is of higher density, than at least one another mineral. The method is characterised by the following stages: execution of the process of rock drilling using the drilling rig, with forming of cuttings, formation of aerosol which comprises cuttings and gas flow, transfer of aerosol from the drilling rig to at least one air separator, execution of sizing in a flow and at least two fractions comprising particles corresponding to equal-settling of cuttings, and determination of property of at least one of fractions which is used as a measure for the local size of mineral grain for valuable material mineral in rock.
EFFECT: determination of local grain size of valuable material mineral in rock of a field or deposit.
20 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: automatic particle size control method in pulp flow includes periodical sensing of material particles by micrometer-type probe with conversion of particle size detected by the sensing mechanism into electric signal proportional to their full size. At that program controlling is used for the sensing mechanism drive in order to ensure stabilising of reciprocation cycle duration for the sensing mechanism and synchronising position of micrometer-type probe at the measurement moment with polling cycle of the computing device that requests value of electrical signal. At that sensing of particles is carried out by a multi-element micrometer-type probe containing n independent sensing elements, which ensure simultaneous sensing of n particles and conversion of the measured particle sizes into n electric signals proportional to their full sizes.
EFFECT: improved reliability and accuracy of grain-size composition measurement in pulp flow due to elimination of variation of the power mains parameters and speeding-up of measurement process.
SUBSTANCE: lighting of flux of particles with a light beam and recording of parameters of light signals shaped by particles at their flying through the pointed-out area of the particle flux is performed. After the flux passage using reflecting mirrors, the light beam is turned with regard to an initial beam and is again passed through the flux, where recording of an image of particles by means of a CCD matrix is performed from three uniform corners. The obtained images of particles are transmitted to a computer for digital processing. In order to get a final conclusion on the shape of a particle of a complex structure, coefficients of shapes for each of the projections are compared.
EFFECT: automation of an analysis process of particles of an arbitrary shape.
SUBSTANCE: method for automatic control of particle size of the crushed ore in the flow comprises determining particle size distribution in the material flow on the basis of the sensor readings, the output signal of which is given to the spectrum analyser and then converted into the signal proportional to the content of the individual fractions of the material fineness. The sensor is used as a level gauge 3. The surface layer of the material flow 6 is scanned with a level gauge beam 3, the line is determined, which envelopes the surface layer of the material, the moving average value of the level gauge signal is calculated, the absolute values of the areas of the figures are calculated, formed by the intersection of the line enveloping the surface layer of the material with the line of the moving average value of the level gauge signal. The statistical distribution of the relative frequencies of observation of equal in value calculated absolute values of the areas of the figures at the range of measurement is calculated, and according to obtained in advance calibration dependence of fineness of individual fractions on the value of absolute values of the areas of the figures formed by intersection of the line enveloping the surface layer of the material with the line of the moving average value of the level gauge signal, distribution of the fractions of fineness of crushed ore in the flow is calculated, also the velocity of the material flow is measured and the absolute values of the areas of the figures formed by the intersection of the line enveloping the surface layer of the material with the line of the moving average value of the level gauge signal, is multiplied by the factor equal to the ratio of the measured rate to the rate corresponding to calibration conditions.
EFFECT: improving reliability and accuracy of control of fineness of crushed ore in the flow by eliminating the influence on the results of measurements of the oscillation of the value and the rate of the material flow.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to optical diagnosis of physical media and can be used in devices designed to measure the distribution of concentration and size of micro- and nanoparticles in liquids and gases. The method includes measuring fluctuation of power of radiation scattered on investigated particles at relatively large angles, measuring the intensity distribution of the scattered radiation at small scattering angles and mathematically processing the obtained data by solving an integral equation of the inverse scattering problem. The apparatus includes a probing laser, a working cuvette with the investigated medium, single-element photodetectors placed in the scattering plane of the laser beam and arranged at relatively large angles to detect fluctuation of the power of radiation scattered on the particles, a matrix photodetector for detecting small-angle pattern of the scattered radiation and a lens which collects the light beam transmitted through the working cuvette, said matrix photodetector lying in the focal plane of said lens.
EFFECT: invention provides high measurement accuracy.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes collecting gases in a sampler and subsequent analysis of the sample material. The sampler is insulated from the ambient environment and a portion of distilled water is added, wherein a suspension of solid particles of the exhaust gas is formed by releasing said particles into said portion of water. Formation of the suspension begins after removing foreign dust and soot particles from the exhaust pipe that have settled there when the internal combustion engine is idle. During sample collection, the suspension is mixed and a sterile syringe is used to collect about 40 ml of liquid, which is then analysed on a laser particle analyser to determine particle size and shape distribution therein. Substance analysis of the suspension is then carried out on a light microscope and electron microscope with an energy-dispersion spectrometer for determining material composition of the solid particles and size and shape distribution of said particles.
EFFECT: determining content of nanodispersed and microdispersed solid particles in exhaust gas.
SUBSTANCE: semiconductor structure for photo converting and light emitting devices consists of semiconductor substrate (1) with face surface misaligned from plane (100) through (0.5-10) degrees and at least one p-n junction (2) including at least one active semiconductor ply (3) arranged between two barrier plies (4) with inhibited zone width Eg0. Active semiconductor ply (3) consists of 1st and 2nd type spatial areas (5, 6) abutting of barrier plies (3) and alternating in the plane of active semiconductor ply (3). 1st type spatial areas (5) feature inhibited zone width Eg1 < Eg0, while 2nd type areas have inhibited zone width Eg2 < Eg1.
EFFECT: higher efficiency owing to increased photo flux and higher level of photo generation and charge carrier separation, higher probability of photon generation and lower probability of radiation-free recombination.
11 cl, 11 dwg, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: first step includes obtaining low-hydroxylated insoluble fullerenols by reacting concentrated fullerene solution in o-xylene with aqueous ammonia solution in the presence of a tetrabutylammonium hydroxide phase-transfer catalyst at 35-40°C. At the second step, the obtained low-hydroxylated insoluble fullerenols are hydroxylated to transform them into a water-soluble form by mixing with 6-15% aqueous hydrogen peroxide solution and heating for 4-5 hours at 65°C. Water-soluble fullerenols are then precipitated from an alcohol-containing solution.
EFFECT: simplifying the method while preserving quality characteristics and full extraction of the end product.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 4 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to pharmaceutical industry, namely to selenium nanocomposites of natural hepatotrophic galactose-containing polysaccharide matrixes, representing water-soluble orange-red powders containing zerovalent selenium (Se0) nanoparticles sized 1-100 nm in the quantitative content of 0.5 - 60 wt %, possessing antioxidant activity for treating and preventing redox-related pathologies, particularly for treating toxic liver damage, to a method for producing and to an antioxidant agent containing the above nanocomposites.
EFFECT: invention provides the targeted agent delivery to liver cells, as well as higher agent accessibility and lower toxic action of selenium.
7 cl, 11 ex, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method includes forming a near-field mask on the surface of a dielectric substrate and irradiating the obtained structure with a femtosecond laser pulse. The laser radiation is first passed through a nonlinear optical crystal with a coefficient of transformation into a second harmonic equal to 5-7%. The dielectric substrate coated with the near-field mask is irradiated with the obtained bichromatic femtosecond pulse with energy density in the range of 25-40 mJ/cm2, which is less than the laser radiation energy density normally used in similar nanopatterning.
EFFECT: high resolution and low laser radiation energy consumption.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for hydroconversion of heavy oil fractions - feed stock, the method including a zero step and subsequent N steps. The zero step includes feeding, into a reactor, material, a catalyst precursor - aqueous solution of a Mo (VI) salt or salts of Mo and Ni, and hydrogen at pressure of 4-9 MPa under normal conditions; reacting the material and hydrogen at 420-450°C in the presence of a precursor of a suspended nanosize molybdenum or molybdenum-nickel catalyst formed in the reactor; atmospheric or atmospheric-vacuum distillation of the hydrogenation product; removing the low-boiling fraction with a boiling point not higher than 500°C as a product and returning the high-boiling fraction or part thereof into the reactor. The next steps include feeding, into the reactor, material, a catalyst precursor, the returned part of the high-boiling fraction and hydrogen; reaction thereof; said atmospheric distillation of the hydrogenation product; removing the low-boiling fraction as a product; returning part of the high-boiling fraction into the reactor; burning at 1000-1300°C or gasification of the remaining part of the high-boiling fraction, after which trapped ash-slag residues are subjected to further oxidising burning at 800-900°C and the obtained ash product, which is carbon-free, is used to regenerate the catalyst precursor and produce an industrial concentrate of vanadium and nickel. The number of steps N is determined using formulae:
EFFECT: high output of low-boiling fractions, low molybdenum consumption, high degree of extraction of molybdenum, vanadium and nickel from the solution, enabling calculation of the required reactor volume, obtaining an industrial concentrate of vanadium and nickel, low hydrogen consumption.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in obtaining coatings, reducing coefficient of secondary electronic emission, growing diamond films and glasses, elements, absorbing solar radiation. Colloidal solution of nano-sized carbon is obtained by supply of organic liquid - ethanol, into chamber with electrodes, injection of inert gas into inter-electrode space, formation of high-temperature plasma channel in gas bubbles, containing vapours of organic liquid. High-temperature plasma channel has the following parameters: temperature of heavy particles 4000-5000K, temperature of electrons 1.0-1.5 eV, concentration of charged particles (2-3)·1017 cm3, diameter of plasma channel hundreds of microns. After that, fast cooling within several microseconds is performed.
EFFECT: simplicity, possibility to obtain nanoparticles of different types.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of nanotechnologies and can be used for obtaining composite materials with high electric and heat conductivity, additives to concretes and ceramics, sorbents, catalysts. Carbon-containing material is evaporated in volume thermal plasma and condensed on target surface 9 and internal surface of collector 7. Plasma generator 3, which includes coaxially located electrodes: rod cathode 4 and nozzle-shaped output anode 5, are used. Gaseous carbon-containing material 6 is supplied with plasma-forming gas through vortex chamber with channels 2 and selected from the group, consisting of methane, propane, and butane. Bottom of collector is made with hole 8 for gas flow to pass.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce energy consumption of the process, extend types of applied hydrocarbon raw material, simplify device construction and provide continuity of the process and its high productivity.
2 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of obtaining a composite material includes the influence on a mixture of a carbon-containing material, filler and sulphur-containing compound by a pressure of 0.1-20 GPa and a temperature of 600-2000°C. As the sulphur-containing compound applied is carbon bisulphide, a compound from the mercaptan group or a product of its interaction with elementary sulphur. As the carbon-containing material applied is molecular fullerene C60 or fullerene-containing soot. As the filler applied are carbon fibres, or diamond, or nitrides, or carbides, or borides, or oxides in the quantity from 1 to 99 wt % of the weight of the carbon-containing material.
EFFECT: obtained composite material can be applied for manufacturing products with the characteristic size of 1-100 cm and is characterised by high strength, low density, solidity not less than 10 GPa and high heat resistance in the air.
11 cl, 3 dwg, 11 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to inorganic chemistry, namely to obtaining silicon-carbide materials and products, and can be applied as thermal-protective, chemically and erosion resistant materials, used in creation of aviation and rocket technology, carriers with developed surface of heterogeneous catalysis catalysts, materials of chemical sensorics, filters for filtering flows of incandescent gases and melts, as well as in nuclear power industry technologies. To obtain nanostructures SiC ceramics solution of phenolformaldehyde resin with weight content of carbon from 5 to 40% with tetraethoxysilane with concentration from 1·10-3 to 2 mol/l and acidic catalyst of tetraethoxysilane hydrolysis id prepared in organic solvent; hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane is carried out at temperature 0÷95°C with hydrolysing solutions, containing water and/or organic solvent, with formation of gel. Obtained gel is dried at temperature 0÷250°C and pressure 1·10-4÷1 atm until mass change stops, after which carbonisation is realised at temperature from 400 to 1000°C for 0.5÷12 hours in inert atmosphere or under reduced pressure with formation of highly-disperse initial mixture SiO2-C, from which ceramics is moulded by spark plasma sintering at temperature from 1300 to 2200°C and pressure 3.5÷6 kN for from 3 to 120 min under conditions of dynamic vacuum or in inert medium. Excessive carbon is burned in air at temperature 350÷800°C.
EFFECT: obtaining nanostructured silicon-carbide porous ceramics without accessory phases.
4 cl, 4 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: what is presented is a method for preparing submicron biphasic tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite ceramics involving synthesis of single-phase powder of calcium salts and ammonium hydrophosphate, disaggregation, moulding and annealing. According to the invention, the calcium salt is presented by calcium acetate in the form of an aqueous solution of the concentration of 1M - 2M in Ca/P ratio applicable for initial salts and falling within the range of 1.5-1.6. The synthesis procedure involves single-step pouring of an aqueous solution of ammonium hydrophosphate to the aqueous solution of calcium acetate and mixing of the above solutions for 10-20 minutes, and separating the precipitate. The products are annealed at a temperature falling within the range of 1,050-1,150°C and kept at the above temperature for 0.5-1.5 hours. The produced ceramics contains β-tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite with a grain size of 400-600 nm.
EFFECT: preparing the submicron biphasic ceramics having a uniform microsctructure.
2 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine and deals with nanoliposome which includes liposomal membrane, contains ethgerificated lecitin and one or more physiologically active ingredients, incorporated in the internal space of liposomal membrane, method of obtaining such, as well as composition for prevention or treatment of skin diseases, containing nanoliposome.
EFFECT: invention ensures long-term stability and homogenecity of nanoliposomes.
15 cl, 22 ex, 4 dwg, 2 tbl